Intercultural communication blog entry

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Question Description

For this blog, share a description (in your words) on the ‘Model of Intercultural Competencies’ from the readings in the Neuliep text, Chapter 12.

A blog entry must be a paragraph in size, five (5) to six (6) sentences long.

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Seventh Edition Intercultural Communication 2 In loving memory of Becket, and dedicated to Macduff, Midas, and Ellie. 3 Sara Miller McCune founded SAGE Publishing in 1965 to support the dissemination of usable knowledge and educate a global community. SAGE publishes more than 1000 journals and over 800 new books each year, spanning a wide range of subject areas. Our growing selection of library products includes archives, data, case studies and video. SAGE remains majority owned by our founder and after her lifetime will become owned by a charitable trust that secures the company’s continued independence. Los Angeles | London | New Delhi | Singapore | Washington DC | Melbourne 4 Seventh Edition Intercultural Communication A Contextual Approach James W. Neuliep St. Norbert College Los Angeles London New Delhi Singapore Washington DC Melbourne 5 Copyright © 2018 by SAGE Publications, Inc. All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. FOR INFORMATION: SAGE Publications, Ltd. 2455 Teller Road Thousand Oaks, California 91320 E-mail: SAGE Publications Ltd. 1 Oliver’s Yard 55 City Road London, EC1Y 1SP United Kingdom SAGE Publications India Pvt. Ltd. B 1/I 1 Mohan Cooperative Industrial Area Mathura Road, New Delhi 110 044 India SAGE Publications Asia-Pacific Pte. Ltd. 3 Church Street #10–04 Samsung Hub 6 Singapore 049483 Acquisitions Editor: Karen Omer Development Editor: Anna Villarruel eLearning Editor: Chelsey Postal Editorial Assistant: Sarah Dillard Production Editor: Jane Haenel Copy Editor: Amy Harris Typesetter: Hurix Systems Pvt. Ltd. Proofreader: Talia Greenberg Indexer: Nancy Fulton Cover Designer: Candice Harman Marketing Manager: Amy Lammers Printed in the United States of America Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Names: Neuliep, James William, 1957– author. Title: Intercultural communication : a contextual approach / James W. Neuliep, St. Norbert College. Description: 7th Edition. | Thousand Oaks, CA : Sage, 2017. | Includes bibliographical references and index. Identifiers: LCCN 2016036981 | ISBN 9781506315133 (pbk. : alk. paper) Subjects: LCSH: Intercultural communication. | Culture. Classification: LCC HM1211 .N48 2017 | DDC 303.48/2—dc23 LC record available at This book is printed on acid-free paper. 17 18 19 20 21 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 7 Brief Contents Preface A Note on Culture and Language Chapter 1 • The Necessity of Intercultural Communication Chapter 2 • The Cultural Context Chapter 3 • The Microcultural Context Chapter 4 • The Environmental Context Chapter 5 • The Perceptual Context Chapter 6 • The Sociorelational Context Chapter 7 • The Verbal Code Chapter 8 • The Nonverbal Code Chapter 9 • Developing Intercultural Relationships Chapter 10 • Intercultural Conflict Chapter 11 • Intercultural Communication in Business, Health Care, and Educational Settings Chapter 12 • Acculturation, Culture Shock, and Intercultural Competence Glossary Notes Index 8 Detailed Contents Preface A Note on Culture and Language Chapter 1: The Necessity of Intercultural Communication The Need for Intercultural Communication Benefits of Intercultural Communication Healthy Communities Increased Commerce Reduced Conflict Personal Growth Through Tolerance Diversity in the United States Human Communication The Nature of Human Communication Human Communication Apprehension The Nature of Culture Accumulated Pattern of Values, Beliefs, and Behaviors An Identifiable Group of People With a Common History Verbal and Nonverbal Symbol Systems Microcultural Groups The Study of Intercultural Communication A Contextual Model of Intercultural Communication Intercultural Communication and Uncertainty Intercultural Communication Apprehension Fundamental Assumptions About Intercultural Communication The Ethics of Intercultural Communication The Five Approaches to Determining Which Behaviors Are Ethical The Utilitarian Approach The Rights Approach The Fairness or Social Justice Approach The Common Good Approach The Virtues Approach The Ethical Principles of Eastern Cultures Confucianism Hinduism The Goal: Intercultural Communication Competence 9 An Integrated Model and Measure of Intercultural Communication Competence Chapter Summary Discussion Questions Developing Intercultural Communication Competence Key Terms Chapter 2: The Cultural Context Individualism–Collectivism Individualism Collectivism Individualism Versus Collectivism? So Who’s an Individualist, and Who’s a Collectivist? Patterns of Individualism and Collectivism Across the United States Communication Consequences of Individualism– Collectivism Vertical