WR 39C Improve HCP Draft

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timer Asked: Feb 5th, 2019
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Question Description

Please read the feedback more carefully and then improve the paper. Answer questions from my professor and read notations one by one.

You can refer to the sample HCP.

Mark each sentence in different color that you have improved.

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You've clearly done some really good research in this draft. Well done! See my comments on your text for more details. As you'll see from my comments, I have a few different questions. My first is: what population are you focusing on, specifically? Occasionally, it seems like you're focusing specifically on unaccompanied homeless youth. But at other moments, you seem to be discussing homeless youth who are accompanied by their parents. This is one major thing you need to be clearer about throughout your paper. Also, you need to historicize this problem. When did this problem become a problem? Has it gotten worse at particular moments? Is it worse now than it was 10 or 20 or 30 years ago? This will help you begin to think about the historical causes of the problem, which you don't really go into much in this draft. Lastly, you need to focus more on institutional and policy failures instead of focusing on individual failures, like parents' mistreatment of their children. Although this may be a large cause of the problem, this paper should focus more on the institutional failures. For instance, why aren't there more services for these youths? If there are programs to re-house homelessness children, why aren't these programs working? Etc. These are the kinds of things you need to be focusing on.... Read through my comments and then let me know if you have any questions, okay? Again, this is a good start—but there is a lot more work to be done! I'd be happy to talk about any/all of this with you in more detail... In this draft, please focus on two main things (I'm assuming you've already produced a strong, specific, arguable problem-failure thesis, which we've focused on for the last two weeks): 1) Pay attention to the overall structure/arrangement of your essay, perhaps using your Reverse Outline as a guide. Are there clear topic sentences for every paragraph, using effective transitional phrases / signposts to orient your reader? Do these topic sentences make specific sub-claims that relate back to your overall argument? If not, well, make sure they do! And if you find that your overall argument has shifted or changed over the course of your essay, then rewrite your thesis to match this new argument. And once you've done that, go back and rewrite your paragraphs to make sure that they support the new thesis. (That's what revision is all about: rewriting one part of your essay, which forces you to rewrite another part of your essay, which forces you to...you get the picture.) 2) Pay attention to the evidence you use to support your argument. Are you relying too much on one or two sources? Have you found scholarly, peer-reviewed articles and books to back up your claims? Do you use them effectively to support your argument? Do you have a good mix of scholarly, government, and popular sources? How about multimodal sources? Do you fully explore the historical context and causes of the current problem you've identified? Can you find better, more specific sources to back up your argument? Look back over the HCP Peer Review and Self-Guided Revision handout for more help on this. And re-read some of the high-scoring HCP Samples to see how other students solved problems that you might have, too. Zhou 1 Writing 39C Feb 2, 2019 Health Status of Homeless Children and Adolescents: Historical Causes of Problems Introduction Homelessness is one of the significant social problems in the United States and the consequences of the economic factors that are beyond the controls of the people that lose their homes or victims of the cultural practices that exist in their households and communities. It is a problem whose severity and implications have tremendous adverse impacts on the proper development of young people in the early years of their lives. While the demographics of the homeless population in the country consist of families, individual adults, and young people, San Francisco is considered as the city of refuge for runaway homeless teenagers and families with children. According to Jones and Willis, the city is home to an estimated 15,000 homeless children and over 1,200 adolescents. In the Ravenswood district alone, over 37percent of its 3,076 students are homeless, which is a problem that makes the provision of public education services highly challenging for the school district (para 5). Empirical evidence from the different studies that are conducted on the state of homelessness in San Francisco revealed that teenagers have come to the city for decades to seek shelter and protection from emotional, physical, or sexual abuse and violence from their parents, relatives, and guardians at home. Putnam‐Hornstein, Lery, Hoonhout, and Curry stated that in the Zhou 2 case of the homeless families, the availability of emergency shelters and educational services for their children was found to be the historical causes for the high number of children living on the street of San Francisco (46). The uncertainty surrounding emergency shelters for homeless children and young people, as well as their constant exposure to maltreatment, abuse, and neglect, increases their potential to suffer from mental, social, and physical health problems, which would result in impaired functioning as adults. Therefore, it is imperative to examine the historical causes of the issues that make young live on the street and the consequences of their decision as input to the development of social and public health policies that would address the problems. The incidence of Children and Youth Homelessness in San Francisco San Francisco is the city with the highest number of homeless children and youth in the country and one that attracts this vulnerable population of the perception that the issues or problems that made them to live on its streets would be resolved. In a report by Larkin Street Youth Services on the incidence of the problem in the city, loss of employment, disagreement with a family member or friends, and eviction are three significant issues that force people aged 12- 18 years to live on the streets (4). The report furthers added that problems in the youth care system also create the path to homelessness for this young people include foster care, juvenile, and mental health among others, as well as a history of residential instability (2). In the case of the high