LAS432 Water Pollution and Nuclear Power Plants

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I need a draft for my project, i will add what is done so far , if you have any questions please let me know.

Assignment guidelines are under DRAFT file

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Thesis: Government regulation allows "permissible" environmental radioactive contamination. These regulations must be readdressed and nuclear power companies must be held accountable for failure to follow these regulations. This will result in less environmental pollution, specifically water pollution.

Style and Form: The plan for the paper is to be informal and informational. The ability to highlight the current issues surrounding nuclear processing is key. By addressing the who, what, when, where, why and overall impact all sections should complement each other well.

Order: Nuclear processing locations, Nuclear waste disposal, Nuclear security & threats


Nuclear accidents and long-term effects, Economic Impacts (jobs)

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This week you will submit your Individual Draft for review to take you one step closer to your final Project. Your draft should reflect the progress you have made in completing each milestone related to the Course Project in the earlier weeks, synthesize ideas you an have developed, and highlight the key areas of analysis you have identified throughout the course. Individual drafts should be four to five pages in length and follow APA standards. Your draft must also include a brief paragraph that explains your part of the Team Project and where your draft will fit into the final paper. This is an individual assignment. Grading Rubric Content Criteria Draft Introduction The introduction is clear and provides an overview of key issues addressed in the section. The topic of the draft is situated context. Structure The section is organized logically and has a clear development trajectory that begins with foundational materials. The stru the team outline and achieves a level of consistency with the team documents. Evidence and Topic Development Concrete and detailed evidence is used to support claims and develop the topic. Evidence is used in a variety of ways and Analysis and Critical Thinking Thoughtful analysis is performed to help situate the evidence within the team argument and provide engagement with the Style and Format Conventions are consistent and unified. The formatting adheres to APA standards. Citations are complete and properly fo Reflection Framing questions have been addressed, and there is a clear understanding of the role that the draft will play in the final C Total Course Project Developed Outline LAS432 Preliminary Questions Team Members: Thesis: Government regulation allows "permissible" environmental radioactive contamination. These regulations must be readdressed and nuclear power companies must be held accountable for failure to follow these regulations. This will result in less environmental pollution, specifically water pollution. Style and Form: The plan for the paper is to be informal and informational. The ability to highlight the current issues surrounding nuclear processing is key. By addressing the who, what, when, where, why and overall impact all sections should complement each other well. Order: Nuclear processing locations, Nuclear waste disposal, Nuclear security & threats Nuclear accidents and long-term effects, Economic Impacts (jobs) I. Introduction As per research findings, 20% of environmental pollution is as a result of natural radiation levels that emanate from human activities. These activities are harmful to the environment, especially due to the materials released from mining, processing of radioactive materials in nuclear power plants, and handling of radioactive waste. Radioactive waste and traces of chemical elements released from nuclear power are all top water pollutants. These chemicals make water sources a threat to human life. A. Topic: Nuclear Power and Water Pollution: The Link between Environmental Threats and Issues 1. Attention Grabber: Do you like Salmon? Who doesn’t, right? Did you know Sockeye Salmon who live in the US Northern Pacific Ocean and rivers were linked to be contaminated with nuclear radiation from Japan’s Nuclear plant, Fukushima. (Organic Planet, 2018) 2. Research Questions – What is at risk in the event of a reactor meltdown in terms of water supply, food supply etc.? Who stands to be affected the most by such a disaster? 