UNIT9 Kaplan University ABA Organizational Behavior Management

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Assignment 2

The following course outcomes are assessed with the Unit 9 Assignment:

  • PS430-3: Design a program based on research methods and principles of Applied Behavior Analysis.
  • GEL-1.2: Demonstrate college-level communication through the composition of original materials in Standard English.
  • GEL-2.1: Demonstrate college-level communication through the composition of original materials in Standard American English.
  • GEL-6.6: Apply research to behavior analysis.

The work you have done during your internship at ACME has been recognized and now there are many agencies in your area looking for a comprehensive plan using behavior analytic principles and research methods. This is your chance to apply what you have learned about Organizational Behavior Management(OBM) to create an effective-evidence based intervention for an organization.

The following organization has requested the creation of a behavior analytic program to assist with some concerns:

  • Stars ABA provides clinic-based, ABA interventions for children with autism. Stars uses discrete trial training to teach children skills and appropriate replacement behaviors. Stars also creates systematic behavior intervention plans to decrease interfering behaviors. The following are some of the issues Stars has encountered:
  • Staff are not delivering reinforcers on a frequent basis when children are engaging in appropriate behavior.
  • Staff are providing a lot of attention and reacting emotionally when children engage in inappropriate behavior.
  • Many Stars’ staff arrive late for their scheduled shifts.
  • Stars has experienced a high turnover rate. They have had 3 of 15 staff leave in the last 6 months.

Your task is to create a plan for a program to address the issues that Stars is having with staff. You should create a plan detailing a behavior analytic process and solution for Stars’ concerns. Include a brief explanation of the research strategies used to support your ideas. Your paper should contain all of the following and should be separated into sections covering each step:

  1. Problem Identification:
    1. Conduct a preliminary assessment with Stars ABA personnel to identify the problems within the organization.
    2. Describe the use of at least one tool you would use to gather specific information about the problems at Stars.
    3. Identify the type of data utilized during this step.
    4. Operationally define the problem(s) requiring intervention.
    5. Discuss potential contingencies that may impact the staff behavior at Stars ABA.
      • Include a discussion of reinforcement and punishment.
  2. Identify Program Question and Research Design
    1. Select 1 program question for your intervention.
    2. Select and describe the research design you will use to demonstrate the effectiveness of your program.
    3. Discuss the strength and weakness of your selected research design and why it is the best choice for your selected intervention.
  3. Select and Describe Your Intervention
    1. Choose one of the following interventions and describe how you would implement one of the following:
      • Competency Based Staff Training
      • Reinforcement Plan for Staff
    2. Your plan should be evidence-based and include a description of the following components:
      • Describe how the program will be implemented.
      • Discuss who will be responsible for implementing the program.
      • Identify the type of data that will be collected throughout the program.
        • Indicate specific behavior analytic measure, i.e., frequency, duration, percent correct, etc.
    3. Describe ongoing documentation and data collection that will take place during the intervention.
      • Indicate how the data will be collected and what kind(s) of data sheets will be used? Will the data be graphed?
    4. Create two SMART goals for the program.
  4. Program Evaluation
    1. Discuss how data will be evaluated, including:
      • Schedule of observation: how often will the behaviors be assessed?
      • What factors will be considered when evaluating the data?
        • How will the data be evaluated?
          • Visual Analysis
          • Calculations
    2. Discuss how you will use data to determine effectiveness of the intervention.
      • How will you conclude that your intervention is effective?
    3. Describe the steps to be taken based on the effectiveness of the intervention.
      • Include a discussion of the variables that could impact the success of the intervention.

Your Assignment should follow APA formatting and citation style and include:

Unformatted Attachment Preview

Running head: EVIDENCE BASED STAFF TRAINING 1 Evidence-Based Staff Training The evidence-based model suggested in here consists of both performance and competency strategies, which includes the activities for the trainer and the trainee until desired results are manifested. The model uses data to document that trainees acquire needed skills (Parsons, Rollyson & Reid, 2012). Training staff using this model involves six significant components: Description of the desirable skills, provision of a written description of the skill, demonstration of the target skill, practicing the skill, provision of feedback and repetition of steps 4 and 5 to achieve mastery. In describing the desired skill, the trainer justifies the skill and specifies the desired behavior to perform the skill. The trainer must define the target skill to complete this step. The next component is the provision of a written description of the target skill. The trainer provides each trainee with a written description of target behavior using a checklist. The trainer may submit a written summary of the expected behavior of staff in different situations. The third component is the demonstration of skill, which is completed using a process of role-playing. This process is especially useful with two trainers such that one trainer takes the role of staff and the other assumes the role of consumer (Redmon, Johnson & Mawhinney, 2001). It is helpful for the trainer to pause during role-playing and explain what is being done and why it must be achieved. Skills can also be demonstrated using video models and picture communication systems for influencing various skills. After demonstrated the skill, the trainee is expected to practice the desired skill. The trainer provides instructions where one can take the role of consumer and another demonstrates EVIDENCE BASED STAFF TRAINING 2 the target skill. This component is commonly omitted in typical BST models but can be handy in ensuring trainees acquire the target skill for effective performance. The fifth component involves the provision of feedback to the trainer during practice. The trainer observes the trainees and provides support and feedback (Morgan & Morgan, 2009). Supportive feedback includes the provision of instruction about how to perform target skill and to describe what the trainee performed. It is recommended to provide feedback after the completion of role-play instead to interrupting role-play. The last component of the evidence-based staff-training model is the repletion of components five and four until the trainees acquire the target skill. The purpose of this component is to ensure trainees have mastery of the desired skill. Staff training is considered complete when al trainees can perfume desires skills efficiently and proficiently. The proposed staff-training model is an improvement of common training efforts that only focus on oral presentation. The components described in the model are necessary for the sense that they provide an alternative option to the critical component of BST to staff training. Typical BST components include instructions, rehearsal, modeling and feedback, which have been noted for ineffectiveness. 3 EVIDENCE BASED STAFF TRAINING Reference Morgan, D. L., & Morgan, R. K. (2009). Interobserver agreement. In Single-case Research Methods for the Behavioral and Health Sciences. [62–67} Thousand Oaks, California: SAGE Publications, Inc. Parsons, M. B., Rollyson, J. H., & Reid, D. H. (2012). Evidence-based staff training: A guide for practitioners. Behavior analysis in practice, 5(2), 2-11. Redmon, W., Johnson, M., Mawhinney, T. (2001). Handbook of organizational performance behavior analysis and management. Routledge, 20130403. VitalBook file. Evidence-Based Staff Training: A Guide for Practitioners Marsha B. Parsons & Jeannia H. Rollyson J. Iverson Riddle Center, Morganton, North Carolina Dennis H. Reid Carolina Behavior Analysis and Support Center ABSTRACT Behavior analysts in human service agencies are commonly expected to train support staff as one of their job duties. Traditional staff training is usually didactic in nature and generally has not proven particularly effective. We describe an alternative, evidence-based approach for training performance skills to human service staff. The description includes a specific means of conducting a behavioral skills training session with a group of staff followed by on-the-job training requirements. A brief case demonstration then illustrates application of the training approach and its apparent effectiveness for training staff in two distinct skill sets: use of most-to-least prompting within teaching procedures and use of manual signs. Practical issues associated with applying evidence-based behavioral training are presented with a focus on providing training that is effective, efficient, and acceptable to staff trainees. Keywords: behavioral skills training, evidence-based practices, most-to-least prompting, staff training B ehavior analysts often share the job duty of training support staff in human service agencies to implement intervention plans for challenging behavior (Macurik, O’Kane, Malanga, & Reid, 2008) or teaching strategies (Catania, Almeida, Liu-Constant, & Reed, 2009; Rosales, Stone, & Rehfeldt, 2009) with consumers. In addition, staff are often trained in general principles and practices of behavior analysis (Lerman, Tetreault, Hovanetz, Strobel, & Garro, 2008). Disseminating information about effective practices among caregivers in this regard has become a professionally expected responsibility of behavior analysts (Lerman, 2009). The importance of training human service staff was recognized early in the history of behavior analysis as it became clear that making a large-scale impact on consumers required effective training of support staff (Frazier, 1972). Behavioral researchers then began investigating staff training procedures (see Miller & Lewin, 1980; Reid & Whitman, 1983, for reviews of the early research on staff training). Researchers have continued to 2 EVIDENCE-BASED STAFF TRAINING examine the effects of staff training strategies to allow for more effective and efficient use of behavioral procedures with individuals with disabilities. Despite this existing research, many staff in human service agencies often do not acquire the skills that the procedures are intended to train (Casey & McWilliam, 2011; Clark, Cushing, & Kennedy, 2004; Sturmey, 1998). Hence, if behavior analysts are to successfully fulfill their staff-training responsibilities, additional guidance on best-practice implementation of staff training strategies is warranted. The