Intensive and extensive reading approaches on reading comprehension

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Question Description

Topic area: Reading ESL strategies


Topic Title : The impact of intensive and extensive reading approaches on reading comprehension and Reading rate on the post graduate ESL students


Research questions :

1. what is the impact of intensive reading approach on ESL students on reading comprehension?

2. what is the impact of intensive reading approach on ESL students on reading rate?

3. what is the impact of extensive reading approach on ESL students on reading comprehension?

4. what is the impact of extensive reading approach on ESL students on reading rate?

5. To what extent students may benefit from intensive and extensive reading approach?


The writing should be British English..

References should be at least 15 and recent ..


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Intensive and extensive reading approaches on reading comprehension
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Intensive and extensive reading approaches on reading comprehension
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JOURNAL OF EDUCATIONAL AND INSTRUCTIONAL STUDIES IN THE WORLD November 2015, Volume: 5 Issue: 4 Article: 09 ISSN: 2146-7463 COMBINING EXTENSIVE AND INTENSIVE READING TO REINFORCE LANGUAGE LEARNING Cağrı Tuğrul Mart Ishik University Erbil- IRAQ tugrulbey@hotmail.com Abstract Reading large quantities of materials offers broad exposure to the target language hence extensive reading has been considered as an effective way to enhance language proficiency. However, extensive reading may fail to provide learners a perfect mastery of the target language as a conclusion without detailed analysis of language materials effective language learning does not take place. Thusly, the implementation of intensive reading leads to detailed and complete comprehension of language materials. From this point forth, the combination of extensive and intensive reading leads to substantial proficiency gains in language learning process; while extensive reading aims at fluency, intensive reading aims at accuracy. This study has found that the achievement of learners has increased when extensive and intensive reading is combined in the language classroom. Keywords: Extensive Reading, Intensive Reading, Combination, Achievement, Fluency and Accuracy. INTRODUCTION Learners gain skills and strategies through guided reading and/or free-reading or to put it in another way learners promote their language proficiency via reading for accuracy and reading for fluency, labels suggested by Brumfit (1977). Both extensive and intensive reading approaches are effective and have their own advantages in foreign language learning process for that reason a well-balanced reading program should include intensive reading and extensive reading concurrently. Nuttall (1996) reminds that “intensive and extensive readings are complementary and both are necessary” (p.23); in that learners transfer the skills and strategies they developed in intensive reading to extensive reading. This article investigates the influence of combining extensive and intensive reading to reinforce language learning. Literature Review Extensive reading, first introduced by Harold Palmer and Michael West after a pilot study in India (Loh, 2009), is defined as reading large quantities of easy language materials for comprehension without performing any tasks after reading. Extensive reading which is considered as an effective way to enhance language proficiency (Maley, 2005), focuses on meaning rather than the language, therefore reading is done for general understanding (Carrell & Carson, 1997). Extensive reading enables learners to develop into independent and confident readers (Day & Bamford, 1998). Learners stand a better chance of promoting their reading fluency and speed (Walker, 1997), which leads them to become better readers (Camiciottoli, 2001). Extensive reading helps learners to improve a good writing style (Tsang, 1996), acquire sufficient knowledge of word and structure (Day & Swan, 1998), and grow into good spellers (Krashen, 1993). Intensive reading on the other hand focuses on accuracy rather than fluency by emphasizing detailed study of vocabulary and grammar. The implementation of guided reading in the language classroom helps students improve achievement. Detailed analysis of the reading materials by intensive reading allows learners to master the language effectively. It has been argued that through extensive reading only, learners do not acquire sufficient proficiency (Paran, 2003), in other words a perfect mastery of the target language cannot be achieved without detailed 85 COPYRIGHT © JOURNAL OF EDUCATIONAL AND INSTRUCTIONAL STUDIES IN THE WORLD JOURNAL OF EDUCATIONAL AND INSTRUCTIONAL STUDIES IN THE WORLD November 2015, Volume: 5 Issue: 4 Article: 09 ISSN: 2146-7463 comprehension. When extensive reading and intensive reading is combined explicit and implicit learning will occur simultaneously. Explicit learning, intensive reading leads to, enables learners to understand the texts, become aware of text organization, use effective reading strategies and develop skills to use the target language efficiently (Paran, 2003). METHODOLOGY Design of the Study This study uses both qualitative and quantitative methods at the same time. Qualitative method in the study seeks to understand learners’ development in the classroom without using any statistical methods and tries to draw meaningful results from examination scores of learners. Quantitative method in this study enables to report data results in numerical terms. The numerical data were collected from tests learners had in the reading program. Sample Selection The participants in this study are students of Ishik University Preparatory school situated in Iraq, and all undergraduate courses are taught in English language at Ishik University. Learners in all groups were chosen randomly for this study; no criteria were used in forming the groups. Yet, it was assured that all learners had the same level of language proficiency to reach at credible results hence participants were selected from elementary level learners. Data Collection Learners had a pre-test before the reading program started and the results of the pre-test were compared with reading test scores of learners to see their improvement in language learning. The number of books learners read in extensive reading group, intensive reading group and combined reading group was respectively 10, 4 and 6 and it was a four-week program. 