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Welcome to this unit's discussion! In this discussion, you will analyze and discuss your readings and prepare for success in this unit's major writing assignment. LEARNING GOALS: By participating in this unit's discussion, you will: • add to your understanding of the three rhetorical appeals (ethos, pathos, and logos) • analyze how writers and advertisers establish credibility, use emotional appeals, and incorporate logic and reasoning TASK: Because you should be spending most of your time this unit in peer review and revision, the requirements for this discussion will be relatively simple. First, please do one of the following: • Locate an advertisement on the web (visual or video), or • Re-read one of the readings from the first three units of class. Then, perform an analysis of the text's rhetoric by briefly answering the following questions: 1. 2. 3. 4. What does this text argue? In other words, what is its focus or central message? What does this text do to invoke emotions? How does the text make you feel? (Be specific!) What logic and reasoning does this text use? Does the text make an argument? What does this text do to establish a sense of credibility and trustworthiness? What shared values does the text invoke? 5. Which of these appeals does the text rely on most? 6. What can you, as a writer, learn from how this text uses the appeals? References to use for this assignment Introduction Welcome to this unit's mini-lecture on rhetorical concepts. These rhetorical concepts are broadly applicable ideas that can help you succeed as a reader, writer, speaker, and communicator in many different contexts. This unit, you will dig deeper into ethos, or, the ethical appeal. Aristotle on the Rhetorical Appeals In this week's mini-lecture on critical reading strategies, you learned about the three rhetorical appeals: three ways that writers can connect with their audiences. The concept of the rhetorical appeals may be new to you, but it is not new to scholars. In fact, the ancient Greek philosopher Aristotle was one of many ancient writers to describe these appeals. In his Rhetoric, Aristotle wrote the following: Let rhetoric be defined as an ability, in each particular case, to see the available means of persuasion. Of the means of persuasion, some are "nonartistic," some "artistic." I call "nonartistic" those that are not provided by the potential speaker but are preexisting: for example, witnesses, testimony, contracts, etc.; and "artistic" whatever can be prepared by method and by the speaker. Thus, one must use the former and invent the latter. Of the "artistic" appeals provided through speech there are three species: for some are in the character of the speaker, and some in disposing the listener in some way, and some in the argument itself, by showing or seeming to show something. There is persuasion through character [ethos] whenever the speech is spoken in such a way as to make the speaker worthy of credence; for we believe fair-minded people to a greater extent and more quickly than we do others in cases where there is room for doubt. And this should result from the speech, not from a previous opinion that the speaker is a certain kind of person; for it is not the case, as some of the technical writers propose in their treatment of the art, that fair-mindedness on the part of the speaker makes no contribution to persuasiveness; rather, character is almost, so to speak, the controlling factor in persuasion. There is persuasion through the hearers when they are led to feel emotion [pathos] by the speech; for we do not give the same judgment when grieved and rejoicing or when being friendly and hostile. And persuasion occurs through the arguments when we show the truth or the apparent truth through reasoning [logos]. What is the purpose of distinguishing between the "artistic" and "nonartistic" means of persuasion? What does Aristotle mean by "nonartistic," exactly? How have you used "nonartistic" appeals in your writing so far this term? (Hint: if you quoted an outside source to back up your point, or referred to a recent current event, you probably used a "nonartistic" appeal, because it was "preexisting" before your writing.) Now, pay close attention to what Aristotle what about ethos. Credibility, Aristotle suggests, is earned not just through authority or credentials, but by demonstrating the the writer or speaker is "a certain kind of person," who holds a certain set of values. Return to the example from the earlier mini-lecture. Re-read the final section of the e-mail: Finally, over my twenty years in higher education, I have seen first-hand the transformative power that involvement in organizations can have on students. I want what's best for you, and trust me: joining a club is one of the best choices you can make as a student. Thank you for your time, President George S. Park What sorts of values are implied by phrase like "transformative power," "I want what's best for you," and "trust me"? What do these phrases imply about the worth and character of the writer? How about the fact that the president thanks his readers for their time? What does that suggest about the character and values that the writer holds? Ethos, sometimes called the ethical appeal, is often thought of as credibility, but credibility is far from simple. Think about the many ways that writers earn credibility. Writers can include descriptions of their expertise on a subject, describe their personal experiences with the subject matter, or discuss all of the research they have done about the subject. Writers can even earn credibility by declaring that they are not experts -- for instance, Amy Tan's admission in "Mother Tongue" that she is not an expert on languages. Writers also gain an audience's trust by demonstrating that they share the audience's values. And that can be done in many ways. For instance, academic writers often show that they value objectivity and neutrality by avoiding the first person "I," by striving for a neutral tone, and by using specialized vocabulary. Popular writers often do the opposite, by using everyday examples, common language, humor, and concrete descriptions, all of which are easily accessible for a general audience. In this unit's discussion, you will further your understanding of ethos, as well as pathos and logos. Works Cited Aristotle. "From Rhetoric." Trans. George A. Kennedy. The Norton Anthology of Theory and Criticism. Ed. V. B. Leith. New York, NY: W.W. Norton & Co, 2001. 