population of homeless children, a significant percentage come to San Francisco with their families because of the availability of food, emergency shelters, sleeping parks, and free educational services (Jones and Willis para 3). Although these factors are related to the economic instability that is caused by job loss and results in loss of housing, the city is attractive to these Zhou 3 homeless families because of the access to the unique public educational services for homeless children. Meanwhile, an examination of the composition of the population of homeless children and youth is necessary to identify the extent of the problem and the associated social and health challenges that are faced by this category of vulnerable members of society. According to Larkin Street Youth Services, the estimated 3,000 homeless youths who live in the city consist of unaccompanied children that are less than 18years old and transitional-age-youths who are aged between 18 and 24years. Also, 87% of this population is citizens of the United States while 60% of the foreigners are from Latin American countries (3). An additional aspect of the demographics of the population is the 93 percent of the children less than 18years old and 80 percent of those older but below 25years are unsheltered. It is pertinent to state that outcomes of the survey showed that over 50% of this population has experienced at least one form of adverse childhood experiences including maltreatment, sexual and physical abuse, neglect, and lack of health services for their medical conditions (Brinamen, Taranta, and Johnston 283). Therefore, the high population of homeless youths and children in San Francisco is not just a social problem that is impacting several areas of the city's systems but a source of mental and physical health challenges that should be addressed. The Health Status of Homeless Children and Youth in San Francisco The factors that force children and adolescents to run away or be ejected from their homes are resulting in mental and physical health issues that remain unsolved for several years thereby resulting in their impairment of their functioning as adults. In a study conducted by Angela Narayan and her colleagues, the high rate of childhood exposure to maltreatment and family dysfunction is resulting in the adverse experiences that increase the probability of developing Zhou 4 mental illnesses in sheltered children aged 4-6years. Similarly, Brinamen and colleagues stated that the lack of access to early childhood mental health consultation by these children is limiting the potential of interventions that are designed to help to prevent these children from experiencing impairment of the proper functioning in adulthood (285). In this context, the failure of the children to receive the required interventions that would help them to overcome the impacts of their exposure to adverse events is responsible for their poor health status, which affects important stages of their lifespan development. Also, the prevention of access of these children to care services and refusal of their parents to disclose some of the medical conditions affecting their kids is part of the factors for their poor health. Therefore, the combination of the need to deal with the issues of survival that these homeless youths face on the streets and failure of the child protective services to provide access to early intervention is responsible for the poor health status of this demographic of the population. Furthermore, the state of the health status of the homeless youths in San Francisco, California can be examined from the high prevalence rates of substance abuse among this population. Injection drug use is the leading form of substance abuse practices within this population and responsible for the many physical health problems that they encounter and lack access to treatment options. In a cohort study conducted by Parriott and Auerswald, illiteracy, social exclusion, and age are the main factors that predict the initiation of injected drugs among homeless youths, which was found to be responsible for the high prevalence of sexually transmitted diseases (1965). When the implications of these findings are placed in the context of the high rate of exploitation and victimization of unsheltered homeless youths and children in the city, the poor health status and overall wellbeing of this population would become apparent. Also, it is pertinent to state that part of the factors that are responsible for the high incidence and Zhou 5 prevalence rates of sexual transmitted infections within the unsheltered homeless youth population is the practice of exchanging sexual favors for meals, clothing, protection, and other basic needs for their survival. Thus, the poor health status of homeless youths in the city due to drug and substance abuse and sexual transmitted diseases is caused by some factors that beyond the control of these young people as the strive for their survive on the streets. Meanwhile, the insights into the mental health status of homeless children and youths can be analyzed from the adverse effects of the neglect and maltreatment that forced them to leave their families and homes. In this regard, the evidence of the problem can be identified through the relationship between the substance abuse problem, adverse childhood experiences, and potential psychiatric disorders. Ernika Quimby and her colleagues found from their investigation that 32% and 33% of homeless youth in San Francisco suffer from Antisocial Personality Disorder and anxiety disorder respectively. They further claimed that the situation is critical when consideration is given to the fact that an estimated 84% of the sample population has abused at least one substance in the past twelve months (186). When consideration is given to the fact that a significant percentage of this children and adolescents are oblivious of their mental health status because of lack of access to diagnostic and treatment services, the extent of their healthcare needs and type of services to meet them can be identified. Hence, the review of the level of access to health care services is essential to gain further insights into the state of the problems affecting homeless youths and children in this city. The current level of access to health care and services in the city by homeless youths and children in the city is another source of information that can provide insights to the health status of this demographic of the population. As noted in the previous section of this paper, the capacity to provide mental health counseling for children that exposed to adverse childhood experiences Zhou 6 such as domestic violence and maltreatment in the child protection system is limited because of the instability of their