50 graded readers were provided for learners in the extensive group and they were free to select and read whatever book they chose among them. The researcher prepared 15 questions from each book and depending on the graded readers learners in the extensive group read he created test questions including grammar, vocabulary and reading comprehension so learners in the extensive group had different questions in the test as they read different graded readers yet a great deal of attention was given to ask questions at the same level of difficulty (questions in graded readers were used). Moreover, 10 questions including grammar, vocabulary and reading comprehension, which were not included in the graded readers they read, were prepared to measure their improvement thus the test had 100 questions. The researcher chose four graded readers for intensive reading group and he attended to issues of grammar and vocabulary that arose from these reading materials. In some cases the researcher asked learners to translate sentences to ensure comprehension. Though both bottom-up and top-down processing were performed interactively while reading the graded readers, the researcher decided which parts of the graded readers should receive close scrutiny on account of limited time. The researcher prepared 20 questions from each graded reader learners in the intensive group read including grammar, vocabulary and reading comprehension and also 20 questions which were not included in the four graded readers were prepared as in extensive group to measure their improvement thus intensive group had 100 questions in the reading test as well. For the third group the researcher chose 6 graded readers and combined extensive and intensive reading. The learners in the combined group read the graded readers outside the classroom and the researcher attended to issues of grammar and vocabulary that arose from these graded readers in the classroom as in intensive group. Also in some cases the researcher asked learners to translate some sentences in the graded readers learners read to ensure comprehension. The researcher tried to perform both bottom-up and top-down processing interactively while reading, but he decided which parts of the graded readers should receive close scrutiny and created a learning environment in which learners had a chance to study the graded readers through discussing. The researcher prepared 15 questions from each graded reader including grammar, vocabulary and reading comprehension and 10 questions which were not included in the graded readers they read were prepared again as in the other groups to measure their improvement thus integrated group had 100 questions in the reading test as well. 86 COPYRIGHT © JOURNAL OF EDUCATIONAL AND INSTRUCTIONAL STUDIES IN THE WORLD JOURNAL OF EDUCATIONAL AND INSTRUCTIONAL STUDIES IN THE WORLD November 2015, Volume: 5 Issue: 4 Article: 09 ISSN: 2146-7463 FINDINGS Table 1: The scores of the Pre-test Examination No Name of the Pre-test Scores of Student Extensive Readingoriented Group Pre-test Scores of Intensive Readingoriented Group Pre-test Scores of Combined Readingoriented Group 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 Student A Student B Student C Student D Student E Student F Student G Student H Student I Student J Student K Student L Student M Student N Student O Student P Student Q 64 62 62 62 60 60 60 60 58 58 56 56 56 54 52 52 50 64 64 62 62 62 62 60 60 58 56 56 54 54 52 52 52 52 62 62 60 60 60 60 60 58 58 58 58 56 54 54 52 52 48 18 19 20 Average Student R Student S Student T 48 48 46 56.2 50 50 48 56.5 50 48 46 55.8 Table 1 shows pre-test scores all earners had. It is seen that the averages of all groups are close to each other. The average of extensive-reading oriented group is 56.2; the average of intensive-reading oriented group is 56.5; and finally the average of combined-reading oriented group is 55.8. Table 2: The results of the reading tests No Name of the Student Extensive Readingoriented Test Scores Intensive Readingoriented Test Scores Integrated reading-oriented Test Scores 1 Student A 72 70 76 2 Student B 72 69 75 3 Student C 71 68 74 4 Student D 70 66 73 5 Student E 70 65 72 6 Student F 69 64 72 7 Student G 66 64 70 8 Student H 66 62 70 9 Student I 65 61 68 10 Student J 64 60 67 87 COPYRIGHT © JOURNAL OF EDUCATIONAL AND INSTRUCTIONAL STUDIES IN THE WORLD JOURNAL OF EDUCATIONAL AND INSTRUCTIONAL STUDIES IN THE WORLD November 2015, Volume: 5 Issue: 4 Article: 09 ISSN: 2146-7463 11 Student K 63 60 66 12 Student L 60 59 64 13 Student M 60 58 63 14 Student N 59 56 62 15 Student O 58 54 61 16 Student P 56 53 60 17 Student Q 55 52 60 18 Student R 51 52 59 19 Student S 50 51 56 20 Student T 50 48 56 62.3 59.6 66.2 Average When reading scores of all groups are compared with their pre-test scores, table 2 shows improvement in all groups, in particular in favor of combined group. It is clearly seen that a combination of extensive and intensive reading provided learners more benefits. Table 3: Paired Samples Statistics Mean Pair 1 Extensive_Reading_Oriented Pair 3 Std. Deviation Std. Error Mean 62.300 20 7.4063 1.6561 56.2000 20 5.34691 1.19561 59.600 20 6.5083 1.4553 Pre_Test_Intensive 56.5000 20 5.18601 1.15963 Combined_Reading_Oriented 66.2000 20 6.28783 1.40600 55.8000 20 4.97996 1.11355 Pre_Test_Extensive Pair 2 N Intensive_Reading_Oriented Pre_Test_Combined In the Paired Samples Statistics Box, the mean for the extensive reading oriented group is 62.3. The mean for the intensive reading oriented group is 59.6, and the mean for the combined reading oriented is 66.2. The standard deviation for the extensive reading oriented group is 7.40, for the intensive reading oriented group is 6.50, and for the combined reading oriented is 6.28. The number of participants in each condition (N) is 20. The means for the pre-test scores for each group is respectively 56.2, 56.5, and 55.8. Finally the standard deviation of pre-test scores for each group is respectively 5.34, 5.18, and 4.97. Table 4: Paired Samples Test Paired Differences Mean Pair 1 Extensive_Reading_ Oriented Pre_Test_Extensive 6.10000 Std. Deviation Std. Error Mean 2.38195 .53262 t df 95% Confidence Interval of the Difference Lower Upper 4.98521 7.21479 11.453 19 Sig. (2tailed) .000 88 COPYRIGHT © JOURNAL OF EDUCATIONAL AND INSTRUCTIONAL STUDIES IN THE WORLD JOURNAL OF EDUCATIONAL AND INSTRUCTIONAL STUDIES IN THE WORLD November 2015, Volume: 5 Issue: 4 Article: 09 ISSN: 2146-7463 Pair 2 Intensive_Reading_ Oriented Pre_Test_Intensive 3.10000 1.77408 .39670 2.26970 3.93030 7.815 19 .000 Pair 3 Integrated_Reading _Oriented 10.40000 Pre_Test_Integrate d 2.01050 .44956 9.45906 11.34094 23.134 19 .000 The Sig. (2-Tailed) value in our study is .000. This value is less than .05. We can conclude that there is a statistically significant difference between the mean of extensive, intensive and combined reading. Since Paired Samples Statistics box revealed that the mean of combined reading was greater than the mean of extensive and intensive reading we can conclude that participants in the combined reading group were able to learn significantly better than participants in the other groups. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS This study has revealed that combined reading is more useful for elementary level learners. Learners develop skills and strategies while doing intensive reading in the classroom and transfer them to extensive reading contexts (Anderson, 1999); therefore, a balanced approach of extensive and intensive reading will provide learners maximum benefit (Harmer, 2007), simply put their concurrent use reinforces language learning. Extensive reading results in L2 vocabulary acquisition (Dupuy & Krashen, 1993), improved reading comprehension (Bell, 2001), and develop better understanding of grammar (Rodrigo et al., 2004). Learners in the extensive group in this study made more progress than the intensive group. Although there are some benefits of intensive reading some negatives have also been pointed, for instance reading class turns into a grammar class. This study yielded that learners studied linguistic elements in details in intensive reading but they were unable to function them in context so their achievement is lower. However, a combination of extensive and intensive reading brought about desired outcomes, increased the efficiency of learning, fostered interest of the learners, and developed purposeful and positive attitudes towards language learning. Extensive reading allowed learners to become aware of how language items they studied in intensive reading function in sentences. th WJEIS’s Note: This article was presented at 4 World Conference on Educational and Instructional StudiesWCEIS, 05-07 November, 2015, Antalya-Turkey and was selected for publication for Volume 5 Number 4 of WJEIS 2015 by WJEIS Scientific Committee. REFERENCES Anderson, N. J. (1999). Exploring second language reading: Issues and strategies. Boston, MA: Heinle. Bell, T. (2001) Extensive Reading Speed and Comprehension. The Reading Matrix, 1(1). Retrieved from http://www.readingmatrix.com/articles/bell/index.html Brumfit, C. J. (1977). The teaching of advanced reading skills in foreign languages with particular reference to English as a foreign language. Language Teaching, 10(2), 73-84. Camiciottoli, B. C. (2001). Extensive reading in English: Habits and attitudes of a group of Italian EFL students. Journal of Research in Reading, 24(2), 135-153. university 89 COPYRIGHT © JOURNAL OF EDUCATIONAL AND INSTRUCTIONAL STUDIES IN THE WORLD JOURNAL OF EDUCATIONAL AND INSTRUCTIONAL STUDIES IN THE WORLD November 2015, Volume: 5 Issue: 4 Article: 09 ISSN: 2146-7463 Carrell, P.L., & J.G. Carson. (1997). Extensive and Intensive Reading in an EAP Setting, English for Specific Purposes, 16, 47-60. Day, R. R., & Bamford, J. (1998). Extensive reading in the second language classroom. Cambridge: University Press. Cambridge Day, R. R., & Swan, J. (1998). Incidental learning of foreign language spelling through targeted reading. TESL Reporter, 31(1), 1-9. Dupuy, B., & Krashen, S. (1993). Incidental Vocabulary Acquisition in French as a Foreign Language. Applied Language Learning, 4, 55-64. Harmer, J. (2007). The Practice of English Language Teaching, Fourth Edition. Pearson-Longman. Krashen, S. (1993). The Power of Reading: Insights from the Research. Libraries Unlimited, Englewood, CO. Loh, J.K. (2009). Teacher Modeling: Its impact on an extensive reading program. Reading in a Foreign Language, 21(2), 93-118. Maley, A. (2005). Review of Extensive Reading Activities for the Second Language Classroom. ELT Journal 59(4), 354–5. Nuttal, C. (1996). Teaching reading skills in foreign language. UK: Macmillan Publishers Limited. Paran, A. (2003). Intensive Reading. English Teaching Professional, 28, 40-48. Rodrigo, V., Krashen, S., & Gribbons, B. (2004). The effectiveness of two comprehensible-input approaches to foreign language instruction at the intermediate level. System, 32(1), 53-60. Tsang, W., (1996). Comparing the effects of reading and writing on writing performance. Applied Linguistics, 17 (2), 627-642. Walker, C. (1997). A self access extensive reading project using graded readers (with particular reference to students of English for academic purposes). Reading in a Foreign Language, 11(1), 121-149. 90 COPYRIGHT © JOURNAL OF EDUCATIONAL AND INSTRUCTIONAL STUDIES IN THE WORLD International Journal of English Linguistics; Vol. 8, No. 4; 2018 ISSN 1923-869X E-ISSN 1923-8703 Published by Canadian Center of Science and Education Improvement of Reading Skills in the Second Foreign Language Courses by the “Anti-Method” Way Bünyamin Celik1 1 Department of Languages, Ishik University, Erbil, Iraq Correspondence: Bünyamin Celik, Department of Languages, Ishik University, Erbil, Iraq. E-mail: bunyamin.celik@ishik.edu.iq Received: January 11, 2018 doi:10.5539/ijel.v8n4p237 Accepted: February 8, 2018 Online Published: April 24, 2018 URL: https://doi.org/10.5539/ijel.v8n4p237 Abstract The four basic skills in the foreign language education can only be achieved with the good reading skills and habits. Due to the fact that reading skills is usually perceived as a self-sustaining skill, the improvement of reading skill is carried out by the traditional reading activities. Traditional reading activities are carried out with the teacher-centered understanding. Nowadays, reading in the foreign language would have a different precaution because of the increasing need of foreign language in different professions. In this study, in order to bring innovation to the teacher-centered reading activities, the “Anti-Method” alternative way is introduced in detail to the students who are learning a foreign language. This method is used in the Education Faculty of Iraq Ishik University in an elective course for third grade students who participate in the Turkish Language. After application, this method is evaluated on the basis of feedbacks from students. Keywords: reading, reading skills, foreign language, anti-method, improvement of foreign language teaching 1. Introduction Every second in our growing and developing world, the need of learning a foreign language is increasing. Reading skills is the most important skill in the four skills of the foreign language techniques and practices. “Reading is an important gateway to personal development, and to social, economic and civic life” (Holden, 2004). The use of text in the foreign language education is meant to present a “cultural” linguistic activity to the students (Buttaroni, 1997, p. 227). In addition, new vocabularies, idioms and cultural expressions in the reading activities provide fluency in speaking foreign language (Rowe & Goldin-Meadow, 2009). In addition, gestures, dialects, intonations, semiotics, and norms specific to children’s cultural experiences, especially English language learners, can positively affect student learning (Diaz-Rico, 2013, p. 172). “The three stages of the reading process are into, though, and beyond, or pre-reading, during-reading, and post-reading”. 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Running head: Reading ESL strategies.