3. Working Thesis - The safety of future generations fresh water supply may be at grave danger. As evidenced by the Tsunami and resulting disaster at Fukushima in Japan, further measures must be taken to ensure redundant procedures be in place prior to another natural disaster. B. Context 1. Background Information on Topic/Historical Timeline In the United States, human waste was carried in American rivers for centuries. It wasn’t until the Industrial Revolution progressed that water pollution became a major crisis. Factories found water sources, especially rivers, a convenient means of waste disposal. The trend continued well into the twentieth century. The Cuyahoga River in Ohio caught fire several times since the 1930s, a result of oil slicks and flammable industrial waste dumped in it. Coupled with widespread and human waste contamination of rivers, a fire on the Cuyahoga in 1969, led to the enactment of the 1972 Clean Water Act (CWA). In 2006, the Environmental News Service (ENS) reported that, more than 62 percent of industrial and municipal facilities across the country discharged more pollution into U.S. waterways than their Clean Water Act permits allowed between July 2003 and December 2004. Although the CWA has made great strides in keeping waters clean, there is no realistic standard as to how clean is clean, and the act has been criticized for leading to wasted money without effective controls and monitoring systems. 2. Ethical Framework: What ethical frameworks will your team deploy to help develop analysis of the topic? There are various ethical considerations of nuclear power that will be examined through analysis of this topic. These include but are not limited to: protection of human and environmental health, protection of human health beyond national and international borders, protection of future generations from health effects associated with nuclear power, embracing the principal of intergenerational equity, establishment of legal framework for conservation of the environment against devastating effects of nuclear power and ensuring that all nuclear power plant operations adhere to legal and ethical guidelines. 3. Audience: Who is your primary audience? What is their call to action? Our target audience are members of the public who stay close to nuclear plants. There have been fears of increased health and environmental impacts of nuclear processes. The public is calling for stringent measures and interventions to ensure that they are not affected by nuclear process. II. Sectional Outlines A. Nuclear Processing Locations 1. Idea: The number of nuclear plants has increased all over the world and among developing countries creating a high risk to those living in the areas and the surrounding environment (Bruce, 1959). Government regulations allow tolerable environmental radioactive contamination. The regulations put up must be readdressed and the companies held accountable for the failure to strictly follow the regulations. The main idea in the paper is to address the proper disposal of nuclear waste in order to reduce the level of environmental pollution especially water pollution. a. Technology: The current technology used in the disposal of nuclear waste is meant to decay the nuclear energy in an underground repository naturally. Another method used in the disposal of nuclear waste is the storage of waste products under water. This is the main reason behind increased water pollution. b. Ethics: Ethically, organizations should be responsible for their production and ensure that the production level of the nuclear energy and the disposal strategies do not cause harm to the environment.Storing of waste, spent fuel, or even the material prior to reaction is of great ethical concern as its existence threatens the safety of fresh water. c. Which areas of analysis will you engage with: social, cultural, economic, or political? Nuclear energy has caused political and social issues regarding misperception, misinformation and negative attitude towards nuclear energy and radioactive wastes which in leads to the formation of political rallies and anti-nuclear power groups (Bruce, 1959). The social issues including misinformation have led to a lack of trust in the government and the nuclear power authorities especially in the issue of nuclear waste disposal. Gaining the trust of the citizens and providing the right information to the surrounding population greatly depends on proper nuclear waste disposal strategies. 2. Evidence: a. What evidence have you gathered that supports your section and the Team Thesis? Nuclear power plants generate approximately 17% of the world's electricity and some countries, if not most, depend mostly on nuclear energy than any other form of energy. With the increasing number of nuclear plants, United States established a permanent nuclear waste repository in Yucca Mountain . This strategy operates such a way that nuclear waste is stored underground to allow natural decaying of the waste energy. Multiple sources provide heaps of evidence suggesting the land surrounding the meltdown at Fukushima will be radioactive for many generations to come. As there has not yet been a disaster of this scale prior, we are still learning much from this disaster. Food chain supply, healthcare staff shortages, land price devaluations are among the researched evidence. b. What evidence still needs to be gathered? What are the next steps of your research process? Future research needed on the increasing number of nuclear power plants 3. Connection to Thesis: This section sets the stage for where the plants in North America are located, their type, and how their waste is stored or processed. 