Systems Engineering & Integration

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Read Chapter 3 and at the end of the Lecture 3 slides, you will find Homework 3. For the homework, you are to come up with high-level Type A system specifications for the microwave oven system given the description of functionality and objectives of the microwave oven in the slides. Make sure that your Type A system requirements are written in the format as shown in the slides. All you have to provide is a list of the system specifications

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IT 518 Systems Engineering & Integration Chapter 3: Conceptual System Design Dr. Jim Hood College Dept. of Computer Science & Information Technology Early system advanced planning and architecting What functions must be performed that are not now being accomplished? What? The questions are – is there a real need? Is the current deficiency significant? What will happen if the current deficiency is not corrected? How? Major steps in the system requirements definition process A feasibility analysis is accomplished in order to develop an overall technical approach to solving the problem at hand. • What “technologies” are available and can be applied that could lead to problem solution? • Will they be available when required? • Are they reasonable candidates for consideration when addressing the issues of projected technology life, reliability, maintainability, supportability, producibility, sustainability, disposability, life-cycle cost, etc.? System Requirements • Technical (System Specification) • Software system • Hardware system • Test equipment (simulation, range, integration, data requirements) • Management (Management Requirements) • • • • • Program planning control Version control Test data dissemination Integration Reporting Operational Requirements • Forms the basis for all subsequent design and development, test and evaluation, production/construction, and system maintenance and support activities • Includes a complete description of all of the functions required to successfully accomplish the mission(s) that the system must perform What type of information is included in operational requirements? • Operation scenarios or mission definition (what is the system to accomplish?) • Performance and physical parameters (size, weight, speed, etc.) • Operational deployment requirements • Operational lifecycle (how long?) • Utilization requirements (usages, hours, capacities, etc.) • Effectiveness/reliability requirements (cost/benefit, availability, MTBF, failure rate, etc.) • Maintenance requirements (downtime, personnel skills required, etc.) • Environmental factors (temperature, humidity, etc.) Requirements Analysis and System Specification • Requirements analysis says: “Make a list of the guidelines we will use to know when the job is done and the customer is satisfied.” • System specification says: “Here’s a description of what the system will do (not how) to satisfy the requirements.” • A top-level exploration into the problem and discovery of whether it can be done and how long it will take Functional and Non-functional Requirements • Functional requirements describe system behaviors • Priority: rank the features wanted in importance • Criticality: how essential is each requirement to the overall system? • Risks: when might a requirement not be satisfied? What can be done to reduce this risk? • Non-functional requirements describe other desired attributes of overall system • • • • • • • Product cost (how to measure cost?) Performance (efficiency?, response time?, startup time?) Portability (target platforms?) Availability (how much down time is acceptable?) Security (can it prevent intrusion?) Safety (can it avoid damage to people or environment?) Maintainability (reusability?, extensibility?) Requirements vs. Design Requirements Design • Describe what will be delivered • Describe how it will be done • Primary goal of analysis: UNDERSTANDING • Primary goal of design: OPTIMIZATION • There is more than one solution • There is only one (final) solution • Customer interested • Customer not interested (most of the time) except for end result Requirements Specification • Should say what, not how • Correct: does what the client wants, according to specification • Verifiable: can determine whether requirements have been met • Unambiguous: every requirement has only one interpretation • Consistent: no internal conflicts • Complete: has everything designers need to create the system • Understandable: stakeholders understand enough to buy into it • Modifiable: requirements change! Multiple Systems (System-of-Systems) If a system is part of a higher-level structure, interoperability requirements must be considered – What is the impact of the new system on other systems? What are external impacts of other systems on the new system? Technical Performance Measures (TPMs) • Quantitative values (estimated, predicted, and/or measured) that describe system performance • Measures of attributes and/or characteristics (i.e., design dependent parameters) inherent within the design Design Dependent Parameters (DDPs) • • • • • Product requirements that relate directly to customer requirements Engineering characteristics under a designer’s control Customer requirements → WHATs DDP → HOWs Should be tangible, describe the product in measurable terms, and directly affect customer perceptions • Guide analysis and evaluation of design concepts, configurations, and artifacts during the conceptual, preliminary, and detailed system design phases – DDPs must be identified • Process: Quality Function Deployment (QFD) – read paper on Blackboard Modified House of Quality (HOQ) The objective is to establish quantitative design-to requirements and to identify specific technical approaches that need to be built into the ultimate system design configuration. Quality Function Deployment (QFD) is a popular team technique used to ensure customer wants are satisfied in the final design (“The House of Quality”). Example of HOQ Functional Analysis and Allocation • Process of translating top system-level requirements into detailed design criteria and the subsequent identification of specific resource requirements at the subsystem level and below • How is this done? • Arrange functions in logical sequences • Functions are discrete actions (use action verbs) necessary to achieve the systems’ objectives • Functions may be stated explicitly, or be derived from stated requirements • Functions will ultimately be performed or accomplished through use of equipment, personnel, facilities, software, or a combination • Decomposing higher-level functions to lower-level functions • Allocating performance from higher to lower-level functions Depicting Functionality: Functional Flow Block Diagram • • • • Multi-tier, time-sequenced, step-by-step depiction of a systems’ functional flow Hierarchic structure for decomposition Sub-functions operate on I/O consistent with higher levels of the hierarchy Models the flow of data or objects in a system Example: Designing Functional Architecture Requirement: The Marine Corps has a requirement to transport troop squad units over a distance of 50 kilometers. Troops must be transported within 90 minutes from the time of arrival of the transport system. Constant communication is required during the transportation of troops. Design the preliminary functional architecture for this simple requirement. Progression from “need” to functional analysis All system lifecycle activities should be included. Each functional block may be broken down into subfunctions and below. Trade-off Analysis Process Type A system specification format (example) Objective in conducting a conceptual design review • Formally and logically cover and review the proposed design from a total “system” perspective • Covers results of: • • • • • • Feasibility analysis System operational requirements System maintenance and support concept System-level TPM requirements Functional analysis and description of system architecture System specification and the system engineering management plan (SEMP) • Constitutes a final review and approval of all of the major design and early planning-related activity accomplished during the Conceptual Design Phase Homework 3 Writing Type A system specifications Writing Requirements: The Format ________A________ shall ________B_________ within/considering _______C_______. A – actor/agent/system B – action of/by the system C – constraint Homework 3 Consider a Microwave Oven System, which senses and controls several I/O devices through sensors and actuators respectively. The oven is composed of five input devices: a door sensor which senses when the door is opened and closed by the user, a weight sensor to weigh food, temperature sensor to figure out if the food is hot or cold, a steam/cook level sensor to sense if the food is over/under cooked, and a keypad for entering commands. There are two output devices: a heating element for cooking food and a display for displaying information and prompts to the user. There is also a timer component, namely the real-time clock. System Engineering Objectives: 1. Pop a cup of corn 2. Thaw frozen chicken 3. Reheat a plate of food Note: One common theme in all these objectives is to get food to the right temperature and taste. Your task: Develop Type A system specifications for the microwave oven system. ...
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School: University of Maryland


Systems Engineering & Integration
Your Name Here
School Name Here
February 6, 2019

Microwave Oven System Specifications
1. Objectives
1.1 Microwave oven shall pop a cup of corn within automated time.
1.2 Microwave oven shall thaw frozen chicken within automated time.
1.3 Microwave oven shall reheat a plate of food considering its current tempera...

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