HIS 200 SNHU The impact of Martin Luther King Jr.’s assassination

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Describe the impact of Dr. Martin Luther King Jr.’s assassination on the effort to expand African American civil rights. How might the struggle for civil rights have evolved differently if Dr. King had not been killed?

Also answer: What were one or two specific consequences of Dr. King’s assassination? Do you think these events would have taken place even if Dr. King had not been assassinated? Why or why not?

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HIS 200 Learning Block 5-2 Discussion Rubric Overview: The discussion activities throughout this course offer you the opportunity to apply key concepts to course content and the option to engage with your peers. Prompt: In Theme: Analyzing History, learning block 5-2 (page 2), you were prompted to consider the following discussion prompt based on your reading in the webtext. You are required to post one initial post in the learning environment discussion that fully responds to the prompt, is related to the topic, fulfills the guidelines for submission, and clearly communicates your message. You are not required to respond to your classmates’ posts but are encouraged to take advantage of the option to take a look at your classmates’ ideas and respond to their posts. The prompt and its original location in the webtext are listed in this table in case you want to refer back to the reading as you draft your post. 5-2 Discussion: Contingency and Dr. King Based on your reading in the webtext, respond to the following prompt in one to two paragraphs. Describe the impact of Dr. Martin Luther King Jr.’s assassination on the effort to expand African American civil rights. How might the struggle for civil rights have evolved differently if Dr. King had not been killed? Theme: Analyzing History, Learning Block 5-2 (page 2) Be sure to answer the following question in your post: What were one or two specific consequences of Dr. King’s assassination? Do you think these events would have taken place even if Dr. King had not been assassinated? Why or why not? Rubric Guidelines for Submission: Your post should be 1 to 2 paragraphs in length. Critical Elements Engagement of Post Proficient (100%) Fully responds to the prompt Length of Response Answers provided are one to two paragraphs in length Post is related to the impact and consequences of Dr. King’s assassination Clearly communicates post in answering prompt, conveying key ideas Topical Post Communicates Clearly Needs Improvement (85%) Responds to part of the prompt, but post leaves some of the prompt unanswered Answers provided are only one to two sentences Post is only partially related to the impact and consequences of Dr. King’s assassination Communicates post in response to prompt, but lacks clarity Not Evident (0%) Does not respond to any part of the prompt Value 30 Does not provide answers 20 Post is not provided 30 Post is not legible and key ideas or thoughts are not understandable 20 Total 100% Theme: Analyzing History Overview When it's done right, an historical essay can read like a mystery novel. Trying to figure out what really happened in the distant past requires us to search for clues (primary sources) and listen to expert witnesses (secondary sources). But in the end, all that historical evidence doesn't speak for itself; it's up to the historian to make sense of things. That's what we mean by historical analysis. In Theme: Analyzing History, we'll see how historians sift and assess the evidence to come up with—and then refine—their thesis statement and message. Because historical research is an ongoing process, so too is the process of thesis development. In Theme: Analyzing History, you'll have an opportunity to revise your thesis statement to reflect research you've conducted since turning in your writing plan. The thesis, of course, is just the jumping­off point for the historical essay you're working on throughout this course. Like a good mystery (Click icon for citation) novelist, you've also got to give your readers the lay of the land, with an overview that provides them with background information and relevant historical context. Another important part of the historian's job is showing how different historical forces and events relate to each other. In this theme, we'll explore the historical concept of contingency, which stresses the interconnectedness of historical events and the difficulty of predicting future outcomes. Finally, you need to show how the evidence supports your thesis. That's the essence of historical analysis: choosing the most compelling evidence and interpreting it in the most convincing way, to build the strongest possible argument for your thesis. In this theme, you'll see how historians construct an analysis and begin the process of building one yourself. Course Outcome After completing this theme, you should be able to: Utilize historical evidence in drawing conclusions about the impact of historic events on American society Copyright © 2017 MindEdge Inc. All rights reserved. Duplication prohibited. Theme: Analyzing History | Learning Block 5-1: The Struggle for Civil Rights The Struggle for Civil Rights From the earliest colonial days, American history has been haunted by the specter of African slavery. Even after its legal abolition in 1865 America's "original sin," as James Madison first called it, lived on through a deeply entrenched system of legal, social, and economic discrimination against African Americans. (Madison, 1820) The movement to overturn that systemic discrimination has been ongoing for more than 150 years. The most blatant form of racial discrimination—the system of de jure segregation enacted in the South, which legally required the discriminatory treatment of African Americans—was essentially abolished by federal legislation, including the Voting Rights Act, in the 1960s. But the problem of de facto segregation has long been a fact of life not only in the South but throughout the nation. (Click icon for citation) It continued—in the segregated schools of cities such as Boston, and the segregated housing markets of cities such as Chicago and Los Angeles—long after the legal and political battles of the modern Civil Rights Movement had ended. While African Americans, as a group, have made significant gains in income and educational attainment over the last 50 years, de facto segregation continues to affect many aspects of American life. (U.S. Census Bureau, 2012; National Center for Education Statistics, 2012) In this theme, we will focus on the modern Civil Rights Movement, looking at efforts to affirm and expand African­American rights in two specific areas that have been central to the overall civil rights struggle: voting and public education. The fight to end the disenfranchisement of African­American voters and secure their right to vote, free from intimidation and legal obstruction, culminated with the passage of the Voting Rights Act in 1965. The struggle to desegregate public schools and win equal educational opportunities for African­American children—first affirmed in the landmark Supreme Court case, Brown v. Board of Education (1954)—has continued for generations. In this theme, we will look specifically at the tumultuous and emotionally charged effort to desegregate Boston's public schools in the mid­1970s. We will use these two case studies to examine the historical concept of contingency and to learn how to use historical evidence to draw conclusions about the impact of historical events on American society, through the process of historical analysis. Learning Objectives In this learning block, you will: Review the historical context behind the struggle for civil rights for African Americans, the core concept of this theme Analyze the relationship between the following key approaches to studying history: research question, historical evidence, and thesis statement References Madison, J. (1820). Letter to the Marquis de Lafayette, http://lcweb2.loc.gov/mss/mjm/19/19_0641_0643.pdf November 25, 1820. Retrieved from National Center for Education Statistics (2012). Fast Facts: Degrees Conferred by Sex and Race. Retrieved from https://nces.ed.gov/fastfacts/display.asp?id=72 U.S. Census Bureau (2012). American Community http://blackdemographics.com/households/african­american­income/ Survey. Retrieved from The Early Struggle for Civil Rights The end of the Civil War brought the legal abolition of slavery by the Thirteenth Amendment, the first of the three so­called Civil War Amendments. But the end of slavery did not bring equality for the former slaves. While the southern states had to ratify the Thirteenth Amendment as a condition of their readmission to the Union, most of them quickly enacted laws to close off opportunities to the newly freed slaves and deny them the rights of citizenship. The postwar Black Codes—based on older southern laws that sought to limit the freedoms of freed blacks in the years before the Civil War—barred African Americans from voting, denied them most legal rights, and restricted their ability to find work outside of plantations. Such laws laid the groundwork for the later Jim Crow laws, which institutionalized segregation in all walks of life throughout the South. (Dunning, 1907) In response to the Black Codes, Congress passed the Civil Rights Act of 1866, which formally made African Americans citizens. To further safeguard the citizenship rights of the freed slaves, Congress passed the Fourteenth Amendment, which was ratified in 1868. The Reconstruction Acts, passed in 1867 and 1868, essentially placed the southern states under military rule for a decade, allowing for a brief period in which freed African Americans in the South enjoyed political rights. The profound significance of the Fourteenth Amendment was that, through its Equal Protection and Due Process clauses, it prohibited the states from abridging the rights and liberties guaranteed to all citizens under the Constitution. In reality, however, for African Americans through the end of the 19th century (and well beyond), the promise of equal protection and due process went unrealized. The southern states flouted the Fourteenth Amendment, and the Supreme Court refused to interpret it as making the Bill of Rights binding on the