4. Relation to other subsections: What other sections does your section have a strong relationship to? How might this help you develop order and transition areas of your team course project? . Nuclear disposal methods affect most aspects of the society including security and creation of jobs. For instance, during the disposal of nuclear waste, most job opportunities are created for the surrounding population. However, nuclear waste affects the living standards and the lifestyle of the surrounding population leading to security issues. Our section helps lead directly into the next section about waste disposal. B. Section: Nuclear Waste Disposal – 1. Main ideas: The main idea of this subsection is nuclear waste disposal, specifically the issues surrounding appropriate disposal methods and placement. a. Technology: Current disposal methods to include proposed permanent methods for nuclear waste will be discussed. b. Ethics: The overall ethical angle of the paper fits quite well into this subtopic. Nuclear power plants contaminate the environment and existing guidelines for safety and disposal are not adequately followed. The fact that the United States does not have a clear way ahead for permanent disposal of nuclear waste is unacceptable and should be addressed. The protection of future generations and intergenerational equality also go well with this topic. Additionally, current methods for nuclear operations contaminate the water and directly impact fish and wildlife. c. Which areas of analysis will you engage with: Examination of both the political and social issues surrounding this issue will be addressed, specifically governmental role in current nuclear energy development operations, and maintenance efforts, as well as a permanent nuclear waste disposal site and strategy. 2. Evidence: a. The basics of energy development in the United States, how nuclear energy is actually created, how many nuclear reactors are in operation, as well as what percentage of electricity is generated by nuclear power. Historical and legislative attempts to establish a permanent nuclear waste repository in the United States. In 2013, litigation was brought against both the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and the Department of Energy (DOE) for failing to fulfil obligations as defined in the Nuclear Waste Policy Act (NWPA) (Ginsberg & Sweeney, 2014). Additionally, a memoir of former chairman of the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Gregory Jaczko (Hoffert, 2018) will be used to highlight how the government may not always have the public or the environment’s best interest at heart when it comes to establishing policy, setting standards, and enforcement or accountability. Known risks of current temporary nuclear waste storage methods (Wald, 2009). Specifically, how much waste the country currently has stored and in how many locations. b. What evidence still needs to be gathered? Additional research is needed to fully address social impact of current nuclear waste disposal methods as well as a permanent strategy. 3. Connection to Thesis: Through analysis of current nuclear waste disposal methods or lack thereof we support the overall thesis in addressing nuclear contamination. 4. Relation to other subsections: Nuclear disposal methods have a strong tie to the location topic as well as security and job creation. Disposal strategy may fit nicely after the location topic and before the topic of security. C. Section: Topic and Description Nuclear security & threats – 1. Main ideas: What is the main idea of your subsection? What areas of analysis will you engage with? Cost of security, and security on nuclear plants from preventing terrorism. Specifically, in trying to prevent terrorist attacks a. Technology: What technologies need to be described? Many different technologies are used in nuclear plant security, specifically for cybersecurity and electronic security. The United States uses a cybersecurity program to protect important assets. b. Ethics: How does the team’s ethical angle relate to your subtopic? The ethical angle of this subtopic fits into the overall ethics of the paper in such that in having proper security in nuclear plants, it helps to prevent against a terrorist attack. If a terrorist attack should occur and nuclear power or weapons get into the hands of the wrong people, many people and the environment could be in grave danger. c. Which areas of analysis will you engage with: social, cultural, economic, or political? Political and economic areas will be addressed as there are many governmental standards that nuclear plants must adhere to. The government has regulations on Nuclear plants on how they operate and future upcoming ideas that may help the country. Also, the cost of running, maintaining and securing plants will be addressed 2. Evidence: a. What evidence have you gathered that supports your section and the Team Thesis? The nuclear regulatory commission has drills former military units attack plants with materials and techniques and evaluate if it fails. b. What evidence still needs to be gathered? What are the next steps of your research process? Further research on cost of security and cyber-attacks. 