BUAD 326 The New Year's Eve Crisis Case Analysis Essay

timer Asked: Feb 5th, 2019
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Question Description



Read Case "The New Year's Eve Crisis" (class handout).

Review "Attachment E: Analyzing Ethics Case," which may be found in the syllabus and on Blackboard in the "Ethics Cases Materials" content area. Using the six questions, "Case Analysis Method for BUAD 326," prepare a three page analysis of "The New Year's Eve Crisis" case. Use subheads for each of the six questions. As you think about the case, make notes for yourself of any questions that you have about the case analysis method.

Using the case analysis method and the six questions, we will "walk through" the case in class. Be prepared to discuss your own analysis of the case. Also be prepared to share any questions that you have about analyzing cases. We will use this case analysis method throughout the semester, and understanding it is important to your success in the course.

Bring two copies of your answers to class on Monday, 02/08. One copy will be submitted to the professor, and you'll use the other copy as we discuss the case in class on 9/07 and in the following class.

Your case analysis essay that you submit will be graded on the basis of your having read and prepared essay answers about each step of the case analysis method. Your answers will not be graded on "right", "wrong" or "maybe right/wrong" but will graded to verify that you have read the case, thought about your answers to each question in the Case Analysis Method, and have demonstrated your thought process by writing answers, in essay format, about each question. This is a practice case and the first time that we have reviewed the Case Analysis Method. I do not expect you to provide a thorough written analysis, as you will later in the semester, especially for questions 5 and 6. While a full case analysis will be eight to ten pages for teams, I expect your analysis about this case to be three pages. Use subheads for each of the six questions. You will most likely add a lot of detail to your essay answers as we discuss the case in class, and those addeddetails will be helpful to you later when you write your own analyses.

Submit an electronic copy of your paper notes via SafeAssign by 2:00 pm on the due date by clicking on the hyperlinked title above..