The impact of intensive and extensive reading approaches on reading comprehension and
reading rate on the post graduate ESL students.
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Running head: Reading ESL strategies.
Introduction.
Area and Topic.
There are several synthesis and empirical studies that have concluded that extensive
reading has positive impacts with regards to language learning in foreign- and second-language.
Based on most of the research, the practice of reading large quantities of materials offers
exposure to the target language, this has made extensive reading to be recommended as an
effective way to enhance second language learning. However, limited considerations have been
made with regards to this conclusion considering that many of the studies contained
curriculum/methodological limitations raising concerns about the asserted positive impacts
extensive regarding approach. This means that there are chances that extensive reading may not
provide the learner with perfect mastery of the target language without detailed analysis of
effective language learning materials for the postgraduate ESL students.
The implementation of intensive reading will enhance complete and detailed language
analysis and a complete understanding of language materials. Enhancement of reading rate and
comprehension shall demand the combination of both extensive and intensive of materials for the
ESL students. Its combination will lead to substantial proficiency gains in language learning
processes with regards to extensive reading while intensive reading shall enhance reading
accuracy and speed. This research found out that the combination of these two approaches will
increase learner’s achievement with regards to comprehension and reading rate.
Keywords: Intensive reading, accuracy, extensive reading, combination, reading, foreign
language.

