PS 365 unit 9 Behavior Modification Program: aggressive behavior

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Question Description

Read Chapter 26: “Contingency Contracting, Token Economy, and Group Contingencies” (Cooper, Heron, & Heward, pp. 550-573). Read in Chapter 1: “Introduction to Behavior Modification” (Miltenberger, pp. 11-14 on areas of application). Read Chapter 12: “Behavioral Skills Training Procedures” (Miltenberger, pp. 223-241). Review Chapter 20: “Self-Management” (Miltenberger, pp. 413-430). Review Chapter 22: “The Token Economy” (Miltenberger, pp. 447-466). Review Chapter 23: “Behavior Contracts” (Miltenberger, pp. 469-484).

View PowerPoint Presentations.

Review Web Resources to prepare for this week’s Assignment.

Your reading for this unit focuses on the use of behavioral techniques across multiple settings and populations. You will read about a new technique: Behavioral Skills Training (BST). BST can be used in many different settings and with many different populations. You will also review the behavioral techniques of self-management, token economies, and behavior contracts, all of which can be used in multiple settings and with many different populations.

Web Resources

Visit Organizational Behavior Management (OBM) Network and review the sections within the “What is OBM?” and “Publications” tabs will provide you with information on OBM and its applications.

Read the following article on behavior principles used in business:

Cambridge Center for Behavioral Studies. (2016). Performance management. Retrieved from http://www.behavior.org/resource.php?id=400

Resource:

Organizational Behavior Management Network (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.obmnetwork.com/


Applications of ABA across settings DP- 300 words, no title page, Reference class materials only 6 to 8 pages total.

Part 1: Describe how ABA techniques can be used within a business or organization. Using contingency contracting, a token economy, self-management, or a group contingency, describe how one of these might be used within a business or organization.

Part 2: Provide an example of an on-the-job training you received. Did it include the components of Behavioral Skills Training (BST)?

  • If not, explain how the training could have been improved by including the components of BST. If your training did include the components of BST, explain the training by describing how it fit the components of BST.
  • Why are rehearsal and feedback important components of the BST procedure?

Complete the Unit 9 Assignment: Behavior Modification Program

This week’s Assignment will help you demonstrate your mastery of the material covered this term. Your Assignment will consist of an analysis of questions related to two separate case studies. Each case presents a problem that you, the future ABA professional, will need to assess. You will design an effective behavior modification program as well as a plan to evaluate this program. Each case covers the theories, concepts, and research discussed this term.

Your answers to the questions should consist of information from the text and supplemental readings. Your primary sources should be the readings assigned for the course, but you also may use sources from the Library or other credible Internet sources.

Read each Case Study and answer the questions below. You will need to write 3-4 typed pages for each case in order to address all required parts of the Assignment. Answers to the questions should be typed in an APA formatted Word document, double-spaced in 12-point font and submitted to the Dropbox.

Your final paper must be your original work; plagiarism will not be tolerated. Be sure to review the Syllabus in terms of what constitutes plagiarism. Please make sure to provide proper credit for those sources used in your case study analysis in proper APA format. Please see the APA Quick Reference for any questions related to APA citations. You must credit authors when you:

  1. Summarize a concept, theory or research
  2. Use direct quotes from the text or articles

Read Case Study 1: William’s aggressive behavior

Ms. Tooley contacts you, a behavior analyst, to assist her with a child in her classroom named William. William is a healthy 6-year-old boy who has been terrorizing his classmates. The problem has been occurring since the beginning of the school year. William pushes, kicks, hits or bites other children in the class. This has often happened during recess time. Ms.Tooley first addressed the issue by scolding William. That did not appear to reduce the behavior, so she then required him to visit the principal's office whenever an episode of aggressive behavior occurred. These visits also had little effect in reducing the aggressive behaviors.

Write a 3-4 page paper addressing the following:

Part I

Define the target behavior in William’s case study by writing a 1–2 sentence target behavior definition using terms that can be observed and the appropriate behavior analytic language.

  • Discuss one reason why the teacher's original methods of behavior management may have failed.
  • Describe how you would first assess William. Provide rationale for your choice of assessment.
  • Identify a hypothetical function to William’s target behavior.

Part II

Design an effective behavior modification program.

  • Use a combination approach treatment package (two or more behavior techniques from the relevant literature).
  • One of your interventions should be designed to increase William’s appropriate behavior.
  • One of your interventions should be designed to decrease William’s inappropriate behavior.