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Classification of Ethical Issues in Business Susan D. Baker and Debra R. Comer1 This list contains five broad categories for classifying ethical issues that may arise in business. Some examples of specific types of these issues are bullet-pointed in each category. Categories Human Resource Issues (responsibilities employers have to their employees) • hiring, compensation, performance appraisal, discipline, and termination procedures • training • company benefits • privacy (drug testing) • privacy (e-mail, voicemail, computer, hacking, whacking, phone eavesdropping) • diversity discrimination • sexual harassment • favoritism • bullying • occupational health and safety • work-life balance • company’s loyalty to employees Consumer Confidence Issues (responsibilities employers and employees have to their customers/clients) • customer confidentiality/privacy • product safety • truth in advertising (withholding information from customers, hiding/distorting/ falsifying information) • treatment of customers regarding pricing, billing, quality, etc. • selling customers products/services they don’t need • favoritism toward/discrimination against customers Use of Corporate Resources Issues (responsibilities employees have to their employers and fellow employees) • use of corporate reputation • use of corporate resources • compliance with oversight agencies (e.g., accrediting bodies or regulators) • reports and reporting practices • providing honest information • employee theft (ideas, supplies, time, expense account padding) • fraud • employee integrity (honesty, taking credit for someone else’s ideas/work, stealing someone else’s ideas/work, not taking responsibility for one’s mistakes, asking for special treatment that co-workers don't receive, doing one's share of work) • employee loyalty to company Conflict of Interest Issues (responsibilities employees have to their employers and stakeholders) • overt bribes • subtle bribes (gifts, entertainment) • use of personal influence (to benefit family and/or friends) • use of privileged information/insider trading • company-vendor relations Corporate Social Responsibility Issues (responsibilities organizations have to their stakeholders) • public health and safety • environmental (e.g., conservation of natural resources, environmental pollution, environmental sustainability) • corporate philanthropy by company (includes community service) Other Ethical Issues (Not Included in Above Categories or Applicable to More Than One Category) • whistleblowing • fiduciary responsibilities _____________________________________ 1 ©2014 Susan D. Baker and Debra R. Comer. Adapted from Baker, S. D., & Comer, D. R. (2012). 'Business ethics everywhere': An experiential exercise to develop students' ability to identify and respond to ethical issues in business Journal of Management Education, 36(1), 95 - 125. BUAD 326: Comparison of Moral Theories1 Moral Theory Underlying Principles Strengths Weaknesses Utilitarianism What people should aspire to do. Focuses on the outcome (the ends)  Makes decisions based on ethical consequences (H & DesJ)  Utilitarians tend to be pragmatic thinkers no act is ever absolutely right or absolutely wrong in all situations (H & DesJ)  Two conflicting view of util: "Administrative" (government makes rules for greater good of public) vs. "market" (in free and competitive consumer market, consumers will act in their self-interests, which promotes greatest good) (H & DesJ) ----------------------------------------- The utility or usefulness of an act is measured by its projected outcome: which act brings the greatest happiness, i.e. “The greatest good for the greatest number,” or the greatest net benefit for society (may also be considered in terms of “least harm, which also can be the greatest net benefit to society)  Acts themselves are neither moral nor immoral  Character or intent of individual doesn’t matter  Two kinds of utilitarianism: Act (measure the outcome of the act) and Rule (too hard to measure each act, so use this rule: the right act is the one based on the most important principle (Court system) 1. Contributes to economic free market (H & DesJ) (economy & economic institutions are utilitarian, acting to provide highest standard of living for greatest number, not to provide wealth for a privileged few (H & DesJ) 2. Contributes to policy-making (H & DesJ) 3. Makes us think about the consequences (H & DesJ) -----------------------------------4. Considering greatest good for greatest number can defeat prejudices and selfishness 5. A great number may benefit while harm is minimized 6. Cost-Benefit Analysis most often used by business: The utilitarian principle is effective in marketplace economy where buyers seek to maximize their pleasure (goods and services), which stimulates the economy 1. Counting, comparing, measuring, quantifying consequences of alternative actions is very difficult (H & DesJ); some things can be measured in monetary terms but other, less tangible thing are difficult to measure (e.g. employee morale, human life L&W) 2. It shifts our thinking from the earliest tradition of considering the "means" to considering the ends ((H & DesJ) 3. Difficult to know how everyone will be affected by our decisions (H & DesJ) 4. Does not exhaust the range of ethical concerns (H & DesJ) -------------------------------------------5. Some may be harmed 6. Util. fails because it is really two principles: greatest good and greatest numbers. At some point these two principles conflict. 