Being Black and Poor in the Inner City essay

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Type a 1-2 page, double spaced reflection on one or two ideas or quotes from the assigned reading (with an asterisk next to it) that you want to expand on. You can use "I" statements. You do not have to summarize the reading.

*More Than Just Race: Being Black and Poor in the Inner City (Wilson)

Chapter 6 from American Education (Spring)

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AMERICAN EDUCATION “Joel Spring’s American Education is the preeminent source for information addressing the critical issues and today’s trends in K–12 education. It is a phenomenal resource for experienced and aspiring educators alike.” Jeffrey Pittman, Regent University, USA “I appreciate the topics covered and the way the book challenges students to form their own opinions on educational topics while giving weight to issues of equity and justice. My students have commented that they appreciate that the book provides a fair picture of controversial issues.” Carrie Freie, Penn State Altoona, USA Featuring current information and challenging perspectives on the latest issues and forces shaping the American educational system—with scholarship that is often cited as a primary source, Joel Spring introduces readers to the historical, political, social, and legal foundations of education and to the profession of teaching in the United States. In his signature straightforward, concise approach to describing complex issues, he illuminates events and topics that are often overlooked or whitewashed, giving students the opportunity to engage in critical thinking about education. Students come away informed on the latest topics, issues, and data and with a strong knowledge of the forces shaping the American educational system. Thoroughly updated throughout, the 18th edition of this clear, authoritative text remains fresh and up to date, reflecting the many changes in education that have occurred since the publication of the previous edition. Topics and issues addressed and analyzed include: • • • • • • The decline of the Common Core State Standards, particularly as result of a Republican-controlled administration currently in place Increasing emphasis on for-profit education, vouchers, charter schools and free-market competition between schools, expected to surge with the appointment of the new U.S. Secretary of Education Betsy DeVos Current debates about immigration and “Dreamers”—new statistics on immigrant education, discussion of education proposals to accommodate the languages, cultures, and religions of newly arrived immigrants New education statistics on school enrollments, dropouts, education and income, school segregation, charter schools, and home languages The purposes of education as presented in the 2016 platforms of the Republican, Democratic, Green, and Libertarian parties Discussions around transgender students. Joel Spring is Professor at Queens College/City University of New York and the Graduate Center of the City University of New York, USA. Sociocultural, Political, and Historical Studies in Education Joel Spring, Editor A full list of titles in this series is available at: series/LEASPHSES. Recently published titles: Roberts • Remaining and Becoming: Cultural Crosscurrents in an Hispano School Borman/Stringfield/Slavin, Eds. • Title I: Compensatory Education at the Crossroads DeCarvalho • Rethinking Family-School Relations: A Critique of Parental Involvement in Schooling Peshkin • Permissible Advantage?: The Moral Consequences of Elite Schooling Spring • The Universal Right to Education: Justification, Definition, and Guidelines Nieto, Ed. • Puerto Rican Students in U.S. Schools Glander • Origins of Mass Communications Research During the American Cold War: Educational Effects and Contemporary Implications Pugach • On the Border of Opportunity: Education, Community, and Language at the U.S.–Mexico Line Spring • Education and the Rise of the Global Economy Benham/Heck • Culture and Educational Policy in Hawai’i: The Silencing of Native Voices Lipka/Mohatt/The Ciulistet Group • Transforming the Culture of Schools: Yu’pik Eskimo Examples Weinberg • Asian-American Education: Historical Background and Current Realities Nespor • Tangled Up in School: Politics, Space, Bodies, and Signs in the Educational Process Peshkin • Places of Memory: Whiteman’s Schools and Native American Communities Spring • The Cultural Transformation of a Native American Family and Its Tribe 1763–1995 For additional information on titles in the Sociocultural, Political, and Historical Studies in Education series visit AMERICAN EDUCATION 18th Edition Joel Spring First published 2018 by Routledge 711 Third Avenue, New York, NY 10017 and by Routledge 2 Park Square, Milton Park, Abingdon, Oxon, OX14 4RN Routledge is an imprint of the Taylor & Francis Group, an informa business © 2018 Taylor & Francis The right of Joel Spring to be identified as author of this work has been asserted by him in accordance with sections 77 and 78 of the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988. All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reprinted or reproduced or utilised in any form or by any electronic, mechanical, or other means, now known or hereafter invented, including photocopying and recording, or in any information storage or retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publishers. Trademark notice: Product or corporate names may be trademarks or registered trademarks, and are used only for identification and explanation without intent to infringe. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data A catalog record for this book has been requested ISBN: 978-1-138-08723-1 (hbk) ISBN: 978-1-138-08725-5 (pbk) ISBN: 978-1-315-11060-8 (ebk) Typeset in Sabon by Florence Production Ltd, Stoodleigh, Devon, UK BRIEF CONTENTS Preface xiii PART ONE: SCHOOL AND SOCIETY 1 CHAPTER 1 The History and Political Goals of Public Schooling 3 CHAPTER 2 The Social Goals of Schooling 35 CHAPTER 3 Education and Equality of Opportunity 69 CHAPTER 4 The Economic Goals of Schooling: Human Capital, Global Economy, and Preschool 93 CHAPTER 5 Equality of Educational Opportunity: Race, Gender, and Special Needs 122 CHAPTER 6 Student Diversity 148 CHAPTER 7 Multicultural and Multilingual Education 179 PART TWO: POWER AND CONTROL IN AMERICAN EDUCATION 217 Local Control, Choice, Charter Schools, and Home Schooling 219 Power and Control at State and National Levels 250 CHAPTER 8 CHAPTER 9 v CHAPTER 10 The Profession of Teaching 272 CHAPTER 11 Globalization of Education 304 Index vi BRIEF CONTENTS 323 CONTENTS Preface xiii PART ONE: SCHOOL AND SOCIETY 1 CHAPTER 1 The History and Political Goals of Public Schooling 3 CHAPTER 2 Education Goals Are Controversial Historical Goals of Schooling U.S. Secretary of Education Betsy DeVos: Political Goals and School Organization Protected or Prepared Childhood? Impact of Educational Goals: Common Core State Standards and Literacy Political Goals of Schooling Should Schools Teach Political Values and Patriotism? Censorship and American Political Values Courts and Political Values The Fruits of Political Education Conclusion Suggested Readings and Works Cited in Chapter 4 5 11 11 14 18 21 24 28 30 The Social Goals of Schooling 35 The 2016 Republican Platform: Religion and Family The Problem of Determining Moral Values: Religion and Secularism Moral Values and Sex Education School Values: LGBTQ (Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender, and Questioning Sexual Orientation) Character Education Do Public Schools Reduce Crime? School Crime: Student Violence 37 7 10 38 41 47 48 50 53 vii School Crime: Bullying and Cyberbullying Promoting National Health: Nutrition Promoting National Health: Drug and Alcohol Abuse Building Community through Extracurricular Activities Conclusion Suggested Readings and Works Cited in Chapter CHAPTER 3 CHAPTER 4 CONTENTS 59 61 62 63 Education and Equality of Opportunity 69 Schools and Equality of Opportunity School Models for Equality of Opportunity Testing and Skills as Predictors of Economic Conditions Education and Income Labor Market Bias: White Privilege: Gender, Race, Educational Attainment, and Income Are Schools Contributing to the Rich Getting Richer and the Poor Getting Poorer? Rich and Poor School Districts Social Class and At-Risk Students The End of the American Dream: School Dropouts Tracking and Ability Grouping Social Reproduction The 2016 Democratic Platform and Equality of Opportunity Conclusion Suggested Readings and Works Cited in Chapter 70 71 88 89 90 The Economic Goals of Schooling: Human Capital, Global Economy, and Preschool 93 Human Capital Theory Schooling and the Global Knowledge Economy The Human Capital Education Paradigm and Lifelong Learning Can Investment in Schools Grow the Economy? Preschool, Human Capital Theory, and Soft Skills The Perry Preschool Study Child-Rearing and Social and Cultural Capital Family Learning and School Success Human Capital: 2016 Republican and Democratic Platforms Conclusion Suggested Readings and Works Cited in Chapter viii 55 56 77 77 79 80 82 84 85 86 87 94 97 99 100 102 105 108 111 116 118 119 CHAPTER 5 CHAPTER 6 Equality of Educational Opportunity: Race, Gender, and Special Needs 122 The Legal Problem in Defining Race Defining Race after the 1965 Immigration Act The Census and Race The Fourteenth Amendment and Equality of Educational Opportunity Desegregating Schools School Segregation Today Equal Education for Women Students with Disabilities Public Law 94–142: Education For All Handicapped Children Act Disability Categories Writing an IEP Inclusion UNESCO and Inclusion Charter Schools and Public Law 94–142 Conclusion Suggested Readings and Works Cited in Chapter 122 124 127 136 137 139 140 141 142 143 143 Student Diversity 148 129 131 132 133 135 Trump and Republican Administration Policies and Dreamers Global Migration and the Immigration Acts of 1965 and 1990 Mexican American Students and U.S. Schools Native American Students and U.S. Schools Asian American Students and U.S. Schools Educational Attainment of Immigrants Languages and Schools Languages of School-Age Children Are U.S. Teachers Prepared for Language