Provide rationale for selecting the combination approach, drawing upon behavior theory. Your rationale should include a description of the function of William’s behavior and how your intervention choices address that function.

Part III

Explain how you would evaluate the modification program.

Include the following in your explanation:

  • The type of data you are collecting
  • How often you are collecting data
  • Who is going to collect that data
  • The research design you are using
  • An explanation of why that research design was the best choice

Describe how you will know if your treatment was effective. Make sure to explain each step.

Explain how to program for generalization and maintenance of William’s behavior.

Read Case Study 2: Annie’s change to Language Acquisition

Annie is a 4-year-old child diagnosed with autism. She uses very little language. She has a few words in her vocabulary and is capable of using language. She currently uses gestures and challenging behavior to get her wants and needs met. For example, if she wants a drink, she will lead her mother to the refrigerator and jump up and down and cry until her mother correctly guesses what she wants. You have been called in to use Skinner’s Verbal Behavior approach to develop a language acquisition program for Annie.

Write a 3-4 page paper addressing the following:

Design a language acquisition program for Annie. Include the following in the program you design:

  • at least two types of verbal behavior
  • a description of each verbal behavior and why you chose to teach that behavior
  • which verbal behavior you would teach first and why

Develop a set of procedures to follow to teach each type of verbal behavior. This should include the antecedent and consequent controlling variables for each type of verbal behavior.

Describe how you will collect data on Annie’s verbal behavior.

Explain how you will evaluate your language acquisition program to know if your program is effective.

Describe how you will use Behavioral Skills Training to teach Annie’s mother how to implement your language acquisition program.

