The most essential function of literature is to well ( Put this after “reader.”)delivered the authors
idea to the reader. The different author have their own way to communicate with their audience,
the most important aspect is to choose the right genre. The rhetorical situation in every text is not
the same, which used to make sure the idea of the author successful received by the audience.
Genre basic means the type of the articles, the form of the text, the reason why that there is so
many genres exist is that each of the genres has their own function and different from each other.
So this makes that the audience became an important role when the author decided which genre
to use. Because the genre should be related to the audience and a proper genre will help the
audience to understand the author’s idea. And when we analyze an article the propose of the
author and the thesis of the article is the first thing we need to find out. The rhetorical situation,
genre and also the audience are related to each other and may affect each other. I choose three
articles which are “If I were a man” by Rebecca Solnit, “Two Kinds” by Amy Tan and “I Want a
Wife” (1971) by JUDY BRADY. All three articles have an argument and all of the authors are
writing the article to call for the attention to the topic. I will analyze each three of the article
through Exigence, Audience, and rhetorical appeals. And (combine these two sentences with
and) discuss the relationship between these three articles.
Feminism has always been a hot issue and the equality between man and women was the rights
feminist always fight for. The article “If I were a man” by Rebecca Solnit was a published as an
interview on a website (in a magazine) which defines that the genre of the article was a feminist
autobiography. In this essay, Rebecca (Use her last name, Solnit.) is trying to argue that it is not
bad being a woman and call on the action that women should be free and fair to men. Rebecca
skillfully uses her own experiment when she was young, clear arguments, clear view and stylish
language to make her essay convincing to her audience.
Exigence: Rebecca Solnit writes in her article about her childhood experience and describes the
social status of women at that time. She states that men and women are not equal and there is
obviously the difference. And the thingS women can do was very limited and she said: “I like a
lot of things about being a woman, but there are times and ways it’s a prison, and sometimes I
daydream about being out of that prison.” She also stated, “I know things are changing, and
younger women have different experiences, but women older than me have horrifying stories to
tell, and we are not out from under that shadow.” She gives her opinion that there still is a long
way to go.
Audience: Rebecca’s audiences are not only the women as her age or older than she is but also to
those women more younger today which live in a better environment than she does and men
today who haven’t noticed the issue about the equality of men and women. The audience is
expected to know a little bit about the life of that age. And also have at least higher education
level to care about the women rights. (Combine these two sentences.)
Ethos: She start establishes her credibility by describing the social environment when she was a
little kid “I am old enough that girls weren’t allowed to wear trousers to school until midway
through my elementary school education; that I remember a local newspaper columnist arguing
in a grumpy panic that if women wore trousers gender would vanish, which he saw as a
terrifying thing.” The description of her childhood give enough credit to the people of her age
and give other readers the background information about the topic she talks about. Not only the
description of the social environment of her age gives her the credibility but also her experience
of the unequality between women and men “What my mother expected from me was, as far as I
could tell, profoundly different from what she expected from her three sons. I used to joke that
they were supposed to fix her roof; I was supposed to fix her psyche.”
Logos: Solnit clearly lists every aspect in which women were not equal to men. She discusses
her statement on success, On intelligence, On having it all, On parenting, On power relations in
speech, On competence, On violence and harassment. She first using the self-experience to build
credibility and attracts the readers by her credibility. And by showing the aspects of women, one
by one; she involves her readers in her strong arguments.
The second wave of the American feminist movement began in the early 1960s and lasted until
the late 1970s. The feminist movement aims to allow women to have the same voting rights and
equal rights as male citizens. “I want a wife” by Juday Brady which was published in the 1971
article in the first issue of Women's Magazine by Judy Brady. The genre of the article is
humorous prose of feminist classics, portrayed as satirical prose. In this article, Brady's purpose
is to convince readers to look objectively at a man's views and expectations about what he thinks
his wife is and what she should be. Brady cleverly uses clear arguments, repeated keywords, and
fashionable language to make her article powerful and convincing.