116-121. Print. Welcome to this unit's mini-lecture on critical reading strategies. This mini-lecture is designed to introduce you to strategies that will help you to understand arguments in what you read, both in college and in the everyday world. A Brief Scenario... Imagine that it is the first week of your first term as a college, and you have received this email from the presidents of Park University: Dear students, A new term has begun, and I want to take a moment to remind you to consider joining a student club or organization. Participating in student clubs is important for several reasons. For one thing, studies suggest that students who participate in clubs or activities while in college tend to be more socially connected after college, and tend to find it easier to find jobs. So, joining a club may help you in your future endeavors. Plus, student organizations are a lot of fun! Imagine it: we have exciting clubs for everything under the sun. From creative writing to soccer to psychology to music to gaming: we have it! Find a club that matches YOUR interests, and who knows? You might make friends for life. Finally, over my twenty years in higher education, I have seen first-hand the transformative power that involvement in organizations can have on students. I want what's best for you, and trust me: joining a club is one of the best choices you can make as a student. Thank you for your time, President George S. Park President Park's message is clear: he wants to highlight the importance of student clubs and organizations, and he wants to persuade you to join a club. But what tactics does President Park use to persuade? What does he do, specifically, to get his message across? The Three Rhetorical Appeals The first tactic that President Park uses is logic. He refers to outside studies, and extends their findings to make a logical, "if-then" assertion: IF you join a club, THEN you might benefit in the future. We can call this a logical appeal. The ancient Greek term for this appeal, used by many students and scholars even today, is logos. The second tactic is emotional. President Park tries to get you to feel excited about the possibilities of joining a club. Words like "fun," "imagine it," "your interests," and "friends for life" call forth emotions in readers. We can call this an emotional appeal. The ancient Greek term for this appeal is pathos. Finally, President Park asks you to trust him. He uses his credibility as an educator ("twenty years in higher education") to earn your trust and to suggest that he is a reliable authority on the subject. We can this an appeal from credibility and character. The ancient Greek term for this appeal is ethos. These three approaches to persuasion -- persuading with logic, through emotion, and from credibility -- are what are often referred to as the three rhetorical appeals. Visual Appeals A good place to look for rhetorical appeals is in advertising. Advertising often uses simple rhetorical appeals to attempt to sell products. Look at the following advertisement for Gatorade: What do we see? One of the most recognizable athletes of the 20th century, in a basketball gym, drinking Gatorade with a few of other athletes. The pathos, or emotional appeal of this ad is clear: Michael Jordan and his fellow athletes are grinning, having fun after a scrimmage or between drills. Bright colors and inviting smiles probably make most viewers feel like they, too, are a part of the game. The goofy typeface reinforces the feeling of fun in the ad. This image, like many advertisements, relies on a celebrity spokesperson to enhance its ethos, or appeal from credibility and character. Jordan is often considered the greatest men's basketball player of all time, holding National Basketball Association records to this day and recognizable world-wide. Jordan would be considered by many to be an expert on all things related to sports -- an expertise that the ad explicitly invokes in its phrase, "Let's just say Michael knows what he's doing!" In fact, the image goes even further. This and the hundreds of other Gatorade ads featuring Jordan serve to associate the values that Jordan represents (excellence, tenacity, and hard work, among others) with their product. The phrase "deep down body thirst" may remind dedicated athletes of their thirst after a tough game or a hard workout -- a craving for calories and electrolytes that Gatorade is formulated to satisfy. The logos of the ad (in other words, its logic) is a little slippery, but it relates to Jordan's ethos as a basketball player. The ad implies that if Michael Jordan, an excellent athlete, drinks Gatorade, then Gatorade must be a worthwhile product to drink. ("...Michael knows what he's doing!") In fact, some viewers might interpret the ad to suggest that if they drink Gatorade, then they may be able to achieve the same greatness that Jordan achieved. Now, most reasonable viewers will understand that this logic is flawed. After all, excellence in basketball comes from spending thousands of hours working on fundamentals, improving cardiovascular health, strength training, developing speed and quickness, and learning the intricacies of strategy and court tactics -- not from simply purchasing a commercial product like Gatorade. In fact, the advertisement's true logic, never stated, might be this: if you feel a "deep down body thirst" after a game, you should drink Gatorade to quench that craving -- just Michael Jordan does. Overall, the ad's use of Jordan's credibility and character, combined with the positive, upbeat mood created by the photograph, colors, typeface, and overall design, makes the ad effective at communicating its message. The ad's logic and reasoning might be flawed, but its reliance on ethos and pathos makes it an effective, memorable advertisement. In another mini-lecture, your assigned readings, and our discussion this unit, you will learn much more about how understanding the three rhetorical appeals can help you to interpret what you read and revise your writing to better achieve your aims. ...
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School: Duke University

please find the attached file. i look forward to working with you again. good bye


A Brief Scenario (President Park)




A Brief Scenario (President Park).
1. What does this text argue? In other words, what is its focus or central message?
The core message presented in the text is the importance of students joining a club or an
organization at school. President P...

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