Unformatted Attachment Preview

Chapter 12 Behavioral Skills Training (BST) Procedures © 2016 Cengage Learning: All Rights Reserved Behavioral Skills Training (BST) Procedures Used to teach new behaviors Used for behaviors that can be simulated in a role play Used with learners who can follow instructions and imitate models Used when more intrusive prompting and fading or chaining procedures are not necessary May be used individually or in groups © 2016 Cengage Learning: All Rights Reserved Self-assessment BST is used to teach new behaviors that can be simulated in a _______________. © 2016 Cengage Learning: All Rights Reserved Self-assessment BST is used to teach new behaviors that can be simulated in a role-play. © 2016 Cengage Learning: All Rights Reserved Self-assessment To use BST, the learner has to be able to follow _______________ and imitate ______________. © 2016 Cengage Learning: All Rights Reserved Self-assessment To use BST, the learner has to be able to follow instructions and imitate models. © 2016 Cengage Learning: All Rights Reserved Examples of the use of BST: Teaching parenting skills Teaching assertiveness Teaching abduction prevention skills Teaching social skills Teaching skills to prevent gun play © 2016 Cengage Learning: All Rights Reserved BST Components Instructions Modeling Rehearsal Feedback © 2016 Cengage Learning: All Rights Reserved Instructions Must be understood by the learner Given by a person with credibility Opportunity to rehearse the behavior Use instructions with modeling when necessary Give instructions when the learner is paying attention © 2016 Cengage Learning: All Rights Reserved Self-assessment Instructions must be given by a person with ______________. © 2016 Cengage Learning: All Rights Reserved Self-assessment Instructions must be given by a person with credibility. © 2016 Cengage Learning: All Rights Reserved Self-assessment Instructions must be given when the learner is paying _______________. © 2016 Cengage Learning: All Rights Reserved Self-assessment Instructions must be given when the learner is paying attention. © 2016 Cengage Learning: All Rights Reserved Modeling Model has high status or similarity Model’s behavior is reinforced Complexity of the model is appropriate for the learner The learner must pay attention to the model The model’s behavior occurs in the proper context (in a role-play or real life) Repeat as necessary Opportunity for immediate rehearsal Variety of exemplars Describe important aspects of the model’s behavior Have the learner describe important aspects of the model’s behavior © 2016 Cengage Learning: All Rights Reserved Self-assessment A model should be provided by someone with high _____________ or ______________ to the learner. © 2016 Cengage Learning: All Rights Reserved Self-assessment A model should be provided by someone with high status or similarity to the learner. © 2016 Cengage Learning: All Rights Reserved Self-assessment The model’s behavior should be ______________. © 2016 Cengage Learning: All Rights Reserved Self-assessment The model’s behavior should be reinforced. © 2016 Cengage Learning: All Rights Reserved Self-assessment After instructions and modeling, the learner must have the opportunity to _____________ the behavior. © 2016 Cengage Learning: All Rights Reserved Self-assessment After instructions and modeling, the learner must have the opportunity to rehearse the behavior. © 2016 Cengage Learning: All Rights Reserved Rehearsal Immediately after instructions and modeling Rehearsal in the proper context (SD ---> R ---> SR) Immediate praise or other reinforcers Corrective feedback if needed Repeat rehearsal of correct behavior Work from easy to hard behaviors or situations (program for success) © 2016 Cengage Learning: All Rights Reserved Self-assessment Rehearsal occurs immediately after ___________ and ___________. © 2016 Cengage Learning: All Rights Reserved Self-assessment Rehearsal occurs immediately after instructions and modeling. © 2016 Cengage Learning: All Rights Reserved Self-assessment Rehearsal should occur in the proper ______________. © 2016 Cengage Learning: All Rights Reserved Self-assessment Rehearsal should occur in the proper context. © 2016 Cengage Learning: All Rights Reserved Feedback Feedback has two components Praise for correct performance (positive feedback) Instructions for improvement (corrective feedback) if needed Praise correct behavior immediately Always praise some aspect of the performance Use descriptive praise Give instructions for improvement on one aspect of performance at a time Do not make corrective feedback negative (do not criticize) Mix praise and corrective feedback © 2016 Cengage Learning: All Rights Reserved Self-assessment When correct behavior occurs, provide ____________ immediately. © 2016 Cengage Learning: All Rights Reserved Self-assessment When correct behavior occurs, provide praise immediately. © 2016 Cengage Learning: All Rights Reserved Self-assessment Feedback involves _____________________________ and _____________________________. © 2016 Cengage Learning: All Rights Reserved Self-assessment Feedback involves praise for correct performance and instructions for improvement. © 2016 Cengage Learning: All Rights Reserved Promoting generalization Use realistic role plays that simulate the full range of situations Incorporate real life stimuli into training Practice skills outside of sessions in real life situations Arrange to reinforce skills outside of training sessions © 2016 Cengage Learning: All Rights Reserved In situ Training In situ assessment – What is it? – Why is it important? In situ training – What is it? – When is it necessary? – How does it promote generalization? © 2016 Cengage Learning: All Rights Reserved BST and the Three Term Contingency Antecedent ---------> Behavior ---------> Consequence Simulate criterion situation in role play (SD) Provide instructions and modeling ------> Rehearsal -----> Praise for correct performance Further instructions -----> Rehearsal --------> Praise © 2016 Cengage Learning: All Rights Reserved BST in Groups Opportunity for multiple models in multiple situations (multiple exemplars) Opportunity to observe others’ rehearsals Opportunity to observe feedback received by others Opportunity to evaluate others’ performance and provide feedback Less individual rehearsal and feedback © 2016 Cengage Learning: All Rights Reserved Using BST Procedures 