EDMG699 APUS Logistical considerations when responding to disasters in Hawaii

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Hey mate:

Here is the latest from the professor: "There are a few minor items, such as removal of figures that you do not have coyright for and using the proper level 1 and 2 headings throughout, but we can work on those at a later date."

Lets remove the figures, fix the level 1 and 2 headings and add 4 more pages to the literature review.

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Running head: EMERGENCY PLANNING LOGISTICAL CONSIDERATIONS WHEN RESPONDING TO DISASTERS IN HAWAII AND PUERTO RICO A Master Capstone Submitted to the Faculty of American Public University by Josue D Flores-Morales Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Master of Arts December 2018 American Public University Charles Town, WV Running head: EMERGENCY PLANNING The author hereby grants the American Public University System the right to display these contents for educational purposes. The author assumes total responsibility for meeting the requirements set by United States copyright law for the inclusion of any materials that are not the author’s creation or in the public domain. © Copyright 2018 by Josue D Flores-Morales All rights reserved. 2 EMERGENCY PLANNING 3 DEDICATION First, dedicate this thesis to my mother. Without her early teachings on the scripture and her many support for my development as a Christian and as a good man I would have never gotten this far in my life. Secondly, to my wife who gave me her support and understanding during my education and military career development; you are my rock. Lastly to the National Guard troops that every day risk their lives to support local and state emergencies around the country. EMERGENCY PLANNING 4 Contents Introduction ......................................................................................................................... 7 Problem Statement .............................................................................................................. 8 Need for the study ............................................................................................................. 11 Purpose .......................................................................................................................... 12 Literature review ............................................................................................................... 13 Defining disaster ........................................................................................................... 13 Aversion of risks during emergencies and disasters ..................................................... 16 Reacting to disasters ...................................................................................................... 17 States and emergency response ..................................................................................... 20 Emergency Management Policy Development ......................................................... 21 Mitigation phase ........................................................................................................ 24 Preparedness phase .................................................................................................... 24 Response phase .......................................................................................................... 24 Recovery phase .......................................................................................................... 25 Predict ........................................................................................................................ 30 Prepare ....................................................................................................................... 31 Protect ........................................................................................................................ 32 Practice ...................................................................................................................... 32 Patrol .......................................................................................................................... 33 EMERGENCY PLANNING 5 Incident stabilization ..................................................................................................... 33 Notifications, warnings, and communication ................................................................ 34 Facility and site plans and information ......................................................................... 34 It’s never early to get started ......................................................................................... 35 The range of impacts from incident to catastrophe ....................................................... 35 Summary ....................................................................................................................... 35 Methodology ..................................................................................................................... 36 Justification of methods of research .............................................................................. 37 Tools for Data Collection .............................................................................................. 38 Questionnaires ........................................................................................................... 38 Case Study Guideline ................................................................................................ 38 Focused group discussion .......................................................................................... 39 Treatment of Data.......................................................................................................... 39 Data analysis ..................................................................................................................... 39 Conclusion ........................................................................................................................ 40 References ......................................................................................................................... 