Running head: Reading ESL strategies.
The Purpose of the Research.
Learners improve their language proficiency via reading for fluency and reading accuracy
since their learning is guided through reading. Both approaches to teaching are necessary to
ensure that learning is effective with regards to foreign language learning. The developing world
has raised the need for learning a foreign language. With regards to best techniques and practices
for foreign language learning, reading skills are the most important skill. “Reading is an
important gateway to personal development, and to social, economic and civic life” (Holden,
2004). Reading activities enhances fluency while speaking a foreign language.
Intensive reading involves specifications of learning tasks and aims while being attentive
to details when reading. Extensive reading is a situation where ESL learners read texts for
entertainment/enjoyment and to enhance their general reading skills ((Wynne, 2010).).
Establishing the best method that is suitable for comprehension reading for postgraduate ESL
students is a challenge (Joseph, 2016). Considering that both approaches have a unique way in
which it approaches learning, each approach has its own objectives. Through extensive reading,
an ESL student will be able to gain reading and writing competence, vocabulary growth,
increased motivation, and oral skills (Adesope, 2011).
Reading is important for ESL students, through it they shall improve their grammar, idea
expression, and word usage, and acquisition of new information (Suk, 2016). Additionally, it will
also enhance the students’ communication through writing. The reading approach determines
how best a learner will comprehend what he/she is reading. This article is going to access both
approaches to learning with respect to post-graduate ESL students’ requirements.

Running head: Reading ESL strategies.

Literature Review.
Reading is the most important skill that is necessary for every individual to extend
learning. In the field of education, students are expected to master the skill in order to read
lengthy arguments. Inaccurate reading will limit the comprehension of the information being
passed while slow reading will reduce the amount of information that one can learn within a
given time period. This means that both approaches to reading play a critical role with respect to
learning.
Whether extensive reading can enhance students reading comprehension or not is still on
focus. Krashen, through the theory of the input hypothesis with regards to second language
acquisition states that increasing the quantity of reading inpu...

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