and Horizontal Individualism and Collectivism The Pancultural Self High- and Low-Context Communication Characteristics of High- and Low-Context Cultures Communication Consequences of Low- and High-Context Cultural Orientations Value Orientations Schwartz Theory of Basic Values Kluckhohn and Strodtbeck’s Value Orientations The Self The Family Society Human Nature Nature The Supernatural Power Distance Measuring Power Distance Communication and Power Distance Uncertainty Avoidance A Theory of Uncertainty Orientation Chapter Summary Discussion Questions Ethical Considerations Within the Cultural Context Developing Intercultural Communication Competence 10 Key Terms Chapter 3: The Microcultural Context Microcultural Group Status Muted Microcultural Groups Microcultures in the United States Hispanics/Latinos So Who Is Hispanic/Latino? Cultural Values and Communication of Hispanics/Latinos Stereotypes of Hispanics/Latinos Black Americans Black American Communication Stereotypes of Black Americans Asian Americans Asian American Values Asian American Values and Communication Styles Stereotypes of Asian Americans: The Model Minority Normative Communication Styles of Black Americans, Asian Americans, and Hispanics/Latinos Native Americans/American Indians Communication Patterns of Native Americans/American Indians Stereotypes of Native Americans/American Indians Arab Americans Communication Patterns of Arab Americans Stereotypes of Arab Americans Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender, and Queer/Questioning Microcultural Groups Gayspeak: Communication of the LGBTQ Microculture Chapter Summary Discussion Questions Ethical Issues and Microcultures Developing Intercultural Communication Competence Key Terms Chapter 4: The Environmental Context Environments and Information Load Culture and the Natural Environment 11 Worldviews of the Natural Environment Natural Disasters as Cultural and Social Events The Built Environment Cross-Cultural Comparisons of Housing Japanese Housing American Navajo Housing Muslim Homes Privacy Perceptions of Privacy in the United States Cross-Cultural Variations on Privacy Online Privacy Across Cultures Monochronic Versus Polychronic Time Orientation Consequences of Monochronic and Polychronic Orientations Chapter Summary Discussion Questions Ethics and the Environmental Context Developing Intercultural Communication Competence Key Terms Chapter 5: The Perceptual Context Culture and Cognition The Geography of Thought A Model of Human Information Processing Stage #1: Input/Sensation Cross-Cultural Differences in Sensation and Perception Stage #2: Storage/Memory Stage #3: Recall/Retrieval Cross-Cultural Differences in Memory and Retrieval Categorization and Mental Economy Stereotyping Racial and Ethnic Stereotypes U.S. Stereotypes Media Influence on Stereotypes Stereotype Content Model Why Stereotype? Stereotypes and Expectations Ethnocentrism A Contemporary Conceptualization of Ethnocentrism Ethnocentrism, Intercultural Communication, and Interpersonal Perception 12 Ethnocentrism and Communication in the Workplace Ethnocentrism and Racism Chapter Summary Discussion Questions Ethics and the Perceptual Context Developing Intercultural Competence Key Terms Chapter 6: The Sociorelational Context Dimensions of Group Variability Membership and Nonmembership Groups In-Groups and Out-Groups Reference Groups Role Relationships Role Differentiation and Stratification Family Groups Hmong Korea Israel Mosuo Kenya Sex and Gender Groups Gender Stereotypes Sex and Gender Roles Across Cultures Japan India China Mexico Israel Saudi Arabia Chapter Summary Discussion Questions Ethics and the Sociorelational Context Developing Intercultural Communication Competence Key Terms Chapter 7: The Verbal Code The Relationship Between Language and Culture Sapir–Whorf Hypothesis The Structure of Human Language Sounds and Symbols Syntax and Universal Grammar Universals of Language 13 Generative Grammar The Gendering of Language: Are Languages Sexist? Elaborated and Restricted Codes Cross-Cultural Communication Styles Direct and Indirect Styles Elaborate, Exacting, and Succinct Styles Personal and Contextual Styles Instrumental and Affective Styles Gendered Language Style Across Cultures Language and Ethnic Identity Do You Speak “American”? Appalachian English Cajun English R-Less or R-Dropping Dialects California English Texas English The Midwest Accent? Chapter Summary Discussion Questions Ethics and the Verbal Code Developing Intercultural Communication Competence Key Terms Chapter 8: The Nonverbal Code Definitions of Nonverbal Communication The Relationship Between Verbal and Nonverbal Codes Formal Versus Informal Code Systems Channels of Nonverbal Communication Kinesics Emblems and Illustrators Affect Displays: Facial Expressions of Emotion Cross-Racial Recognition of Faces Regulators Oculesics Paralanguage Proxemics Haptics Olfactics Physical Appearance and Dress Chronemics Nonverbal Communication and Dimensions of Cultural Variability 