Exigence: Judy Brady wrote the wife's request in her article. She emphasized that the role of the
wife as unfair compared to the husband's role, and there are significant differences and
inequalities between the husband and wife's roles. Because of the imbalance in family work and
the lack of attention of her wife's work, she boldly expressed her feelings. Brady cited some
examples of household chores to prove her point of view, which is usually done by the wife. "I
want a wife, she will make my house clean, make my clothes clean, iron, repair, change if
necessary, and she will make sure my personal belongings are in the right place so I can be in
need Find the things I need." After enumerating all these unpleasant tasks, she ended the article
with an emotional statement at the end of the article. "God, who doesn't want a wife?"
Audience: It is clear that Judy Brady is writing to married men and women. This can be inferred
because this article is about the expectation of a wife in marriage. But she not only writes for
married couples but also for men and women. In this article, it doesn't matter if a person is
married. I hope that the audience will have a little understanding of divorce and marriage. The
audience is also considered to have at least a high school level of reading ability, and has a basic
understanding of the words such as "persistence", "monogamy" and "cultivation". She tried to
show the public that these expectations and stereotypes about female roles should stop. This can
be traced back to her urgency, the unfairness of female roles. (I don’t think that this contains
only your words, Fu. Please paraphrase.)
Purpose: Why do people read her statement and take action? She tried to say with her own
argument, "All women stop! You don't have to do this." She wants women to stop being 'slaves'
right away. "She uses a lot "I want a wife..." to arouse the reader's emotions, which in turn may
encourage people to take action. The reason she wants people to read this book is that she wants
people to understand that women's The role is making their morale low. Brady classifies his wife
through his husband's eyes. Brady associates wit with irony, effective use of language and
rhetoric, and writes an influential article to show how men are. Treating their wives. This
sentence ultimately implies the selfishness and laziness of the husband and his desire of
“freedom.” This article is intended to allow the audience to think and reflect about this situation.
Ethos: Brady proved her credibility in the first few paragraphs of the argument. “I belong to that
classification of people known as wives. I am A Wife, not altogether incidentally, I am a
mother.” She as a wife not only makes her credible, but she also seems to have a lot of
knowledge, which let the audience know she really understands her subject. All knowledge about
the role of the wife is not from anywhere. She must have experienced it personally before she
knows the role of a woman. She cites a lot of "jobs" is the expectation of her wife, her language
sounds like a wife who is fed up and angry. In addition, her article was published in the Women's
Magazine, published in the spring of 1972, which also established credibility for her article. In
addition, she is an activist in the feminist movement.
Logos: Judy Brady's article has clear arguments. One of her arguments is that people expect
women to do too much. Instead of communicating this information directly, she cites this
information by listing the roles of women. Another argument pointed out in her article is the
inequality between men and women. In her article, she wrote that she is a man who wants to go
to school and get financial support. She needs a wife to meet her needs, such as taking care of the
house, children, bills, regular health checks for family members, and social life. She believes that
her husband has asked too much for his wife and pointed out that it should be avoided. Her
argument is very organized. Her credibility has attracted readers. By showing women's tasks one
by one, she engages readers in her powerful arguments. She uses simple words to express her
opinions very effectively.
Fu, this is completely borrowed. I could google this and find where you took this from. This is
what I found
“Two Kinds” is that there is always a need to balance between nature and
parenting. If a person is over-trained, their true self is in danger of being
weakened. In addition, if a person does not have guidelines or rules, then
there is no motivation for personal growth. As Tan Enmei has proved, if there
is no balance, then one's life path is either too narrow or there is no road at all.
Exigence: The information described in “Two Kinds” is that there is always a need to balance
between nature and parenting. If a person is over-trained, their true self is in danger of being
weakened. In addition, if a person does not have guidelines or rules, then there is no motivation
for personal growth. As Tan Enmei has proved, if there is no balance, then one's life path is
either too narrow or there is no road at all.