7. Can’t balance benefits received by majority against harms imposed upon a minority (justice denied, fairness denied) Key word: The ends 1 Based on Hosmer, L (2003). The Ethics of Management (4th ed.). Boston: McGraw-Hill Irwin, pp. 92-101; Reese, W.L. (1999). Dictionary of Philosophy and Religion. Amerherst, NY: Humanity Books, pp. 799-800; Hartman & Desjardins (2011). Business Ethics (2nd ed.), Boston: McGraw-Hill Irwin, pp. 96-121; Lawrence & Weber (2017). Business and Society (15th ed.). Boston: McGraw-Hill, pp. 106-109. 1 Copyright 2017. Susan D. Baker. All rights reserved. Moral Theory Underlying Principles Strengths Weaknesses Rights (also called Deontology) What people should aspire to do. Focuses on the intent (the means)  Kant: essential fundamental principle that all should follow: respect the dignity of each human being (H & DesJ)  Humans said to have fundamental right of autonomy (self-rule) (H & DesJ)  Rules-based tradition: 1) legal rules, 2) organization rules, 3) role-based rules, and 4) professional rules (H & DesJ)  Gatekeeper function ensure integrity of economic, legal, and finance systems (H & DesJ)  The rules are part of a social contract within society (H & DesJ) ----------------------------------------------- Based on duties or obligations of an individual  Person must act in every situation in a way that he/she would want all other people to act in that situation  No situational ethics – laws are absolute  All laws must be obeyed in every situation! - even if someone is harmed  What makes an act right or wrong is how it aligns with a certain principle or rule  The moral worth of an action depends upon the intentions of person making the decision or acting the act – the means, not the ends  Shifts focus from what a person should do to what a person is (H & DesJ)  Seeks to understand how traits are formed and which traits help or hinder a meaningful, worthwhile, and satisfying human life (H & DesJ)  Ancient Greeks had 4 primary virtues: courage, moderation, wisdom, and justice 1. Recognizes duties and rights (H & DesJ) 2. Emphasizes human rights (H & DesJ) 3. Protects certain human interests -- individual rights trump the greatest good (H & DesJ) ------------------------------4. Provides rules 5. Treats all people equally 6. Respects human dignity and individual rights 1. a "wish list": too many rights to be claimed (H & DesJ) 2. What do you do when two rights conflict (H & DesJ) e.g., employee right to privacy vs. employer right to test for honesty? (L&W) 3. Who has the duty to provide the rights? (H & DesJ) -------------------------------------4. What if someone harmed? 5. What if two absolutes are in conflict (e.g. never lie; never harm another)? 6. No "in between" areas – everything is an absolute, either right or wrong 7. Rights can sometimes be confused with “wants” 1. Reminds us to consider character (H & DesJ) 2. Offers advice on how to live (H & DesJ) ---------------------------------3. Recognizes development of character over time 4. Encourages practice of good 1. Too complex and individualistic for business problems 2. Whose values are the “right” values to decide a complex problem? (L&W) 3. Assumes that the virtuous person will do the right thing to the right degree to the right person at the right time right, which is a difficult measurement for a business Key words: Rights and Duties; also "The Means" Virtue ethics What people should aspire to be. Key words: Pursuing a good life 2 Copyright 2017. Susan D. Baker. All rights reserved. Moral Theory Justice (Rawls) Key word: Fairness Underlying Principles Strengths Weaknesses (H & DesJ)  Early Christians had 3 primary virtues: faith, hope, and charity (H & DesJ) ----------------------------------------- Virtue ethics begins with “what characteristics make a good person?"  "The rational pursuit of excellence" (Aristotle)  Virtues are developed by exercising intellect (through teaching) and by practicing (through habit) – which involves the ability to reason  Virtuous person lives by the Golden Mean (Aristotle) in all situations: doing the right thing to the right degree to the right person at the right time  Devised by modern philosopher  Since none of the three classical theories can be used to judge ALL moral situations and circumstances, Rawls proposed judging all situations based on only one concept: Justice  Says that each person in society would prefer to receive a greater distribution of benefits than a lesser share  Rawls believes that Justice is the first value of social institutions (just as truth is first value of belief systems)  Social norms must be abolished or changed if they are found to be unjust -even if they are age-old or effective  Benefits are distributed equitably according to an accepted rule (L&W)  Fair distribution is not necessarily an equitable distribution virtues 5. Results in unselfish motives and fair treatment of all 4. Being 'virtuous" doesn't necessarily mean being concerned about others' rights or benefits as long as the virtuous person is good, honest, truthful…. 1. Everyone receives benefits to some extent 2. “The lesser” (poor, uneducated, needy) are not harmed 3. Promotes social cooperation. 4. This concept is closely linked to those of human dignity, the common good, and human rights. 1. Based on idea that social cooperation provides the basis for all economic and social benefits; individual effort is downplayed or disregarded (sometimes nothing happens if one person doesn’t step forward and take the responsibility to make it happen) 2. How to determine what is a “fair share: for someone 3. Benefits are distributed unequally 3 Copyright 2017. Susan D. Baker. All rights reserved. ...
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Good stuff. Would use again.

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