purpose of this paper is to describe an evidence-based protocol for training human service staff. Although this training technology has been discussed from several perspectives (e.g., Reid, O’Kane, & Macurik, 2011), the focus here is on describing the basic components of the training protocol for behavior analyst practitioners. Suggestions are also provided for effectively implementing the protocol based on our training experience. Following a summary of the evidence-based training protocol, a brief case demonstration is presented to illustrate its application. Practical issues often related to the overall success of staff training are then offered for consideration. Before describing the evidencebased training protocol, it should be noted that the focus of this training model is on training performance skills. Staff are trained to perform work duties that they previously could not perform prior to training. The model stands in contrast to approaches that focus primarily on enhancing knowledge or verbal skills, which would allow them to answer questions about the target skills. Though knowledge enhancement is clearly an important function of certain training endeavors, the goal of this protocol is improved performance (Parsons & Reid, 2012). The distinction between training performance versus verbal skills is important because of the different outcomes expected as a function of the training process and because different training procedures are required. Early behavioral research demonstrated that staff training programs relying on verbalskill strategies (e.g., lectures, presentation Behavior Analysis in Practice, 5(2), 2-11 of written and visual material) are effective for enhancing targeted knowledge, but often are ineffective for teaching trainees to perform newly targeted job skills (Gardner, 1972). Thus, programs that rely heavily on verbal-skill training approaches typically prove ineffective in creating a meaningful impact on the job performance of human service staff (Alavosius & SulzerAzaroff, 1990; Petscher & Bailey, 2006; Phillips, 1998). A Protocol for Evidence-Based Staff Training Evidence-based staff training consists of performance- and competency-based strategies (Reid et al., 2003). The phrase performance-based refers to what the trainer and trainees do (i.e., actively perform the specific responses being trained) during the training. The phrase competency-based refers to the practice of continuing training until trainees competently demonstrate the skills of concern (i.e., meet established mastery criteria). Specifically, the training is data-based; observational data are obtained to document that trainees demonstrate the target skills at established proficiency criteria. More recently, this approach to staff training (i.e., instructions, modeling, practice, and feedback until mastery is achieved) has been referred to as behavioral skills training or BST (Miles & Wilder, 2009; Nigro-Bruzzi & Sturmey, 2010; Sarokoff & Sturmey, 2004). The procedures and literature described here are generally consistent with the research and procedures described as BST, though the specific procedural steps may vary slightly. A basic protocol for conducting a BST session is presented in Table 1. The protocol consists of six steps, each of which is described in subsequent sections. This protocol is designed for training staff using a group format; however, the same basic steps can be used when training an individual staff member though some variations may be needed for individual implementation such as with behavioral coaching (Rodriguez, Loman, & Horner, 2009) and when all training occurs in-vivo or on the job (Miles & Wilder, 2009). Step 1: Describe the Target Skill The first training step involves the trainer providing a rationale for the importance of the skill being trained and a description of the behaviors required to perform the skill (Willner, Braukmann, Kirigin, Fixsen, Phillips, & Wolf, 1977). This step is generally referred to as instructions in the BST model. To adequately complete this step, trainers must behaviorally define the target skill using a tool such as a performance checklist of necessary staff actions (Lattimore, Stephens, Favell, & Risley, 1984). Step 2: Provide a Succinct Written Description of the Target Skill Following a vocal description of the target skill, trainers should provide each trainee with a written description of the target behaviors that constitute the skill. The performance checklist referred to in Step 1 often serves this function. The trainer may also need to provide a written summary of precisely what staff should do in different situations (Macurik et al., 2008), such as when being trained to implement a plan to Table 1. Behavioral Skills Training Protocol for Conducting a Training Session With a Group of Staff Training step Step 1 Step 2 Step 3 Step 4 Trainer action Describe the target skill Provide a succinct, written description of the skill Demonstrate the target skill Require trainee practice of the target skill Step 5 Provide feedback during practice Step 6 Repeat Steps 4 and 5 to mastery reduce challenging behavior. The description should be succinct and focus on exactly what needs to be done to perform the target skill. Many trainers fail to provide a succinct, written description of the target skill (Reid, Parsons, & Green, 2012, Chapter 4). Instead of providing staff trainees with a written summary, they are referred to a lengthier document (e.g., a formal behavior plan) available in a central location. Our experience suggests that a number of staff typically will not access the plan to review the information when needed. Documents such as plans for challenging behavior frequently contain much more information than what staff need to implement the plan (e.g., background consumer information, assessment processes used to develop the plan), though the information is important for other purposes. Step 3: Demonstrate the Target Skill Once trainees have heard and read a description of the actions to perform the target skill, the trainer should demonstrate how to perform the skill. This step, referred to as modeling in BST, can usually be readily accomplished by using a role-play process (Adams, Tallon, & Rimell, 1980), and particularly when two trainers are present. One trainer plays the role of a staff member and the other trainer plays the role of a consumer (if the target skill involves interacting with a consumer). It is critical that role-play demonstrations be well-scripted and rehearsed prior to the training session to ensure an accurate and fluent demonstration of all key components of the target skill. If a second