Diversity? Conclusion Suggested Readings and Works Cited in Chapter CHAPTER 7 149 150 152 157 163 168 171 172 174 175 175 Multicultural and Multilingual Education 179 Global Migration of the World’s Peoples Cultural Differences in Knowing and Seeing the World Biculturalism: Collectivist and Individualist Societies The Differences among Dominant, Dominated, and Immigrant Cultures Dominated Cultures: John Ogbu 179 181 183 186 187 CONTENTS ix Empowerment through Multicultural Education: James Banks, Sonia Nieto, and Critical Pedagogy Empowerment through Multicultural Education: Racism Teaching an Anti-Bias and Tolerance Curriculum Empowerment through Multicultural Education: Sexism Educating for Economic Power: Lisa Delpit Ethnocentric Education Bilingual Education and English Language Acquisition: No Child Left Behind The End of Bilingual and Multicultural Education: English Language Acquisition Act of 2001 and the Common Core State Standards Globalization: Language and Cultural Rights Global Responses to Education of Linguistic and Cultural Minorities 2016 Republican Party and America First Conclusion Suggested Readings and Works Cited in Chapter PART TWO: CHAPTER 8 x CONTENTS 191 193 195 198 199 201 202 205 207 211 211 212 POWER AND CONTROL IN AMERICAN EDUCATION 217 Local Control, Choice, Charter Schools, and Home Schooling 219 The Education Chair School Boards School Choice School Choice and Religion National Public School Choice Plan: No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 Charter Schools For-Profit Global Education Corporations Home Schooling Online and Distance Learning The 2016 Republican Support of School Choice and Vouchers Conclusion Suggested Readings and Works Cited in Chapter CHAPTER 9 189 220 221 223 225 227 229 235 237 240 242 243 243 Power and Control at State and National Levels 250 Federal Influence over Local School Policies Categorical Federal Aid 250 252 No Child Left Behind Race to the Top Student Privacy and Big Data Common Core State Standards Federal and State Control through High-Stakes Tests and Academic Standards Federal and State Mandated Tests and Equality of Opportunity Does Federally Mandated High-Stakes Testing Work? Is There a Lack of Longitudinal Research? Does Federal Testing Policy Promote Unethical Behavior? Is Test Cheating Increasing? The 2016 Republican and Democratic Platforms: Rejection of Common Core and High-Stakes Testing Conclusion Suggested Readings and Works Cited in Chapter CHAPTER 10 The Profession of Teaching The Changing Roles of American Teachers No Child Left Behind and Race to the Top: Highly Qualified Teachers The Rewards of Teaching Teacher Turnover Teachers’ Unions and Teacher Politics A Brief History of the National Education Association (NEA) A Brief History of the American Federation of Teachers (AFT) Performance-Based Pay Assault on Teachers’ Unions’ CollectiveBargaining Rights Should Teachers Strike? Teachers’ Rights Teachers’ Liability Teachers’ Private Lives Conclusion Conclusion: The 2016 National Election: Teacher Unions Suggested Readings and Works Cited in Chapter CHAPTER 11 Globalization of Education Dominant Global Educational Ideology: Human Capital and Consumerism Skills: The New Global Currency 253 253 254 256 257 260 261 263 265 267 267 272 273 276 277 278 279 281 284 287 287 288 290 295 297 298 299 300 304 305 307 CONTENTS xi The OECD and Human Capital Theory The World Bank and Human Capital Education Theory Global Education Business Global Business and Global Testing Services: Standardization of Subjects and Global Intercultural English Shadow Education Industry and Cram Schools Franchising the Shadow Education System Conclusion: Long Life and Happiness Suggested Readings and Works Cited in Chapter Index xii CONTENTS 308 310 312 313 317 318 319 320 323 PREFACE The 2016 tumultuous national election of President Donald Trump and the appointment of U.S. Secretary of Education Betsy DeVos dramatically changed national discussions about education. Each of the chapters has been updated in the context of this election. The following changes were made to each chapter. Also, tables used throughout the book were updated. Chapter 1 Added is a discussion of the political and religious goals of the 2016 national election and the education ideology of U.S. Secretary of Education Betsy DeVos. Chapter 2 Added is a discussion of the traditional family, religious goals, and sexual education proposals contained in the 2016 Republican Platform. Chapter 3 Added is a discussion of the equality of opportunity goals contained in the 2016 Democratic Platform. Statistical tables were updated. Chapter 4 Added is a discussion of the 2016 Republican and Democratic Platform responses to human capital theory. Also, added is a discussion of the Economic Policy Institute’s “Inequalities at the Starting Gate: Cognitive and Noncognitive Skills Gaps between 2010–2011 Kindergarten Classmates.” Chapter 5 Added is the Republican interpretation of Title IX and its relationship to school treatment of transgender students. Also discussed are guidelines for protecting the rights of students with disabilities in charter