42 Running head: EMERGENCY PLANNING ABSTRACT OF THE THESIS LOGISTICAL CONSIDERATIONS WHEN RESPONDING TO DISASTERS IN HAWAII AND PUERTO RICO by Josue D Flores-Morales American Public University System, July 1, 2007, Charles Town, West Virginia Abstract The need for emergency management to look into the future regarding resource management (material, monetary and human) has adversely been written about. Even though there is much effort to improve the budgeting of emergency services, the staffing of responses related to emergency activities has been very difficult, and this has been a result of low levels of training of volunteers in emergency-related fields, or at times no training at all. How the resources are being managed is also another menace in different ways; the availability of transportation assets in the quality and form needed for effective and timely response to emergency services, there is a variation of category of materials required with the type of emergency to be attended to and lastly the necessary amount of materials are not mostly not located within the proximity of the point of need (Kapucu, 2005). This paper serves the purpose of discussing the topic of emergency management and specifically the logistical requirements in emergency management. In viewing the issue of emergency management, we shall deeply discuss on how important proper logistical planning is when responding to disasters and emergencies especially in remote places such as Puerto Rico, U.S. Virgin Islands or Hawaii. Running head: EMERGENCY PLANNING Introduction When we talk about emergencies especially in remote locations, the thing that most people think first is disasters. Both human-made and natural disasters are in every aspect unpredictable. It is hard to know how significant an emergency may be or where it is going to happen or even when the accident is going to take place. To top it all, you may not know the best response to a disaster. In the case of natural disasters, there is always one thing that one may be sure of; at one point or the other, it is going to happen. Things such as volcanic eruptions, hurricanes, floods, and drought among others often trigger natural disasters. Remote areas near coastlines, such as Hawaii, are especially susceptible to flooding from tsunamis. Both the human-made and natural disasters have been on the rise regarding frequency and the number of casualties. It is essential therefore to build up a favorable response through prior planning and practicing. Effective disaster management needs a continuous or an endless chain of activities to be carried out. These activities include; preparedness, hazard prevention, emergency response, relief and finally recovery (Wisner & Adams, 2003). There has been a significant improvement in the level of preparedness for disasters and recognition of the significance of making healthcare professionals and the public health part of the planning since the terrorist attack in 2001. For the production of effective operations on emergencies and improvement of overall preparedness of emergencies especially in remote locations, proper planning is a necessity. 7 EMERGENCY PLANNING 8 Problem Statement Disasters and emergencies just as the names suggest are not expected events. They sometimes happen when we least expect them. Accidents and emergencies happen everywhere despite the location, climate and any other condition and remote locations are not an exception (O’Brien et al., 2006). Outlying areas such as Hawaii or Puerto Rico might have a delay in the attention of emergency occurrences due to the distances between the public emergency services and the spots of emergency. The delays may be detrimental (Harris and Anitha, 2017). This situation, therefore, calls for the development of a previous emergency response plan within these particular areas. Such a pre-emergency response plan must establish the guidelines and mode of action through which the different public services will assist before, during, and after an emergency or disaster (Harris and Anitha, 2017). Developing these safety and security alerts is critical to saving the lives of Puerto Rican citizens. In this regard, the early response and the evacuation of the population with enough time are crucial to facilitate the management of the emergency response provided. Most importantly, it is necessary to define the roles of the different individuals that will have to make the various decisions during the reaction. These decisions include, among others, aspects such as evaluating when it is necessary to evacuate the population, were to take the people, and which are the safest routes to arrive there. It is also required to ensure that the community is informed at all moment of the emergency alerts. For this purpose, the government must put in place the necessary means to reach the most significant possible amount of people, releasing alert messages through the internet, the television, and radio channels, among others. EMERGENCY PLANNING 9 There are a lot of instances in today’s workplace when a task that has been assigned to an employee takes him or her to areas that are remotely located, and which may have the presence of hazardous materials and yet there is the unavailability of emergency equipment and plan (Casey-Lockyer and Myers, 2017). There should always be a way through which such emergencies can be adequately responded to. Self-contained emergency equipment, which is remotely positioned, is necessary in such cases. Considerations of the challenges to meet the requirements of an employee during emergencies are required depending on the types of hazards in a particular area and the environmental conditions. For instance, there might be cases where a reliable distribution of plumbed water is not available and this, therefore, calls for the use of reservoirs that are self-contained (Chen et al., 2018). Distribution of messages about emergencies and disasters in remote areas is a significant problem. The emergency message is information based on a thread, vertical and spread by different bodies whose objective, muscles and mindset mostly circumnavigate around response to disasters and not how to prepare for these particular disasters. The information that has been told to 90 percent of the ordinary people by preparedness anchoring things that we cannot control such as terrorism, floods, and earthquakes is mostly "do not let this disturb you" (YoderBontrager, Trainor and Swenson, 2017). More money that should be used in preparing the people is used in branding the agencies that are responsible for emergency management. When you take a look at the campaigns that are done, they are not campaigns about how to prepare the public for emergencies but are campaigns used to brand the agencies. If by any chance a broad-based message is to be passed to the public, then it is supposed to be something that can be done by everyone and should not have any threats in it. EMERGENCY PLANNING 10 Emergency and disaster activities such as response, mitigation, recovery and preparedness invite agencies of the government at all levels. The different government agencies at all levels have an essential role to play in successful emergency management. The local government, however, does the most critical role in operations concerning emergencies. The state government provides only support of resources and required