Logs: Threw a rhetorical effect, the reader (??) describes the mother's expectation that Ni Kan
will become a perfect Chinese child; the mother expresses her daughter's wishes and dreams
through her own actions. When the mother said "Who wants you to be a genius?", she showed
evidence of rhetorical effects through dialogue. "Only ask you to do your best." The mother
never said that Ni kan must be a perfect child to respect her family and make them proud, but the
reader understands her assumptions. She use irony to determine strict discipline and make fun of
Ni's ridiculous life expectations. When the mother punishes Ni Kan's shortcomings, she clearly
expressed disapproval. Ni Kan's hairstyle does not match her mother's preferences, Tan used
irony to alleviate her mother's severe opposition. Her mother criticized that she "looks like a
black Chinese," but Ni refused because she likes her hair.
Ethos: Amy Tan uses emotions to connect with readers. Ni Kan and her mother are fighting,
using every possible opportunity to destroy her wishes. Amy Tan got an emotional response
from the readers when they found heartbreak and struggle from the broken family. Everyone
remembers a fierce dispute with their parents. At some point in their lives, they have to face the
strong pressure of Ni Kan. Amy Tan uses human emotions to enhance the impact of her short
stories on readers.
The last two pages are not yours; you have plagiarized and that worries me. This means that you
were maybe in a hurry, don’t consider this important, or don’t know how to paraphrase. I expect
better from you.
Rebecca Solnit: if I were a man
Growing up, the author joked she was the perfect son: intelligent, ambitious, independent. How
different might her life have been?
Sat 26 Aug 2017 06.00 EDT Last modified on Mon 8 Jan 2018 11.34 EST
Rebecca Solnit: ‘There are times being a woman is a prison.’ Photograph: John Lee
When I was very young, some gay friends of mine threw a cross-dressing party. My boyfriend at
the time, with the help of his mother, did so well that a lot of straight men were unnerved; they
needed to know that the lust-inspiring, simpering siren in the tight slip was not compromising
their heterosexuality. I was not nearly so convincing as a Rod Stewart-ish man with charcoal five
o’clock shadow, and I was a little taken aback to realise that, to me, impersonating a man meant
manspreading on the sofa, belching and scratching personal parts, glowering and cursing. There
was a sense of not having to please anyone and not having to be likable that was fun, but it
wasn’t necessarily someone I wanted to be.
I am old enough that girls weren’t allowed to wear trousers to school until midway through my
elementary school education; that I remember a local newspaper columnist arguing in a grumpy
panic that if women wore trousers gender would vanish, which he saw as a terrifying thing. I
have worn jeans and shoes that are good for rough terrain for most of my life, along with lipstick
and long hair, and being a woman has let me walk this line between what used to be considered
masculine and feminine. But I have wondered from time to time what life would be like if I were
a man. By this I don’t mean to aspire to, or appropriate, or suffer from gender dysphoria and the
deeper issues around bodies, sexuality and sense of self that trans people contend with.
I like a lot of things about being a woman, but there are times and ways it’s a prison, and
sometimes I daydream about being out of that prison. I know that being a man can be a prison in
other ways. I know and love a lot of men, straight and gay, and I see burdens they’re saddled
with that I’m glad not to carry. There are all the things men are not supposed to do and say and
feel; the constant patrol on boys to prevent them from or punish them for doing anything
inconsistent with conventions of heterosexual masculinity, those boys for whom, in their
formative years, faggot and pussy – being not straight or not male – are still often the most
sneering of epithets.
Perhaps as a girl, I was liberated by expectations that I’d be some variation on a failure. I could
rebel by succeeding
Back in the 1970s, when some men were figuring out how their own liberation might parallel
women’s liberation, there was a demonstration at which guys held a banner that said, “Men are
more than just success objects.” Perhaps as a girl, I was liberated by expectations that I’d be
some variation on a failure. I could rebel by succeeding, while a lot of white middle-class men of
my era seemed to rebel by failing, because the expectations had been set so very high for them.