trainer is not available, a trainee can assist in the demonstration. In the latter case, the trainer must provide detailed instructions to the trainee to ensure the trainee knows exactly what should be done during the demonstration. We have also found it helpful for trainer(s) to stop or “freeze” at certain points and describe what is being done and why to help EVIDENCE-BASED STAFF TRAINING 3 trainees attend to key actions being demonstrated. Alternatively, video models have been effectively incorporated into BST as the demonstration component for teaching staff various skills such as conducting discrete-trial instruction (Catania et al., 2009; Sarakoff & Sturmey, 2004) and use of picture communication systems (Rosales et al., 2009). Step 4: Require Trainee Practice of the Target Skill After demonstration of the target skill, trainees rehearse performing the skill in a role play similar to the trainer demonstration (Adams et al., 1980). Instructions are given to organize trainees such that one can play the role of the consumer (again, if relevant) and one can demonstrate the target skill while other trainees observe. All trainees must practice performing the target skill. The trainee practice step, referred to as rehearsal in BST, is frequently omitted during staff training (Reid et al., 2012, Chapter 4). In many staff training programs, only vocal and written descriptions of the target skill are provided, perhaps supplemented with a demonstration. This omission likely occurs because the practice component requires significant time investment for each trainee to practice the skill. However, practicing the skill is a critical feature for the success of BST and should be required of each trainee to produce effective performance (Nigro-Bruzzi & Sturmey, 2010; Rosales et al., 2009). Step 5: Provide Performance Feedback During Practice The fifth step of the training protocol is for trainers to provide feedback to the trainees as they practice performing the target skill. Trainers should circulate among the trainees to observe their performance and provide individualized supportive and corrective feedback (Parsons & Reid, 1995). Supportive feedback entails describing to the trainee exactly what s/he performed correctly and corrective feedback involves specifying what was not performed correctly. Corrective feedback also involves providing instruction about exactly how to perform any aspects of the target skill performed incorrectly in order to facilitate proficient future performance of the skill. Generally we recommend providing feedback following completion of a given role play in contrast to interrupting an ongoing role-play activity to provide feedback. Observing trainees and providing feedback to each trainee requires time and effort on the part of trainers. This is another reason that it is often beneficial to have two trainers present, and especially if the number of trainees exceeds four or five. Providing individualized feedback is as critical to the training process as the trainee practice component, and must involve each trainee. Step 6: Repeat Steps 4 and 5 to Mastery correctly (Miles & Wilder, 2009) or perhaps a lower percentage but with identification of certain critical steps that must be performed at 100% proficiency (Neef, Trachtenberg, Loeb, & Sterner, 1991). This final step represents the essence of the competency part of BST. A staff training session should not be considered complete until each trainee performs the target skill competently. On-The-Job Training The group training protocol is designed to train staff at one time in a situation that differs from the daily work situation. The format is commonly used in human service settings where behavior analysts practice. However, because the training involves a simulated situation (e.g., role plays, no consumers present), the overall training process is not complete. The session must be followed by on-the-job training. On-the-job, or in-vivo, training increases the likelihood that performance of the target skill acquired during the training session generalizes to the usual work situation (Clark et al., 2004; Smith, Parker, Taubman, & Lovaas, 1992). On-the-job training involves trainers observing each trainee applying the target skill in the regular work environment and providing supportive and corrective feedback as described in Step 5 of the training protocol. Observations and feedback should continue until each trainee performs the target skill proficiently during the typical work routine. The on-the-job component is another aspect of the training process that can involve a substantial time investment by trainers because they must go to each trainee’s worksite for observation and feedback. In this regard, we have found that the amount of time trainers will have to spend at trainee work sites will be minimized if each trainee has previously demonstrated competence during role plays in the training session; proficiency in demonstrating a target skill on the job often parallels the level of proficiency demonstrated during previous role plays. The on-the-job training component completes the training process. However, it should also be emphasized that although completion of training is often a necessary step to promote proficient staff performance on the job, it is rarely a sufficient step (Reid et al., 2012, Chapter 4). Newly acquired job skills must be addressed from a performance management perspective (Austin, 2000) to ensure they maintain, and particularly with continued presentation of feedback by supervisors and related personnel. Describing effective on-the-job performance management is beyond the scope of this paper; however, a number of resources describe evidence-based approaches to managing daily work performance of staff (e.g., Austin; Daniels, 1994; Reid et al., 2012). Case Demonstration of Evidence-Based Staff Training The final step in a BST session is to repeat Steps 4 and 5 To illustrate how BST can be applied to train staff in a until each trainee performs the target skill proficiently (Nigro- group format in a human service setting, the following case Bruzzi & Sturmey, 2010). Trainers should establish a mastery demonstration is presented. The demonstration involved traincriterion, such as trainees performing 100% of the target steps ing two sets of skills deemed important by the staff supervisor. 4 EVIDENCE-BASED STAFF TRAINING Method Setting and participants. The demonstration occurred during ongoing services at an education program for adults with severe disabilitie ...
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ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOR MANAGEMENT

