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  • Values, Attitudes, & Emotions (Chapters 4 and 7) I attached the chapters.

One-page Reflective Writing Assignment.(Write you opinions DO NOT SUMMERIZE )

Describe how leaders and managers, and ultimately their organizations, are likely to benefit from a high degree of emotional intelligence? Describe how employees’ job attitudes likely to influence their required job responsibilities and also, behaviors that are not required?

What is the primary difference between affective and cognitive job attitudes? Are emotion or cognition most likely to influence employees’ behavioral responses at work?

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CHAPTER 4 Individual Attitudes and Behaviors Learning Objectives Created exclusively for modi alabdulwahab After reading this chapter, you should be able to do the following: 1. Identify the major work attitudes that affect work behaviors. 2. List the key set of behaviors that matter for organizational performance. 3. Understand the link between work attitudes and ethics. 4. Understand cross-cultural differences in job attitudes and behaviors at work. Much of Organizational Behavior is about the attitudes and behaviors of people at work. Learning what the research says about these outcomes will help you gain insight into your own ideas and actions as well as those of others. 4.1 Fostering Positive Job Attitudes and Professional Development: The Case of Enterprise Holdings FIGURE 4.1 Source: Jonathan Weiss / Shutterstock.com Enterprise was founded under the name “Executive Leasing” in 1957 by World War II veteran and entrepreneur Jack Taylor. Executive Leasing began inside of a St. Louis car dealership with a fleet of seven vehicles to provide mobility to vehicle owners while their cars were in the shop. In 1969, Jack Taylor renamed Executive Leasing in honor of the USS Enterprise, the aircraft carrier he served on during his time at war. In the decades that followed, Enterprise grew rapidly through business development and acquisitions. Enterprise Holdings now operates the Enterprise RentA-Car, National Car Rental, and Alamo Rent a Car brands, in addition to operating other business units including Enterprise Car Sales, Enterprise Truck Rental, and shared mobility services such as Enterprise CarShare, Enterprise Rideshare, and Zimride by Enterprise. © 2018 Boston Academic Publishing, Inc., d.b.a. FlatWorld. All rights reserved. 118 Organizational Behavior Today, the company is still privately held and majority family-owned. It is consistently ranked one of America’s largest privately owned companies, with 97,000 employees and over $20 billion in annual revenue. Jack Taylor’s descendants play a major role in running the company, with several Taylor family members represented on the board of directors and the executive team. Enterprise’s commitment to employee development creates a framework in which management understands the business from the bottom up, and employees can look forward to promotional opportunities throughout their tenure with the company. It also establishes a culture whereby the values and principles upon which the company was built are instilled into employees when they are young and impressionable. Many employees end up working for the company for their entire career.[1] Video: Multimedia Extension—The Enterprise Management Program View the video online at: //www.youtube.com/embed/pQrzUM4QA4Y?rel=0 Case Discussion Questions 1. What are some of the advantages and disadvantages of a promote-from-within culture, such as that of Enterprise Holdings? 2. What would be the characteristics of employees who would have a good fit with Enterprise? 3. What characteristics of Enterprise do you believe are responsible for the high level of organizational commitment employees display? © 2018 Boston Academic Publishing, Inc., d.b.a. FlatWorld. All rights reserved. Created exclusively for modi alabdulwahab In founding Enterprise, Jack Taylor instilled the values he learned in the military into the company. These included doing the right thing for his customers and investing in his employees. As such, he created a strong promote-from-within culture at Enterprise. As a result of this philosophy, Enterprise specifically recruits new college graduates and early-career professionals without significant work experience. New hires begin by working the rental counter and supporting business operations at a local branch while undergoing rigorous employee development and training programs. Of these new hires, over 50% stay with the company after completing management training. In fact, nearly all of the company’s upper management has worked their way up the ranks from the rental counter. Chapter 4 Individual Attitudes and Behaviors 119 4.2 Work Attitudes Learning Objectives 1. Define “work attitudes.” 2. Describe the relationship between attitudes and behaviors. 3. Define and differentiate between job satisfaction, organizational commitment, and job engagement. 4. List the factors related to work attitudes. 5. Describe the consequences of work attitudes. Created exclusively for modi alabdulwahab 6. Identify the ways in which companies can track work attitudes in the workplace. Our behavior at work often depends on how we feel about being there. Therefore, making sense of how people behave depends on understanding their work attitudes. An attitude refers to our opinions, beliefs, and feelings about aspects of our environment. We have attitudes toward the food we eat, people we interact with, courses we take, and various other things. At work, two particular job attitudes have the greatest potential to influence how we behave. These are job satisfaction and organizational commitment. Job satisfaction refers to the feelings people have toward their job. If the number of studies conducted on job satisfaction is an indicator, job satisfaction is probably the most important job attitude. Institutions such as Gallup Inc. or the Society for Human Resource Management (SHRM) periodically conduct studies of job satisfaction to track how satisfied employees are at work. A recent SHRM study revealed that 89% of respondents were at least somewhat satisfied with their jobs.