information to accomplish recovery and the response plans to the local people. The emergency manager of a local region has an obligation to identifying an emergency, organizing factors necessary for the management of the crisis and finally applying the resources of the community in an attempt to counter the crisis or the disaster (Zebulon & Hill, 2017). Government resources on the other hand deal with different agencies whose obligation is to respond to the needs and priorities of their own. Private funds, however, are often given voluntarily. As an emergency manager, the objective is always to bring these antagonistic and disparate resource providers into a comprehensive response. Most of the people managing emergencies perform their duties within the bracket of a charter which is vague- an ordinance which is local and has to depend on other people's personality to come up with trust and legitimacy in the eyes of officials of the government from that particular field. The roles of the emergency manager usually are well laid out in the emergency response plan. However, the emergency manager is sometimes put in situations that he has to come up with decisions based on priority. This situation, however, is the role of other officials who are elected who may be absent or not at a position to tackle that particular problem. These roles and responsibilities that are not clearly defined always undermine the application of the manager of the emergency's talents and time usefulness. EMERGENCY PLANNING 11 While these emergency plans are standard in the mainland territory in the United States, they seem to be rather rudimentary in locations such as Puerto Rico, where the assistance tends to arrive too late for many citizens introducing an additional source of disparity concerning other American citizens (Lichtveld, 2018). In this regard, the present work evaluates the current situation of the responses to emergencies and natural disasters in the entire territory. The goal of the improvement of such emergency plans is that of saving both the lives and the property of the citizens and to best respond to any actual emergency, ensuring the optimal utilization of the existing resources before, during, and most importantly, after the disaster or emergency (Haddow, Bullock & Coppola, 2015). Such a rapid response will be beneficial for the community, ensuring that the normality gets restored earlier than in the absence of such emergency and disaster recovery plans (O’Keefe, 2017). Need for the study Planning for emergencies and other natural disasters in society give one a chance to have an appropriate response in case an emergency occurs. For instance, in a working setup, when employees are hired, in their early days in the job, they may take weeks or even months getting to know how to do their work correctly. This type of training usually is multi-faceted and includes all the things from learning in-depth involvements that are designed to keep them safe during their duration as employees, to where to put their stuff (Schwab et al., 1998). It is not difficult to put all the focus in ensuring that the standard procedures of the job are all in place, up to date and are being followed to the latter. As long as all the things are in place and everything goes as planned, the society is always expected to be safe and to top it all up productive. This statement is, however, not always true. This interruption is still a result of unexpected emergencies and sometimes unavoidable natural disasters. EMERGENCY PLANNING 12 Having a response plan to such emergencies and disasters is always the initial step to help everyone know of what to do when these phenomena occur. When developing an emergency plan, one thing that should be done is covering not just one but a variety of hazards plus the resources required for the response. Specific activities that will be undertaken to mitigate the various outcomes of the emergency or the disaster are also a significant inclusion in the making of an emergency plan. In the process of planning for emergencies, there are always five Ps that are of vital importance. Purpose This paper’s primary objective is to analyze emergencies in remote locations and provide insight on how to plan and respond to these emergencies and other disasters logistically. The article puts out the importance of prior planning or preparedness to emergencies. Emergency planning varies from place to place depending on the activities of a society or an organization (Alexander, 2005); the way a particular organization prepares for emergencies are different from the way another organization does. Natural disasters such as hurricanes and tornadoes might have similar planning (Alexander, 2002). The paper goes ahead to give insights on the various procedures required in preparation for an accident or an emergency. Different stages that are part of planning for an emergency are also reviewed within the paper and what happens in each phase. The other objective of this section of the paper is to do a review of the literature on the emergency planning and management field with an aim of identifying essential components of the planning of emergency operations and put information into use to come up with specific categories for response and recovery plans for emergencies and disasters in remote locations. Emergency planning and management in remote areas are but a portion within the broader topic EMERGENCY PLANNING 13 of emergency planning and management. The management of emergencies in remote areas is an important issue, the role of programs put aside for response and recovery after crises have been ignored. After comprehensive research, no literature focused its review on the emergency planning and management in remote locations, calling for, called for the discussion of the general topic of emergency management. The knowledge and skills acquired from the broader concepts of emergency management are applied in disaster and emergency management in remote locations (Fagel, 2016). This particular chapter aims at exploring the history, problems and ideal components in the emergency management field with the final objective of putting this information into use as a tool that can be used in coming up with models and procedures on how to counter and respond to emergencies and disasters in rural and remote locations. Literature review It entails some related works of literature that are to be reviewed to bring to judgment the appropriateness of the variables for considerations along with their implications. A good understanding of the prevailing theories in the aspects of emergency and disaster management in the remote areas and all the other variables that determine this particular subject is ...
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