Comprehension Processes of Proficient Readers Discussion

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Discussion: Comprehension Processes of Proficient Readers:

For this discussion, begin by reviewing Developing Readers in the Academic subjects by Doug Buehl.
https://www.okhighered.org/otc/resources/buehl-developing-readers.pdf

Buehl presents seven modes of thinking used by proficient readers (page 2), as well as a taxonomy self-questioning chart (page 4). Develop a main response in which you address the following:

  • Identify and summarize a standard in your content area.
  • Relate the modes of thinking to texts in this area.
    • Which of these seven modes would be most helpful? Why?
    • How would this mode help students deconstruct content texts in order to meet the objectives of the standard you identified?

Please post a response and reply to the main responses of at least five (5) other students. They are in the attached document.

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Sandra W. Buehl's Reading Comprehension Processes Buehl proposes the concept that proficient readers engage in 7 types of reading comprehension strategies. I am in full agreement with him that these reading processes are critical for our students to develop while in school, in order for them to engage in higherlevel reading. As I evaluate these skills, I would rate making connections to prior knowledge as the most helpful. If students can tap into their prior knowledge, then almost all the other processes will follow. If you notice, most of the other processes include in their description “background knowledge”, such as making inferences and synthesizing. Even creating mental images, applying fix up strategies and generating questions will be based on some past instruction or skill that they will need to tap into to engage in the process. Therefore, one very important activity that we as educators must present is loads of background information so our students can successfully make connections to new material or difficult texts. In ELA students often have to respond to literature. CCSS ELA Literacy R.L. 9-10.11 states that high-school students must “interpret, analyze, and evaluate narratives, poetry, and drama... by making connections to: other texts, ideas, cultural perspectives, eras, personal events and situations”. As I consider the 9th grade reading list, which includes: Of Mice and Men, The Odyssey, Romero and Juliet, Out of the Dust and other poems and short stories; I know that I will have to provide background information on all these readings. Eras such as The Great Depression, The Dustbowl, Ancient Greece, and Elizabethan times will need to be discussed so that students can picture the setting and difficulties that might be encountered by the characters. Emotions that they feel in different situations has to be connected to what the emotions of the character may be, to fully understand the plot of a narrative and to infer or know why characters act in certain ways. By front loading the readings, students can delve deeper into the meaning of the story they are reading. Hopefully, the other content areas can also use some of these methods to allow students to connect prior knowledge when reading texts in their area. Chelsea S. Modes of Thinking CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.RL.5.1Quote accurately from a text when explaining what the text says explicitly and when drawing inferences from the text.Drawing inferences from text is an essential skill for overall comprehension in an ELA class. Drawing inferences allows students to makes connections between the author's message and real life connections. If students are not making drawing inferences while reading they will not be able to have a complete understanding of the text. I think that one thinking mode that will help students gain strong inference making skills is to generate questions. Buehl states "Comprehension is, to a significant degree, a process of inquiry. Proficient readers pose questions to themselves as they read. Asking questions is the art of carrying on an inner conversation with an author, as well as an internal dialogue within one’s self". Making inferences is the foundation of reading and comprehending and in order to be making appropriate connections, readers need to be asking themselves questions while they read. In doing so, they are further investing themselves for reading and givings themselves a purpose. Students will then see how the answers to their questions change their thinking and overall understanding of the text allowing them to make authentic inferences about the author's message. I would teach a lesson like this using guided release. I would have to model my thinking and self questioning for students first to show them how I am holding myself accountable for finding those answers. Then, I would be able to show them the connection between my questions and my inferences for the text. This is a complicated skill and will take some modeling for students to grasp. Jennifer S. Comprehension Processes of Proficient Readers CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.RL.9-10.2 Determine a theme or central idea of a text and analyze in detail its development over the course of the text, including how it emerges and is shaped and refined by specific details; provide an objective summary of the text. This standard is one that I feel is incredibly important in all content areas but particularly within English Language Arts. Teaching students the skill of being able to identify a theme or central idea within a work of literature, or any material they are assigned to read, will allow them to think critically and look for textual clues that will allow them to dissect words and sentences to find deeper meanings and