residence. Also, a significant percentage of the transition-age-youths that are expected to have health insurance does not possess one due to financial issues, which is an indicator of their inability to access care that can prevent mild illness from developing into chronic ones (Morewitz 88). An additional dimension of the problem is the failure of the parents of homeless infants, and young children who are residents of homeless shelters allow mental health consultation of their children due to ignorance and fear of separation. Therefore, the health status of homeless children and youths in San Francisco is in an abysmal state, which increases the imperatives for the development of comprehensive public health and social policies that deal with them tactically and strategically. In conclusion, the outcome of the evaluation of the factors that are responsible for the poor health status of homeless children and youths in San Francisco affirmed the absences of the relevant services that are needed by these demographics to take them away from the streets. Also, the findings are a reflection of the inadequacy of the efforts by non-governmental organizations such as the Larkin Street Youth Services to deal with the problem effectively, especially when consideration is given to the evidence that the rise in the number of homeless young people will continue for several decades. However, the evidence from the literature also showed that some of the solutions that can be used to address this problem include outreach programs for homeless youths that focus on the provision of information on the community resources for dealing with their problems and methods for accessing them. Finally, drop-inServices and emergency housing units are additional solutions that several research studies have shown to have greater positive impacts on the elimination of the physical problems that lead to the mental health problems that lead to their poor health status. Zhou 7 Works Cited Brinamen, Charles F., Adriana N. Taranta, and Kadija Johnston. "Expanding early childhood mental health consultation to new venues: Serving infants and young children in domestic violence and homeless shelters." Infant Mental Health Journal 33.3 (2012): 283-293. Larkin Youth Services. "Youth homelessness in San Francisco: 2014 Report On Incidence and Needs.” (2015): 1-16. Morewitz, Stephen J. "Well-being and access to health care." Runaway and Homeless Youth. Springer International Publishing, Switzerland, 2016. 87-98. Narayan, Angela J., et al. "Intergenerational continuity of adverse childhood experiences in homeless families: Unpacking exposure to maltreatment versus family dysfunction." American Journal of Orthopsychiatry 87.1 (2017): 3. Parriott, Andrea M., and Colette L. Auerswald. "Incidence and predictors of onset of injection drug use in a San Francisco cohort of homeless youth." Substance Use & Misuse 44.13 (2009): 1958-1970. Putnam‐Hornstein, Emily, et al. "A retrospective examination of child protection involvement among young adults accessing homelessness services." American journal of community psychology 60.1-2 (2017): 44-54. Zhou 8 Quimby, Ernika G., et al. "Psychiatric disorders and substance use in homeless youth: A preliminary comparison of San Francisco and Chicago." Behavioral Sciences 2.3 (2012): 186-194. Gao !1 Ashley Gao Julian Smith-Newman Writing 39C 6 November 2018 Gentrification and Displacement in New York: Past and Present Policies of Disinvestment and Disregard in Low-Income Neighborhoods I. Introduction The term ‘gentrification’ was first coined in 1964 to describe the population shift of working class individuals being invaded by the middle class in London at the time (Next City), forcing many less fortunate households to move involuntarily. Since then, this definition has changed to more accurately encompass large-scale involuntary relocation: “a process of neighborhood change” that includes the displacement of lower-income individuals due to rising housing costs brought on by “real estate investment and new higher-income residents moving in” (Zuk). In New York City in 1979, this forced an estimated 40,000 to 100,000 households to move annually as a result of involuntary displacement, which was roughly 8 to 21 percent of the city’s total moves (Zuk 36). More recently between 1990 and 2014, more than a quarter of New York City neighborhoods were considered ‘gentrifying,’ meaning they were low-income areas in 1990 that experienced rent growth above the city median for the next 20 years into 2014, when mean household rents increased by 34.3 percent, which was 12.2 percent more than the citywide rent increase (Freund). Especially in Bushwick, one of the most gentrified neighborhoods in New York, rent increased from $1,700 to $2,300 per month in 2014, a 17.6 percent increase from the previous year which was the largest average increase in Brooklyn (Valli 1198). In some areas of Gao !2 Brooklyn, median home value has even risen by as much as 314 percent from the previous year (Governing). As a result, many low-income residents have been unable Figure 1: New York’s increasing homeless population, with a peak of more than 60,000 as of January 2017. to find affordable housing amid these surging rents, thus contributing to the 4.1 percent increase in the homeless population of New York to more than 60,000 people in 2017 (Light), as shown in Figure 1, one of the largest increases of the homeless population in the nation in recent history. There are multiple past and present policies on the federal and local levels that have worked together to produce and catalyze this recent epidemic of displacement and gentrification in New York, but the most significant ones are historical redlining and planned shrinkage, as well as the present-day programs and policies of HOPE VI, the 421a tax exemption, and inclusionary zoning. The 1937 policy of redlining and planned shrinkage in the 1970s were both focused on leading investment away from certain neighborhoods which was often based on racist criteria and resulted in deepening segregation between areas. Especially for the poor African American population in these communities, it was difficult for them to obtain affordable loans and mortgages which in turn made it hard for them to afford their homes and affected subsequent Gao !3 generations, eventually leading to the current black population being disproportionately represented in New York’s homeless shelters, at 57 percent in 2015 (The Bowery Mission). These same disinvested neighborhoods of the past have left the areas ripe for investment and reform by investors and developers, turning them into the gentrified neighborhoods of today, especially in the areas of Brooklyn, ...
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