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Topic: How does Aquinas’ idea of Christian kingship build on previous Natural Law concepts? Be sure to include a discussion of justice, covenantal statesmanship, and Christian kingship, especially as seen in the relationship between medieval religious and civil offices.

Instructions:

Discussion Board Forum Instructions

In this course, Discussion Boards Forums play an exceptionally important role. The readings are relatively short to allow for substantial reflection, personal research, and quality discussion to occur. Consider these threads and replies to be formal communications on the same level as those you would conduct with employers, clients, or colleagues in the professional, political, or academic world. As such, they must be free of grammatical errors, must be properly formatted in current Turabian style, and must consist of well-reasoned, contemplative, and substantive posts and replies, rather than mere ipse dixit. These threads and replies must provide citations to the sources of or support for your ideas as well as any quoted materials and/or borrowed ideas.

Open, courteous discussion will yield the greatest opportunities for growth in this course. Both responding to other students and responding to the instructor will count as 1 reply post. Remember that the art of communication is in many ways the essence of effective political leadership. Everything you write—every paper, post, and email—creates or reinforces an impression of you. You are encouraged to begin to cultivate the communication skills of the statesmen and stateswomen—the ability to logically and persuasively speak the truth with compassion and respect.

You will take part in 5 Discussion Board Forums in Modules/Weeks 1, 3, 4, 5, and 7. You will compose an original post presenting your own interpretation of the assigned prompt, writing 600–700 words,Original posts must include at least 3 references to the course readings and 1 Scripture reference in addition to any other sources you wish to include.

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PLCY 701 DISCUSSION BOARD FORUM INSTRUCTIONS In this course, Discussion Boards Forums play an exceptionally important role. The readings are relatively short to allow for substantial reflection, personal research, and quality discussion to occur. Consider these threads and replies to be formal communications on the same level as those you would conduct with employers, clients, or colleagues in the professional, political, or academic world. As such, they must be free of grammatical errors, must be properly formatted in current Turabian style, and must consist of well-reasoned, contemplative, and substantive posts and replies, rather than mere ipse dixit. These threads and replies must provide citations to the sources of or support for your ideas as well as any quoted materials and/or borrowed ideas. Open, courteous discussion will yield the greatest opportunities for growth in this course. Both responding to other students and responding to the instructor will count as 1 reply post. Remember that the art of communication is in many ways the essence of effective political leadership. Everything you write—every paper, post, and email—creates or reinforces an impression of you. You are encouraged to begin to cultivate the communication skills of the statesmen and stateswomen—the ability to logically and persuasively speak the truth with compassion and respect. You will take part in 5 Discussion Board Forums in Modules/Weeks 1, 3, 4, 5, and 7. You will compose an original post presenting your own interpretation of the assigned prompt, writing 600–700 words, then, you will post replies of 300–350 words to at least 2 other students’ original threads. Each reply must be unique. Responding to a classmate’s original post requires both the addition of new ideas and analysis. A particular point made by the classmate must be addressed and built upon by your analysis in order to move the conversation forward. Thus, the response post is a rigorous assignment that requires you to build upon initial posts to develop deeper and more thorough discussion of the ideas introduced in the initial posts. As such, reply posts that merely affirm, restate or unprofessionally quarrel with the previous post(s) and fail to make a valuable, substantive contribution to the discussion will receive appropriate point deductions. Posting the same reply in two places is also not sufficient and may be treated as a form of academic misconduct. Original posts must include at least 3 references to the course readings and 1 Scripture reference in addition to any other sources you wish to include. Replies must include at least 1 reference to the course readings and 1 Scripture reference in addition to any other sources you wish to include. Scriptural excerpts with citations are required in all written assignments, including all discussion board posts (both the original post and the replies). File attachments are discouraged because they may slow up readings. See the attached grading rubric for specific guidelines and grading procedures. This course utilizes the Post-First feature in all Discussion Board Forums. This means you will only be able to read and interact with your classmates’ threads after you have submitted your thread in response to the provided prompt. For additional information on Post-First, click here for a tutorial. Submit your threads by 11:59 p.m. (ET) on Thursday of the assigned module/week. Submit your replies by 11:59 p.m. (ET) on Sunday of the same module/week. PLCY 700 DISCUSSION BOARD FORUM GRADING RUBRIC Criteria Content (70%) Thread: Content Thread: Research Engagement • Each question/prompt is answered thoroughly and logically. • Major points are stated clearly and effectively. • Clear, logical flow to post; stayed on topic. 