intentional implications in an author’s work. It is also important to show students how to read and reflect objectively in order to be constructive and educated readers who are able to show understanding for material their have read regardless of their background or personal experiences. Synthesizing Proficient readers glean the essence of a text (determine importance) and organize these ideas into coherent summaries of meaning. Effective comprehension leads to new learning and the development of new schema (background knowledge). Proficient readers make evaluations, construct generalizations, and draw conclusions from a text. This mode seen in Buehl’s (2011) article is a mode that has roots in English Language Arts and would elevate students’ learning experience in ELA through the use of synthesizing. In ELA, close and careful reading it imperative to one’s understanding and success within literature and any reading material because the base of the content area is finding the importance and reason behind all and any text. When students are able to effectively comprehend what they are reading, they will be able to build upon their prior knowledge and continually grow both intellectually and emotionally. If students were to use synthesize in order to deconstruct texts and meet the objectives stated in the standard above, I believe they would be more successful and comprehend the intentions and meaning behind the texts in a more productive manner. Students would use synthesize in order to determine the importance of a text and organize the ideas in order to establish a theme or central idea expressed by the author. When they are able to determine the theme or central idea, they can then channel their comprehension into new knowledge which can then be applied to their prior knowledge to create complete understanding which will lead to students being able to create an objective summary of the text that shows their depth of knowledge and the unbiased conclusions they were able to draw from it. Lisa Q. 7 modes of thinking CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.RH.6-8.1 Cite specific textual evidence to support analysis of primary and secondary sources. In social studies, students need to decipher between first hand accounts and secondary transference of information proficiently in order to determine the authors purpose. The importance in determining the difference between these two perspectives allows historians to determine authors point of view. Students need to develop the ability to identify relevant text evidence from a text and connect it to the authors point of view and purpose in writing that informational piece. Students need to take that information and analyze it in order to differentiate key ideas and important information. The most relatable mode of thinking is Determining Importance Because it allows the student to pull apart the text in order to identify specific text evidence that determines the authors point of view (POV). Understanding key concepts, “amidst much background information allows proficient readers to strive to differentiate key ideas, themes, and information from details so they are not overwhelmed by facts” (Buehl 2011, p., 2). I would have the students create a T-chart in order to evaluate the differences between how historical information can be presented. Through analyzing text, the reader can create a deeper understanding of the authors POV and why it is relevant in determining the authors relation to a particular historical event. Analyzing both primary and secondary sources allows the reader to determine the difference between the emotions of actually being in a situation first hand and reporting a situation. The student will be able to deconstruct the text by determining what happened, what caused it to happen, what changed because of this interaction. The students can also create a connection to the past and apply it to their current situation. Buehl, D. (2009) Classroom strategies for Interactive Learning, 3rd Ed. Newark: DE: International Reading Association Brooke P. Comprehension Processes of Proficient Readers One of the NYS learning standards for UPK is listed as: Engagement 1. Actively and confidently engages in play as a means of exploration and learning, f) Demonstrates awareness of connections between prior and new knowledge. For students to meet this standard they need to be able to relate something they already know to something they are currently learning. This standard would match the mode of : Making connections to prior knowledge. In this grade students are not reading yet, so the teacher has to guide them through the process, usually the use of read aloud activities or other types of guided reading. When students are able to relay information that they already know to a new topic, they are better able to understand what they are learning. Connecting information to prior knowledge also helps students retain the new knowledge. I also teach ELL online and many of my regular students are from 5 to 10 years of age. Therefore, I would choose standard 1.(performance indicators for early childhood, students will listen, speak, read, and write in English for information and understanding. 5) Formulate, ask, and respond to questions to obtain and provide information and meaning. Students should be able to respond appropriately to questions asked, create their own questions about the topic and ask questions about what they do not understand. The mode I would choose for this standard is generating questions. The lessons are short, so questioning tactics are one of the best options. When students question what they are reading, it makes them think about the topic, with a better chance of understanding/remembering what they read. ...
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