Organizational Behavior Management
Institution Affiliation
Date

1

ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOR MANAGEMENT

2

Organizational Behavior Management (OBM) is described as a form of analysis of how
people behave in an organization. This is usually aimed at trying to come with some
improvement measures of the behaviors that people have in an organization. There are quite a
number of areas where OBM can be useful in an organization. For instance, it can be practical in
improving the performance of employees as well as in offering training to the employees. The
systems in an organization must be fully analyzed in order to effectively implement the
management of behavior in the organization.
Before employees start behaving in any particular way, the behavior is usually driven by a
particular force. Whether the behavior is positive or negative, there is usually a driving force
behind it. In order to effectively deal with the behavior, and eliminate the one that needs to be
eliminated, the problems that exist must be clearly identified and the possible solutions to the
problems established as well. OBM is very crucial in addressing and prioritizing the problems
that an organization is going through (Punnett, 2015). This is possible by first making clear all
situations in the organization that may seem to be unclear to anyone.
Additionally, it is also important to have people in an organization understand their behavior
and the effects that this behavior has in the organization. Performance must also be managed,
which is one of the greatest roles of OBM and is useful in addressing and prioritizing and
addressing problems that an organization has. Employees must also be trained on the
diversifications that exist in an organization. This is the most workable way of providing
solutions that are lasting to the organization (Luthans et al., 2015). Unearthing the root cause of
problems is the key to coming up with permanent solutions.
Problem Identification

ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOR MANAGEMENT

3

Stars ABA is a clinic that provides ABA interventions for kids suffering from autism. At
Stars, there is an emphasis on giving children the right skills in order for them to develop the
appropriate behaviors. Stars also work towards having a system of intervention plans in order to
help the children do away with their behavior that seem to be interfering. However, despite these
objectives that have been set in the organization, there are some hiccups that are experienced,
that hinder the effective achievement of the set objectives.
To start with, it has been noted that most of the members of the staff do not give reinforces to
children whenever they demonstrate positive behavior. This is one of the requirements that help
to promote such positive behaviors in ch...

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Anonymous
Tutor went the extra mile to help me with this essay. Citations were a bit shaky but I appreciated how well he handled APA styles and how ok he was to change them even though I didnt specify. Got a B+ which is believable and acceptable.

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