11.5 to 12.5 points: • • Reply: Content Levels of Achievement Proficient 84-91% 12.5 to 13 points: Advanced 92-100% 13.5 to 15 points: Ideas from all the required reading and presentations from the Module/Week and 2 scholarly sources are integrated. Relates topic to Scripture/biblical principles where appropriate. • Each question/prompt is answered. • Major points are stated clearly and effectively for the most part. • Clear, logical and focused for the most part. 10.5 to 11 points: • • Ideas from most the required reading and presentations from the Module/Week and 2 scholarly sources are integrated. Scripture/biblical principles are included but unfocused at times. • • Developing 1-83% 1 to 12 points: Not present 0 points • Not all facets of the prompt/questions are answered. • Lack of clarity, coherence, logic and focus in key areas. Not present 1 to 10 points: 0 points Ideas from few of the required reading and presentations from the Module/Week and 2 scholarly sources are integrated. Missing Biblical integration. Total Not present 13.5 to 15 points: 12.5 to 13 points: 1 to 12 points: 0 points • At least 3 unique interaction posts with classmates • One reply posted to each of 3 classmates’ threads. • Moves the conversation forward with new ideas, research, and analysis. • Student’s response delivered in a thorough, thoughtful, and analytical manner with the • At least 3 unique interaction posts with classmates • One reply posted to each of 3 classmates’ threads. • New ideas, research, and analysis are not always included. • Some commentary is repetitive from one reply to the next. • Missing one or more reply posts. • Reply posts are redundant. • Little in the way of new ideas, research, and analysis are not always included. Not present Page 1 of 2 PLCY 700 student’s position clearly evident. Reply: Research Engagement Structure (30%) Grammar, Spelling & Turabian 9.5 to 10 points: • Relates topic to Scripture/biblical principles where appropriate. • Contains abundant citations from required reading, presentations, and scholarly sources. Advanced 92-100% 13.5 to 15 points: Minimal to no errors in grammar, spelling, or Turabian. Word Count 7 to 7.5 points: Appropriate word count: 400–500 words for thread; 200– 250 words per reply. Instructor’s Comments: • At times, reply posts do not seem to actually build upon classmate’s post. 8.5 to 9 points: 1 to 8 points: 0 points • Scripture/biblical principles are included but unfocused at times. • Contains some citations from reading, presentations, and scholarly sources. • Missing Biblical integration. • Limited citations from the required reading and presentations. Not present Proficient 84-91% 12.5 to 13 points: Developing 1-83% 1 to 12 points: Not present 0 points Some errors in grammar, spelling, Numerous errors in grammar, or Turabian. spelling, or Turabian. 6.25 to 6.75 points: 1 to 6 points: Not present 0 points 100 words more or less than the required length. Not present Over 100 words more or less than the required length. Total: Total /75 Page 2 of 2 PLCY 701 DISCUSSION BOARD FORUM GRADING RUBRIC Criteria Content (70%) Content Master Advanced 92-100% 25 to 27 points The thread and replies display clear content mastery while critically analyzing/evaluating each of the assignment prompts. There are at least two replies. Levels of Achievement Proficient Developing 84-91% 1-83% 23 to 24.5 points 1 to 22.5 points The thread and replies address each of the assignment prompts, yet with modest evidence of subject mastery or critical analysis. There are at least two replies. Clarity and Coherence Missing one reply. 1 to 22.5 points 0 points The thread and replies do not provide evidence of subject mastery. 25 to 27 points 23 to 24.5 points The thread and replies are critical in its approach to each of the assignment prompts, providing evidence of coherent reasoning, analytical insight, and relevant research. The thread and replies are satisfactory, but does not provide strong evidence of coherent reasoning, clear writing, or critical analysis based on careful research or current literature. The thread and replies demonstrate a clear bias or does not provide a clearly discernible position on the issue. Evidence of research is not present. There are at least two replies. 13.5 to 14.5 points Missing one reply. 1 to 13 points 0 points The thread and replies contain satisfactory evidence yet is insufficiently detailed, defined, or explained, and/or questionably relevant to the assignment prompts. Evidence in the thread and replies is insufficiently detailed, defined, or explained, and is marginally relevant to the assignment prompts, if at all. Contributions to the discussion are nominal. There are at least two replies. Evidence and Detail The thread and replies loosely relate to or neglect 1 or more of the assigned prompts and do not effectively develop the discussion beyond minimal or superficial understanding of the topic. Not Present 15 to 16 points The thread and replies provide evidence that is sufficiently detailed, defined, or explained, and highly relevant to the assignment prompts. There are at least two replies. Missing one reply. 