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Identify and define the skills to teach Identify all the relevant SD’s Assess the learner’s skills to establish a baseline Begin training with the easiest skill or situation first Describe the behavior and model it in a realistic roleplay context 6. Allow the learner to rehearse the behavior in the roleplay context 7. Provide praise for correct performance and further instructions (feedback) for improvement 8. Repeat until the learner performs the behavior successfully without assistance 9. Advance to the next behavior or situation and repeat steps 5-8 10. Program for generalization © 2016 Cengage Learning: All Rights Reserved Chapter 1 Introduction to Behavior Modification © 2016 Cengage Learning: All Rights Reserved Behavior Modification • The applied science and professional practice concerned with analyzing and modifying human behavior • Synonymous with Applied Behavior Analysis © 2016 Cengage Learning: All Rights Reserved Characteristics of Behavior 1. Involves an individual’s actions not labels 2. Involves measurable dimensions - frequency - duration - intensity - latency 3. Can be observed, described, and recorded 4. Has an impact on the environment (physical or social) 5. Behavior is lawful 6. May be overt or covert © 2016 Cengage Learning: All Rights Reserved Characteristics of Behavior Modification 1. Focus on behavior - behavioral excesses or deficits 2. Guided by the theory and philosophy of behaviorism 3. Based on basic behavioral principles 4. Emphasis on current environmental events - antecedents and consequences 5. Procedures are clearly described 6. Measurement of behavior change - immediate and long term 7. No emphasis on the past 8. Rejection of underlying causes - explanatory fictions - similarities between the medical model and the behavioral model 9. Treatment implemented by people in everyday life © 2016 Cengage Learning: All Rights Reserved Common Misconceptions About Behavior Modification Relies on punishment Uses bribes Simplistic Ignores the real causes of behavior, just treats the symptoms Leads to people controlling each other Ruins intrinsic motivation Makes people dependent on external incentives Dehumanizes people It only works with kids and individuals with disabilities © 2016 Cengage Learning: All Rights Reserved Historical Roots of Behavior Modification 1911 Thorndike - Animal Intelligence (law of effect) 1924 Watson - Behaviorism 1927 Pavlov - Conditioned Reflexes 1930’s Skinner - Basic research on behavioral principles - 40’s 1938 Skinner - Behavior of Organisms 1950's Behavior modification with humans 1953 Skinner - Science and Human Behavior 1957 Skinner – Verbal Behavior 1958 Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior 1963 Behaviour Research and Therapy (journal) © 2016 Cengage Learning: All Rights Reserved Historical Roots of Behavior Modification, con’t 1966 1968 Assoc. for Advancement of Behavior Therapy Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis (Baer, Wolf, & Risley, 1968) 1970 1970 Behavior Therapy (journal) Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry 1977 Behavior Modification (journal) 1978 The Behavior Analyst (journal) 1978 Association for Behavior Analysis 1980- Continued research (basic and applied) 2000’s Functional approach Certification in behavior analysis © 2016 Cengage Learning: All Rights Reserved Evolution of Behavior Modification and Applied Behavior Analysis Basic demonstrations of environmental influences on behavior (with lab animals then people) Development of treatments primarily consisting of reinforcement and/or punishment Development of treatment packages Development and refinement of functional assessment/functional analysis Functional approach to assessment and intervention Wide range of applications and refinements © 2016 Cengage Learning: All Rights Reserved Areas of Application Developmental disabilities Mental illness Education and special education Rehabilitation Community psychology Clinical/counseling psychology Business, industry, and human services Self-management Child behavior management Prevention Sports performance Health-related behaviors Gerontology © 2016 Cengage Learning: All Rights Reserved Professional Practice, Certification, and Ethics Evolution of behavior modification into a profession The development of certification by the BACB Ethical guidelines to govern the practice and protect consumers © 2016 Cengage Learning: All Rights Reserved Chapter 22: Differential Reinforcement Cooper, Heron, and Heward Applied Behavior Analysis, Second Edition Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved Definition of Differential Reinforcement • Reinforcing one response class – When dealing with reducing problem behavior, this involves • Reinforcing a behavior other than problem behavior • Reinforcing a reduced rate of problem behavior • Withholding reinforcement for another Cooper, Heron, and Heward Applied Behavior Analysis, Second Edition Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved Diagram of Differential Reinforcement EO SD Response SR+ Deprived of one-on-one attention for a period of time “Play by your self while I wash the dishes” Child plays with toys Praise delivered Cooper, Heron, and Heward Applied Behavior Analysis, Second Edition Response SO Child tantrums Praise withheld Playing with toys occurs more often in the future when the individual has been deprived of attention for periods of time Tantrums occur less often in the future when the individual has been deprived of attention for periods of time Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved DRI • DRI: Differential Reinforcement of Incompatible Behavior – Reinforce a behavior that cannot occur with problem behavior – Withhold reinforcement for instances of problem behavior Cooper, Heron, and Heward Applied Behavior Analysis, Second Edition Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved DRA • DRA: Differential Reinforcement of Alternative Behavior – Reinforce occurrences of desirable alternative to problem behavior but that is not necessarily incompatible – Reinforcement is withheld for problem behavior Cooper, Heron, and Heward Applied Behavior Analysis, Second Edition Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved A note on terminology… • Sometimes when reinforcer is a negative reinforcer: – DNRI • Differential negative reinforcement of incompatible behavior – DNRA • Differential negative reinforcement