states. (Foner, 1988) The house in Atlanta where Martin Luther King Jr. was born is now part of the Martin Luther King Jr. National Historic Site. (Click icon for citation) The Black Codes also led Congress to pass the Fifteenth Amendment (ratified in 1870), which guaranteed African Americans the right to vote. It did so by decreeing that citizens' right to vote could not be denied or abridged based on race, color, or prior slave status. Despite the Fifteenth Amendment, southern states continued to deprive blacks of their voting rights by imposing voter­qualification restrictions (e.g., literacy tests and property­ownership requirements) that effectively disenfranchised African Americans. (Valelly, 2009) The Fifteenth Amendment divided the pioneering women's rights movement, which sought the franchise for women as well as for African Americans. As we saw in Theme: Communicating Historical Ideas, some leaders in the nascent woman suffrage movement opposed ratification of the Fifteenth Amendment because it did not also extend the voting right to women. Women did not gain the right to vote until ratification of the Nineteenth Amendment in 1920. Jim Crow Laws and the Segregated South Unyielding southern resistance to black equality led Congress to pass the Civil Rights Act of 1875, which prohibited racial segregation in public accommodations such as hotels, restaurants, and transportation. It also barred the exclusion of African Americans from jury service. But when the federal government ended its military occupation of the South in 1877, marking the end of Reconstruction, the southern states further defied federal efforts to guarantee the civil rights of blacks. (Foner, 1988) Southern state legislatures enacted Jim Crow laws, which discriminated against African Americans by requiring racial segregation of schools, restaurants, hotels, theaters, and other public accommodations. Under Jim Crow laws, the southern states created separate facilities for whites and blacks in every walk of life, covering all public accommodations. This institutionalization of race­based separation throughout the South, which endured for a hundred years after the Civil War, was known as de jure segregation because it was backed by law. "Colored" water cooler in streetcar terminal, After Reconstruction, African Americans throughout Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, 1939. (Click icon for the South faced state legal systems that denied them citation) equal justice and routinely violated their due­process rights. The courts and law enforcement in the South abided lynching and other white mob violence committed against blacks. And the federal courts, well into the 1900s, proved unwilling or unable to uphold the civil rights of blacks. (Equal Justice Initiative, 2015) Disenfranchisement Despite the Fifteenth Amendment After Reconstruction, the southern states devised obstacles to block African Americans from voting despite the Fifteenth Amendment, which decreed that the right to vote could not be denied on the basis of race or color. To circumvent the Fifteenth Amendment's intent, southern states employed devices for determining voter eligibility which, though not expressly racial, had the particular effect of disenfranchising blacks, who were overwhelmingly poor and uneducated. These devices included literacy tests, poll taxes (a tax paid as a qualification for voting), and property­ownership requirements. Many states in the South also imposed a so­ called grandfather clause, which restricted voting to those whose grandfathers had voted before Reconstruction (i.e., pre 1867). Grandfather clauses effectively denied the descendants of slaves the right to vote. (Valelly, 2009) All of these legally enacted devices represented forms of de jure segregation—as opposed to de facto segregation, which lacked the force of law. A poll tax receipt. Image courtesy of the African American Intellectual History Society. Black disenfranchisement continued in one form or another throughout the South for a century after the Civil War. Separate but Equal Legal segregation in the South was validated by the Supreme Court in a landmark decision at the close of the 1800s. Homer Plessy, an African American, defied a Louisiana segregation law by riding in a "whites only" railroad car. He was arrested when he refused to move to a car reserved for blacks as mandated by the state law. Plessy challenged the constitutionality of the law on the grounds that segregation violated the equal protection clause of the Fourteenth Amendment. The Supreme Court rejected this challenge, ruling in Plessy v. Ferguson (1896) that state laws requiring racial segregation in public facilities are constitutional if the facilities are "separate but equal." The Court's decision ignored the fact that most facilities available to African Americans were not equal but vastly inferior; nonetheless, Plessy and the doctrine of "separate but equal" remained the law of the land for more than half a century. (Medley, 2003) References Dunning, W. (1907). Reconstruction, Political and Economic, 1865­1877. New York: Harper & Brothers. Equal Justice Initiative (2015). Lynching in America: Confronting the Legacy of Racial Terror. Retrieved from http://www.eji.org/lynchinginamerica Foner, E. (1988). Reconstruction: America's Unfinished Revolution 1863­1877. New York: Harper & Row. Medley, K. (2003). We as Freemen: Plessy v. Ferguson: The Fight Against Legal Segregation. Gretna, LA: Pelican Publishing. Valelly, R. (2009). The Two Reconstructions: The Struggle for Black Enfranchisement. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press. U.S. Census Bureau (2012). American Community http://blackdemographics.com/households/african­american­income Survey. Retrieved from The Struggle for Civil Rights, 1900 – 1950 The first half of the 20th century saw limited progress in the fight to secure the civil rights of African Americans. Booker T. Washington, president of the Tuskegee Institute and the leading figure in the African­American community in the early 1900s, was an outspoken proponent of black education and entrepreneurship. But Washington was criticized within the African­American community for his strategic decision not to challenge Jim Crow laws and the disenfranchisement of black voters directly. More militant African­American leaders, including W.E.B. DuBois and Ida Wells, founded the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) in 1909, with the mission of actively fighting against racial prejudice. The organization focused in its early years largely on efforts to prevent lynchings in the South and on mounting legal challenges to Jim Crow legislation. (Finch, 1981) W.E.B. Du Bois, 1918. (Click icon for citation) The return of thousands of African­American veterans of World War I highlighted the huge divide between America's rhetorical commitment to democracy and individual freedom and the reality of segregation, disenfranchisement, and anti­black violence in the South. This gave rise to the New Negro movement, which sparked the larger cultural and intellectual movement known as the Harlem Renaissance (Gates, H.L., 1988) Beginning shortly before World War I, the Great Migration saw an estimated six million African Americans move from the deep South to the North, Midwest, and West over the next 60 years. Fleeing segregation and poverty, many of these African Americans found work in industrial cities such as Chicago, Detroit, and Gary, Indiana. While many African Americans had previously been suspicious of organized labor, A. Philip Randolph, head of the Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters, became the leading voice for black workers within the labor movement. As the number of African Americans working in industrial jobs swelled, organized labor became increasingly outspoken in its advocacy for black workers' rights; in the 1950s and 1960s, labor would be a powerful ally of the civil rights movement. (Lemann, 1992) The Lafayette Theatre, Harlem, 1936. (Click icon for citation) The Great Depression of the 1930s hit African Americans disproportionally hard; the collapse of cotton prices drove thousands of Southern sharecroppers to the brink (Thompson and Clarke, 1935), and the scarcity of factory jobs led to increased racial tensions in Northern industrial cities. The unemployment rate among African Americans was estimated to exceed 50 percent—more than twice the rate among whites. (Wolters, 1970) African Americans, traditionally supporters of the Republican Party because of its historical opposition to slavery, were initially skeptical of Democrat Franklin Roosevelt, who had won the Presidency with strong backing from the South. Early New Deal programs were not aimed toward the African­American community, and some, such as the Federal Housing Authority, initially reinforced existing patterns of segregation. But other programs, such as the Works Progress Administration and the Civilian Conservation Corps, provided jobs to substantial numbers of African Americans, especially in the North. By the end of the decade, many African Americans in the North were strongly behind the New Deal, and urban black voters began a major shift that would eventually make them an integral part of the Democratic electoral coalition. (Reed, 2008) America's entry into World War II effectively ended the Depression, as factories geared up for the war effort. At the same, time, more than a million African Americans joined the armed forces; when they returned from war in 1945, they embodied the argument that African Americans were entitled to the same freedoms for which America had fought in Europe and the Pacific. (Taylor, 2014) While resistance to the campaign for African­American civil rights was still deeply entrenched, the late 1940s saw a couple of notable victories: Jackie Robinson famously broke baseball's "Color Line" in 1947, and in 1948, President Harry S Truman issued an executive order that desegregated the U.S. military. While these breakthroughs were largely symbolic, ...
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In the 1960s, Martin Luther King nonviolently fought for the civil rights of the African
American community with an energy that no other could match. He fought long and hard, and
his impact not onl...

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