schools. Chapter 6 Added is a discussion of President Trump’s administration Policies on Immigration and Dreamers. Also added are protections for undocumented students under the 1982 U.S. Supreme Court ruling Plyler vs. Doe. Tables in the chapter were updated. Chapter 7 Added are the Republican promotion of America First, American exceptionalism and nationalism. Chapter 8 Added is a discussion of President Trump’s support of school choice and vouchers. Also, statistical tables were updated. xiii Chapter 9 Added is a discussion of the 2016 Republican and Democratic Platform’s rejection of Common Core and High-Stakes Testing. Chapter 10 Added is a discussion of the 2016 Democratic Platform’s response to the national teacher shortage. Also, the table on national teachers’ salaries was updated. xiv PREFACE PART ONE SCHOOL AND SOCIETY 1 CHAPTER 1 The History and Political Goals of Public Schooling Imagine public school principals greeting each parent at the beginning of the school year with the question: “What do you want your child to learn and how do you want it to be taught?” Of course, this doesn’t happen. What is to be taught and how are usually decided by the time children begin the school year. Learning goals and instructional methods are determined by a political process involving local, state, and federal officials and, in some cases, the courts. Politically determined goals of public education guide what is taught and how it is taught. When students enter a public school they are submitting to the will of the public as determined by local, state, and federal governments. The goals of American schools are politically determined. This political determination of school goals is exemplified by 2014 student protests in Jefferson County Colorado over a proposal by the members of the elected school board to change the Advanced Placement U.S. history curriculum by downplaying the role of civil disobedience in bringing about change in U.S. society and promoting patriotism. Students marched with signs reading “Civil disobedience is patriotism” and “Education without limitation.” However, the elected county school board represents the viewpoints of voters. It is through school boards that the public is supposed to influence school curricula. So who is right: students as political activists or the school board as elected officials? To distinguish between educational goals I have divided them into political, social, and economic. In this chapter I focus on the issues surrounding the political goals of education. In Chapter 2, I discuss the social goals of schooling. In Chapter 3, I consider one of the most important and complex goals of education, which is equality of opportunity. Chapter 4 continues the discussion of equality of opportunity in the context of economic goals. 3 This chapter introduces readers to: • • • • the goals and history of U.S. public schools; the debates about the political goals of public schools; a discussion about whether these goals have been achieved; questions designed to help readers formulate their own opinions about what should be the purposes of American education. EDUCATION GOALS ARE CONTROVERSIAL What type of goals spark public controversy? Consider the goal of educating patriotic citizens. Should teaching patriotism consist of saluting the flag and reciting the Pledge of Allegiance, which contains a reference to God? Some religious groups criticize flag salutes as worshiping false gods, while others complain about the reference to God in the Pledge. Also, social goals can stimulate debates such as those related to instruction in abstinence or birth control as a means of reducing teenage pregnancy. An important traditional goal of schooling is reducing crime through instruction in moral and social values. But whose social values or morality should form the basis of instruction in public schools? Today, the economic goals of schooling primarily center on educating workers to help the U.S. economy compete in the global economy. But will this goal increase or decrease economic inequalities in society? The previous questions do not have right or wrong answers. They are questions that reflect real debates about the role of U.S. public schools. The questions also provide insight into the historical evolution of American education. For instance, what are your answers to the following questions? • • • Do you think there are public benefits from education that should override the objections of parents and other citizens regarding the teaching of particular subjects, attitudes, or values? Should elected representatives determine the subject matter, attitudes, and values taught in public schools? ...
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Tutor Answer

School: Rice University



Running head: RACE

More Than Just Race: Being Black and Poor in the Inner City (Wilson)



The above quote in discussion addresses the issues that black people face in the US
due to the racial segregation that has been taking place in the country for a long time now.
Ideally, the quote denotes that the African A...

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