14 Individualism–Collectivism Power Distance High and Low Context Nonverbal Expectancy Violations Theory Cultural Contexts and Nonverbal Expectancies Chapter Summary Discussion Questions Ethics and the Nonverbal Code Developing Intercultural Communication Competence Key Terms Chapter 9: Developing Intercultural Relationships Communication and Uncertainty Anxiety/Uncertainty Management Theory of Effective Communication Uncertainty Reduction and Intercultural Communication Apprehension Assessing Sociocommunicative Orientation/Style Empathy and Similarity in Relationship Development Empathy Similarity Perceptions of Relational Intimacy Across Cultures Eastern and Western Cultures and Relationships Interethnic and Interracial Relationships and Marriages Intercultural Relational Maintenance The Internet as Relational Maintenance Japan India Africa Mexico Mate Selection and Desirability Across Cultures Arranged Marriages Marital Dissolution and Divorce Across Cultures Chapter Summary Discussion Questions Ethics and Intercultural Relationships Developing Intercultural Communication Competence Key Terms Chapter 10: Intercultural Conflict Definition of Intercultural Conflict Kim’s Model of Intercultural Conflict A Culture-Based Social Ecological Conflict Model 15 Intercultural Dialogue, Conflict Resolution, and a Culture of Peace The Concept of Face, Facework, and Communication Conflict Styles Face Facework Conflict Communication Styles The Intercultural Conflict Style Inventory Individualistic and Collectivistic Approaches to Conflict Conflict Resolution in High- Versus Low-Context Cultures Resolving Cross-Cultural Conflict: A Contingency Model Chapter Summary Discussion Questions Ethics and Intercultural Conflict Developing Intercultural Communication Competence Key Terms Chapter 11: Intercultural Communication in Business, Health Care, and Educational Settings Intercultural Management Management Practices Across Cultures Japanese Management Practices German Management Practices Mexican Management Practices Chinese Management Practices Culture, Intercultural Communication, and Health Care Lay Theories of Illness Health Care and Resources Across Cultures Health Communication Provider–Patient Communication Intercultural Communication and Educational Settings Learning Styles Across Cultures Teacher Immediacy in the Classroom and Across Cultures Some Recommendations for the Intercultural Classroom Chapter Summary Discussion Questions Ethical Considerations Developing Intercultural Communication Competence Key Terms Chapter 12: Acculturation, Culture Shock, and Intercultural 16 Competence Acculturation Acculturative Stress A Model of Acculturation Modes of Acculturation Acculturation in the United States Culture Shock W-Curve Models of Reentry Culture Shock Strategies for Managing Culture Shock Indicators of Success in the Intercultural Context Intercultural Communication Competence A Model of Intercultural Competence The Knowledge Component The Affective Component The Psychomotor Component Situational Features Chapter Summary Discussion Questions Ethical Considerations: Some Final Thoughts on Developing Intercultural Competence Key Terms Glossary Notes Index 17 Preface Intercultural Communication: A Contextual Approach (Seventh Edition) is designed for undergraduate students taking their first course in intercultural communication. The purpose of the book is to introduce students to the fundamental topics, theories, concepts, and themes at the center of the study of intercultural communication. Organization The overall organizational scheme of the book is based on a contextual model of intercultural communication. The model is based on the idea that, whenever people from different cultures come together and exchange verbal and nonverbal messages, they do so within a variety of contexts, including a cultural, microcultural, environmental, sociorelational, and perceptual context. The model is conceptually and graphically consistent and is presented in Chapter 1. The organizational scheme of the Seventh Edition is consistent with the earlier editions, but many substantive revisions have been incorporated. The role of modern technology and its impact on intercultural communication has also been added to many chapters. Each chapter has been revised and updated to include the most recent research in the field. Features The Seventh Edition contains many returning features that have been updated to enhance and improve upon the existing content. Student Voices Across Cultures: A continuing and exciting feature of this edition is Student Voices Across Cultures. Each chapter includes at least one essay from a student applying a concept from that chapter to his or her personal experiences. Students from China, Saudi Arabia, the Faroe Islands, Mexico, Germany, Colombia, Sweden, and the United States have contributed to this feature. Many of the U.S. students discuss their study-abroad experiences; these essays provide the reader with real-life applications