3. Connection to Thesis: How will your section support the Team Thesis? Nuclear security & threats support the team’s thesis by explaining the issues of the governments regulations and how we need to address them. 4. Relation to other subsections: What other sections does your section have a strong relationship to? How might this help you develop order and transition areas of your team course project? Nuclear accidents and longterm effects have a relationship to nuclear security and threats because terrorism can cause long term effects and part of the accidents is related to terrorism. This can help our topics being more in flow of one another D. Section: Nuclear accidents and long-term effects 1. Main ideas: The main idea of this section is to discuss the devasting and lasting effects previous nuclear accidents have had on their surrounding environments, including polluting the water. We will discuss historical events like Fukushima, Chernobyl, and Three-Mile Island. 2. a. Technology: What technologies need to be described? ? Some of the technology to be described would be radars used to detect radiation levels and any radioactive frequencies so that individuals would know how long they can safely be in an area that has been affected. b. Ethics: How does the team’s ethical angle relate to your subtopic? Nuclear accidents and their long-term effects are all about the negative impacts that nuclear accidents can and have had on their surrounding environment making them inhabitable. c. Which areas of analysis will you engage with: social, cultural, economic, or political? The areas of analysis in which we will engage with are mostly economic, but we will touch on cultural and social. Evidence: a. What evidence have you gathered that supports your section and the Team Thesis? We have gathered information about Japan attempting to rebuild a community, of how Japan attempting to make a controlled Nuclear Meltdown, 4 different Firms from Japan attempting to clean up at the Fukushima Plant, how Japan has been since the last nuclear meltdown and a breakdown of what exactly happened in Chernobyl. b. What evidence still needs to be gathered? What are the next steps of your research process? The evidence that still needs to be gathered are if they have had any success in attempting to make the environment livable again as well as if they can really make a nuclear meltdown controllable. The next steps in the research process is looking to see if they can predict if a nuclear meltdown can be predicted and stopped before it gets bad. 3. Connection to Thesis: This section supports this team’s thesis because of how in Japan they are purposely attempting to make a nuclear meltdown happen and also attempting to find a way to fix the issue in case of another one really happening. As well as Japan has also been making an attempt to rebuild a community that has been affected by a Nuclear Meltdown. 4. Relation to other subsections: What other sections does your section have a strong relationship to? How might this help you develop order and transition areas of your team course project? Another section that has a really strong connection to this topic is the Description Economic Impacts (jobs) because due to the long-term effects and any accident that can happen in the area can put the whole community out of jobs and there will be a lot of people struggling to survive and continue to find jobs. This helps us develop order and transition area of this course project because of how long it actually takes for an area that has been affected to become safe to live in. Section: Topic and Description Economic Impacts (jobs) – E. 1. Main ideas: The main idea of this section is to provide a description of the jobs required for a nuclear power plant to operate, and the education that is required for these jobs. a. Technology: Employees work directly with the inner workings of the plant (i.e. computers, command centers, and other mechanical equipment.) b. Ethics: The jobs created by nuclear power plants would go against our ethical angle because more jobs means a better economy. This doesn’t prove whether nuclear plants cause more pollution, but that plants create a lot of job for the community in which they are in. c. 2. Evidence: a. b. Which areas of analysis will you engage with: social, cultural, economic, or political? The area of analysis which we will engage with would be social, and economic. What evidence have you gathered that supports your section and the Team Thesis? Evidence that we have gathered that supports the section and team thesis is that the long-term storage of nuclear radioactive waste poses a threat to the environment due to the risks of meltdowns caused by natural environmental disasters such as the Tsunami that caused Fukushima's nuclear meltdown causing radioactive waste to be distributed into the ocean and atmosphere. (Beckrick, 2013) The long-term storage of radioactive waste poses a threat to nuclear power plant employees due to the fact that they are in great risk to be exposed to radioactive waste in an event of a disaster. Stronger and newer government radioactive waste regulations need to be implemented in order to prevent another Fukushima meltdown that in the long term will harm the environment and its employees. What evidence still needs to be gathered? What are the next steps of your research process? Evidence that still needs to be gathered is more information on how nuclear power plant employees pose a risk of exposure to ...
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