0 points The thread and replies do not display evidence of individual thought or topical research. Total PLCY 701 Structure (30%) Organization, Writing Mechanics, Grammar, and Spelling Current Turabian Format Compliance and Assignment Requirements Professor Comments: Advanced 92-100% 18.5 to 20 points There are at least two replies. Proficient 84-91% 17 to 18 points Developing 1-83% 1 to 16.5 points The argument, evidence, and conclusion of the thread and replies are coherently written and organized with fewer than 2 errors in grammar or spelling. The argument, evidence, and conclusion of the thread and replies are relatively clear, yet partially obscured by poor organization, writing mechanics, and/or fewer than 5 errors in grammar or spelling. The argument, evidence, and conclusion of the thread and replies are disrupted by poor organization, writing mechanics, and/or fewer than 8 errors in grammar or spelling. 9.5 to 10 points 8.5 to 9 points 1 to 8 points There are only minimal errors (1–2) noted in current Turabian formatting. The original thread is 600–700 words, and each reply is 300– 350 words. The original thread has at least 3 citations and at least 1 Scripture reference. Each reply has at least 1 citation and at least 1 Scripture reference. There are a few errors (3–4) noted in current Turabian formatting. The thread and/or replies may not meet the word count requirements and may be lacking required citations. There are numerous errors (5+) noted in current Turabian formatting. The thread and/or replies do not meet the word count requirements and lack required citations. Not Present Total 0 points The thread and replies are disorganized, are poorly written, and contain more than 8 errors in grammar or spelling that distract the reader from the content. 0 points There are notable absences in required current Turabian formatting elements. The word count for each post is not within 20% of the length requirement. No outside references are provided. Total: /100 St. Thomas Aquinas The Summa Theologica (Benziger Bros. edition, 1947) Translated by Fathers of the English Dominican Province Index [<< | >>] First Part of the Second Part [<< | >>] Question: 90 [<< | >>] TREATISE ON LAW (Questions 90-108) OF THE ESSENCE OF LAW (FOUR ARTICLES) We have now to consider the extrinsic principles of acts. Now the extrinsic principle inclining to evil is the devil, of whose temptations we have spoken in the FP, Question [114]. But the extrinsic principle moving to good is God, Who both instructs us by means of His Law, and assists us by His Grace: wherefore in the first place we must speak of law; in the second place, of grace. Concerning law, we must consider: (1) Law itself in general; (2) its parts. Concerning law in general three points offer themselves for our consideration: (1) Its essence; (2) The different kinds of law; (3) The effects of law. Under the first head there are four points of inquiry: (1) Whether law is something pertaining to reason? (2) Concerning the end of law; (3) Its cause; (4) The promulgation of law. Index First Part of the Second Part Question: 90 Article: 1 [<< | >>] [<< | >>] [<< | >>] [<< | >>] Whether law is something pertaining to reason? Objection 1: It would seem that law is not something pertaining to reason. For the Apostle says (Rm. 7:23): "I see another law in my members," etc. But nothing pertaining to reason is in the members; since the reason does not make use of a bodily organ. Therefore law is not something pertaining to reason. Objection 2: Further, in the reason there is nothing else but power, habit, and act. But law is not the power itself of reason. In like manner, neither is it a habit of reason: because the habits of reason are the intellectual virtues of which we have spoken above (Question [57]). Nor again is it an act of reason: because then law would cease, when the act of reason ceases, for instance, while we are asleep. Therefore law is nothing pertaining to reason. Objection 3: Further, the law moves those who are subject to it to act aright. But it belongs properly to the will to move to act, as is evident from what has been said above (Question [9], Article [1]). Therefore law pertains, not to the reason, but to the will; according to the words of the Jurist (Lib. i, ff., De Const. Prin. leg. i): "Whatsoever pleaseth the sovereign, has force of law." On the contrary, It belongs to the law to command and to forbid. But it belongs to reason to command, as stated above (Question [17], Article [1]). Therefore law is something pertaining to reason. I answer that, Law is a rule and measure of acts, whereby man is induced to act or is restrained from acting: for "lex" [law] is derived from "ligare" [to bind], because it binds one to act. Now the rule and measure of human acts is the reason, which is the first principle of human acts, as is evident from what has been stated above (Question [1], Article [1], ad 3); since it belongs to the reason to direct to the end, which is the first principle in all matters of action, according to the Philosopher (Phys. ii). Now that which is the principle in any genus, is the rule and measure of that genus: for instance, unity in the genus of numbers, and the first movement in the genus of movements. Consequently it follows that law is something pertaining to reason. Reply to Objection 1: Since law is