of alternative behavior Cooper, Heron, and Heward Applied Behavior Analysis, Second Edition Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved Guidelines for Implementing DRI/DRA • Select incompatible/alternative behavior – Already exists in repertoire – Requires equal or less effort than problem behavior – Emitted at a rate that provides sufficient opportunities for reinforcement – Likely to be reinforced in natural environment Cooper, Heron, and Heward Applied Behavior Analysis, Second Edition Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved Guidelines for Implementing DRI/DRA • Select potent reinforcers that can be controlled – Identify via stimulus preference assessment – Identify via functional behavior assessment • Use same consequence as is maintaining problem behavior for appropriate/incompatible behavior Cooper, Heron, and Heward Applied Behavior Analysis, Second Edition Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved Guidelines for Implementing DRI/DRA • Reinforce incompatible/alternative behavior immediately and consistently • Withhold reinforcement for problem behavior – Some “mistakes” may be tolerable • Combine with other procedures Cooper, Heron, and Heward Applied Behavior Analysis, Second Edition Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved DRO • Differential Reinforcement of Other Behavior – Deliver reinforcer whenever the problem behavior has not occurred for a specific time – “Reinforcement for not responding” Cooper, Heron, and Heward Applied Behavior Analysis, Second Edition Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved Forms of DRO • Fixed-interval DRO (FI-DRO) – Omission requirement is applied at the end of successive time intervals of equal duration • To apply: – Establish interval – Deliver reinforcement at end of interval if problem behavior didn’t occur during the interval – If problem behavior occurs, reset interval Cooper, Heron, and Heward Applied Behavior Analysis, Second Edition Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved Forms of DRO • Variable-interval DRO (VI-DRO) – Omission requirement is applied at the end of successive time intervals of variable and unpredictable durations • To apply: – Establish variable interval schedule – Deliver reinforcement at end of interval if problem behavior didn’t occur during the interval – If problem behavior occurs, reset interval Cooper, Heron, and Heward Applied Behavior Analysis, Second Edition Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved Forms of DRO • Fixed-momentary DRO (FM-DRO) and Variable-momentary DRO (VM-DRO) – Omission requirement is applied only at the end of successive time intervals of fixed or variable durations (contingency not in place during interval) • To apply: – Establish interval – Deliver reinforcement at end of interval if problem behavior didn’t occur at the end of the interval Cooper, Heron, and Heward Applied Behavior Analysis, Second Edition Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved What type of DRO to use? • Interval more widely used than momentary • Interval more effective for more suppressing problem behavior • Momentary may be most useful for maintaining reduced levels of problem behavior Cooper, Heron, and Heward Applied Behavior Analysis, Second Edition Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved Guidelines for Using DRO • Recognize limitations – Reinforcement provided if absence of target problem behavior. • If another, nontargeted problem behavior occurs, it is reinforced. – May need to shorten interval – May need to include other problem behaviors in definition Cooper, Heron, and Heward Applied Behavior Analysis, Second Edition Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved Guidelines for Using DRO • Recognize limitations – With Momentary DROs, reinforcement is delivered if problem behavior is not occurring at end of interval, even if it occurred throughout the majority of the interval • Change to interval DRO • Shorten interval Cooper, Heron, and Heward Applied Behavior Analysis, Second Edition Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved Guidelines for Using DRO • Set initial DRO intervals that assure frequent reinforcement – Calculate mean baseline interresponse time (IRT) – Set interval that is equal to or slightly less than mean IRT • Do not inadvertently reinforce other undesirable behaviors – Make rule: must have absence of target problem behavior and other inappropriate behaviors Cooper, Heron, and Heward Applied Behavior Analysis, Second Edition Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved Guidelines for Using DRO • Gradually increase the DRO interval – Three options: • Increase by constant duration of time • Increase intervals proportionately • Increase based on learner’s performance • Extend to other settings and times of day • Combine with other procedures Cooper, Heron, and Heward Applied Behavior Analysis, Second Edition Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved DRL • Differential Reinforcement of Low Rates of Responding – Use to decrease the frequency of the occurrence of a behavior, but not eliminate it all together Cooper, Heron, and Heward Applied Behavior Analysis, Second Edition Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved DRL • Full-session DRL – Reinforcement is delivered at the end of a session if during the entire session, the target behavior occurred equal to or fewer times than a predetermined criterion Cooper, Heron, and Heward Applied Behavior Analysis, Second Edition Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved DRL • Interval DRL – Divide the total session into a series of equal intervals of time – Provide reinforcement at the end of each interval in which the number of occurrences of target behavior is equal to or below predetermined criterion Cooper, Heron, and Heward Applied Behavior Analysis, Second Edition Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved DRL • Spaced-responding DRL – Deliver reinforcer following an occurrence of a behavior that is separated by at least a minimum amount of time from a previous behavior – In other words, reinforcement is contingent on increasingly longer IRTs Cooper, Heron, and Heward Applied Behavior Analysis, Second Edition Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved Guidelines for Using DRL • Recognize limitations – DRL is slow and does not reduce a ...
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