of theoretical 18 concepts. Self-Assessments: Most chapters contain a number of self-assessment instruments that measure concepts such as intercultural communication, apprehension, ethnocentrism, individualism-collectivism, conflict-style preferences, and intercultural competence. These are designed to help students learn about themselves as they learn about important concepts in intercultural communication. Intercultural Conversations: As in the earlier editions, most of the chapters in this newly revised edition of the book contain intercultural conversations. These hypothetical scripts illustrate how the various concepts discussed in the chapters manifest in human interactions. Ethics Questions: At the close of each chapter, students are asked to consider ethical issues related to the concepts discussed in the particular chapter. These questions encourage students to think about how they might respond and react ethically to intercultural situations. Developing Intercultural Communication Competence: Also new to this edition, at the close of each chapter is a feature titled Developing Intercultural Communication Competence, where students are challenged to adapt their way of thinking and their communication. The goal of this feature is tied to the goal of this book, which is to help students become competent intercultural communicators. Each chapter also includes a set of learning objectives, a chapter summary, discussion questions, key terms, and an extensive reference list. New to This Edition Each chapter has been thoroughly updated to include new developments in scholarship. Highlights to the revision include the following: 19 Chapter 1 alerts students to the importance and necessity of intercultural communication in the 21st century. An argument presented here is that modern technology has decentralized information. This means that billions of people across the planet now have access to information that was not available to them only a few years ago. Such information empowers them. In addition, the most current data from the U.S. Census Bureau are reviewed, which point to the growing diversity of the U.S. population. The chapter continues with extended discussions about the nature of human communication and culture. While reading Chapter 1, students can complete and score the Personal Report of Communication Apprehension, the Generalized Ethnocentrism Scale, and the Personal Report of Intercultural Communication Apprehension. The chapter continues with a delineation of five fundamental assumptions of intercultural communication. At the close of Chapter 1, and new to the chapter, is an introduction to intercultural communication competence. Here, students can complete the Intercultural Communication Competence Scale. The new Student Voices Across Cultures profile in this chapter presents a young woman’s experiences with cultural differences while studying abroad in Italy. In Chapter 2, culture is defined as an accumulated pattern of values, beliefs, and behaviors shared by an identifiable group of people with a common history and verbal and nonverbal code system. The outer circle of the contextual model of intercultural communication represents the cultural context. This is the largest circle because culture permeates every aspect of the communicative exchange, even the physical geography. All communicative exchanges between persons occur within some cultural context. The cultural context is the focus of Chapter 2. Well-recognized topics such as individualism–collectivism, high–low context, weak–strong uncertainty avoidance, value orientations, and small–large power distance are discussed. Self-report scales measuring each of these topics are included in the chapter, including a scale that measures vertical and horizontal individualism and collectivism. Although most textbooks present individualism and collectivism as opposite dimensions of cultural variability, they are not mutually exclusive; that is, they can coexist within a person of any culture. However, there is an argument that both individualistic and collectivistic ideals serve the self, or are pancultural. The discussion of the pancultural self has been updated and extended. Two Student Voices Across Cultures profiles are included in this chapter: one from a Chinese student who discusses collectivism in China, and the other from a Saudi Arabian student who explains power distance in his family. 20 The focus of Chapter 3 is the microcultural context. Within most cultures are groups of people that differ in some significant way from the general macroculture. These groups are sometimes called minorities, subcultures, or co-cultures. In this book, the term microculture is used to refer to those identifiable groups of people that share a set of values, beliefs, and behaviors and possess a common history and verbal and nonverbal symbol system that is similar to, but systematically varies from, the larger, often dominant c ...
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