a kind of rule and measure, it may be in something in two ways. First, as in that which measures and rules: and since this is proper to reason, it follows that, in this way, law is in the reason alone. Secondly, as in that which is measured and ruled. In this way, law is in all those things that are inclined to something by reason of some law: so that any inclination arising from a law, may be called a law, not essentially but by participation as it were. And thus the inclination of the members to concupiscence is called "the law of the members." Reply to Objection 2: Just as, in external action, we may consider the work and the work done, for instance the work of building and the house built; so in the acts of reason, we may consider the act itself of reason, i.e. to understand and to reason, and something produced by this act. With regard to the speculative reason, this is first of all the definition; secondly, the proposition; thirdly, the syllogism or argument. And since also the practical reason makes use of a syllogism in respect of the work to be done, as stated above (Question [13], Article [3]; Question [76], Article [1]) and since as the Philosopher teaches (Ethic. vii, 3); hence we find in the practical reason something that holds the same position in regard to operations, as, in the speculative intellect, the proposition holds in regard to conclusions. Such like universal propositions of the practical intellect that are directed to actions have the nature of law. And these propositions are sometimes under our actual consideration, while sometimes they are retained in the reason by means of a habit. Reply to Objection 3: Reason has its power of moving from the will, as stated above (Question [17], Article [1]): for it is due to the fact that one wills the end, that the reason issues its commands as regards things ordained to the end. But in order that the volition of what is commanded may have the nature of law, it needs to be in accord with some rule of reason. And in this sense is to be understood the saying that the will of the sovereign has the force of law; otherwise the sovereign's will would savor of lawlessness rather than of law. Index First Part of the Second Part Question: 90 Article: 2 [<< | >>] [<< | >>] [<< | >>] [<< | >>] Whether the law is always something directed to the common good? Objection 1: It would seem that the law is not always directed to the common good as to its end. For it belongs to law to command and to forbid. But commands are directed to certain individual goods. Therefore the end of the law is not always the common good. Objection 2: Further, the law directs man in his actions. But human actions are concerned with particular matters. Therefore the law is directed to some particular good. Objection 3: Further, Isidore says (Etym. v, 3): "If the law is based on reason, whatever is based on reason will be a law." But reason is the foundation not only of what is ordained to the common good, but also of that which is directed private good. Therefore the law is not only directed to the good of all, but also to the private good of an individual. On the contrary, Isidore says (Etym. v, 21) that "laws are enacted for no private profit, but for the common benefit of the citizens." I answer that, As stated above (Article [1]), the law belongs to that which is a principle of human acts, because it is their rule and measure. Now as reason is a principle of human acts, so in reason itself there is something which is the principle in respect of all the rest: wherefore to this principle chiefly and mainly law must needs be referred. Now the first principle in practical matters, which are the object of the practical reason, is the last end: and the last end of human life is bliss or happiness, as stated above (Question [2], Article [7]; Question [3], Article [1]). Consequently the law must needs regard principally the relationship to happiness. Moreover, since every part is ordained to the whole, as imperfect to perfect; and since one man is a part of the perfect community, the law must needs regard properly the relationship to universal happiness. Wherefore the Philosopher, in the above definition of legal matters mentions both happiness and the body politic: for he says (Ethic. v, 1) that we call those legal matters "just, which are adapted to produce and preserve happiness and its parts for the body politic": since the state is a perfect community, as he says in Polit. i, 1. Now in every genus, that which belongs to it chiefly is the principle of the others, and the others belong to that genus in subordination to that thing: thus fire, which is chief among hot things, is the cause of heat in mixed bodies, and these are said to be hot in so far as they have a share of fire. Consequently, since the law is chiefly ordained to the common good, any other precept in regard to some individual work, must needs be devoid of the nature of a law, save in so far as it regards the common good. Therefore every law is ordained to the common good. Reply to Objection 1: A command denotes an application of a law to matters regulated by the law. Now the order to the common good, at which the law aims, is applicable to particular ends. And in this way commands are given even concerning particular matters. Reply to Objection 2: Actions are indeed concerned with particular matters: but those particular matters are refe ...
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