That had the upside of more support, sometimes, for their endeavours, but the downside of more
pressure and higher expectations. They were supposed to grow up to be president, or their
mother’s pride and joy, or their family’s sole support, or a hero every day – to somehow do
remarkable things; being ordinary, decent and hardworking was often regarded as not enough.
But success was available to them, and that was an advantage – and still is. We still have wild
disproportions on those fronts; the New York Times reported in 2015 that “Fewer large
companies are run by women than by men named John”. Among the top firms in the US, “for
each woman, there are four men named John, Robert, William or James”.
Back when my mother was alive and well, I used to joke that my problem was that I was a
perfect son. What my mother expected from me was, as far as I could tell, profoundly different
from what she expected from her three sons. I used to joke that they were supposed to fix her
roof; I was supposed to fix her psyche. She wanted something impossible from me, some
combination of best friend confidante, nurturer, and person she could dump on about anything at
any time – a person who would never disagree or depart. She lived about 20 miles north of San
Francisco, where I’ve lived since I was 18, and I was willing to show up regularly, including
holidays, Mother’s Day and her birthday, bring gifts, listen, be helpful in practical ways, while
carrying on with my own life (I’d left home and become financially independent at 17).
As it was, she resented the opportunities I had that she felt she had not, starting with college,
which she was not encouraged to go to, unlike her brother. This resentment is common, I think,
between her generation and mine, and in some ways she saw my career as disrupting my proper
role as her caregiver, or as a caregiver generally. I knew that the acceptable escape from being
devoted to her was to devote my life to some other people – to get a husband, to have kids –
rather than to be unavailable because I was working and living my own life. When I was young,
she would recite to me the couplet “A son is a son till he takes him a wife, a daughter is a
daughter all of her life.” In her expectations was an undertone of: I have sacrificed my life to
others; sacrifice yours to me.
I’m not a sacrifice, but my work was a source of conflict for others as well. I started college
early, graduated early, went onward to the Graduate School of Journalism at UC Berkeley, where
I took a degree just before I turned 23, worked for a magazine, left the magazine and
inadvertently found myself a freelance writer, which is largely how I’ve earned my living these
past three decades. I published a book at 30, and then another one – 20 to date.
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Photograph: John Lee for the Guardian
Early on in my friendship with an older feminist writer who has written many influential books,
we used to laugh about the guys we met who were upset that we had published so much. They
seemed to feel that they had to be more successful than whoever they were attracted to; that
somehow our creative work was an act of aggression or competition. I don’t think women
approach men the same way (though a novelist once told me his ex-wife made him feel like a
race horse she was betting on). We joked, “If I knew I was going to meet you I would have
burned the manuscripts.” Or as I’d laugh later, “Do you think this book makes my brain look
big?” Boys can be stigmatised as nerds and geeks, but they can’t really be too smart. Girls can,
and a lot of girls learn to hide their intelligence, or just abandon or devalue or doubt it. Having
strong opinions and clear ideas is incompatible with being flatteringly deferential.
What is confidence in a man is too often viewed as competitiveness in a woman; what is
leadership in a man is bossiness in a woman; even the word bossy, like slut or nag, is seldom
applied to men. A few decades ago, I knew a woman who was a world champion martial artist.
Her husband’s family was disconcerted by the fact that he could not beat her up. They did not
suppose he wanted to, but they presumed he was somehow emasculated by not being able to, by
the fact that she did not make him feel mighty in this abominable way. He himself, to his credit,
did not seem to give a damn.
As a girl, I would have liked to have my intelligence and intellectual labours regarded as an
unmitigated good and a source of pride, rather than something I had to handle delicately, lest I
upset or offend. Success can contain implicit failure for straight women, who are suppos ...
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