[2] Organizational commitment is the emotional attachment people have toward the company they work for. There is a high degree of overlap between job satisfaction and organizational commitment, because things that make us happy with our job often make us more committed to the company as well. Finally, job engagement is a more recently developed motivational concept that is similar to a work attitude. Job engagement refers to the investment of one’s mental, emotional, and physical energies into work. Engagement reflects employees’ enthusiasm, involvement, and satisfaction with their work, and it has implications for workplace behavior.[3] Given that job engagement has similar predictors and outcomes, and organizations track job engagement in a way similar to how the other two are tracked, we focus on these three concepts in our discussion of work attitudes. The connection between work attitudes and behaviors depends on the attitude in question. Your attitudes toward your colleagues may influence whether you actually help them on a project, but they may not be a good predictor of whether you will quit your job. Second, attitudes are more strongly related to intentions to behave in a certain way, rather than actual behaviors. When you are dissatisfied with your job, you may have the intention to leave. Whether you will actually leave is a different story. Your leaving will depend on many factors, such as availability of alternative jobs in the market, your employability in a different company, and sacrifices you have to make while changing jobs. In other words, while attitudes give us hints about how a person might behave, it is important to note that behavior is also strongly influenced by situational constraints. © 2018 Boston Academic Publishing, Inc., d.b.a. FlatWorld. All rights reserved. attitude Our opinions, beliefs, and feelings about aspects of our environment. job satisfaction The feelings people have toward their jobs. organizational commitment The emotional attachment people have toward the company they work for. job engagement Investment of one’s mental, emotional, and physical energies at work. 120 Organizational Behavior OB Toolbox: Boosting Your Happiness at Work Source: Shutterstock.com • Have a positive attitude. Your personality is a big part of your happiness. If you are always looking for the negative side of everything, you will eventually find it. • Get accurate information about the job and the company. Ask detailed questions about what life is like in this company. Do your research: Read about the company, and use your social network to understand the company’s culture. • Develop good relationships at work. Make friends. Try to get a mentor. Approach a person you admire and attempt to build a relationship with this person. An experienced mentor can be a great help in navigating life at a company. Your social network can help you weather the bad days and provide you emotional and instrumental support during your time at the company as well as afterwards. • Pay is important, but job characteristics matter more to your job satisfaction. Don’t sacrifice the job itself for a little bit more money. When choosing a job, look at the level of challenge, and the potential of the job to make you engaged. • Be proactive in managing organizational life. If the job is stressful, cope with it by effective time management and having a good social network, as well as being proactive in getting to the source of stress. If you don’t have enough direction, ask for it! • Know when to leave. If the job makes you unhappy over an extended period of time and there is little hope of solving the problems, it may be time to look elsewhere. What Causes Positive Work Attitudes? What makes you satisfied with your job, develop commitment to your company, and feel engaged at work? Research shows that people pay attention to several aspects of their work environment, including how they are treated, the relationships they form with colleagues and managers, and the actual work they perform. In addition, what people value at any given time may be a function of the economic circumstances and the job market. For example, a Global Workforce Study conducted during the late-2000s recession has shown that 86% of workers felt a secure or stable position was most important to their happiness at work, surpassing factors that are more important in more prosperous times such as growth opportunities.[4] We will now summarize the factors that show consistent relations with job satisfaction and organizational commitment. © 2018 Boston Academic Publishing, Inc., d.b.a. FlatWorld. All rights reserved. Created exclusively for modi alabdulwahab • Finding a good fit with the job and company is important to your happiness. This starts with knowing yourself: What do you want from the job? What do you enjoy doing? Be honest with yourself and do a self-assessment. Chapter 4 Individual Attitudes and Behaviors 121 Created exclusively for modi alabdulwahab FIGURE 4.2 Factors Contributing to Job Attitudes Personality Can assessing the work environment fully explain how satisfied we are on the job? Interestingly, some experts have shown that job satisfaction is not purely environmental and is partially due to our personality. Some people have a disposition to be happy in life and at work regardless of environmental factors. It seems that people who have a positive affective disposition (those who have a tendency to experience positive moods more often than negative moods) tend to be more satisfied with their jobs and more committed to their companies, while those who have a negative disposition tend to be less satisfied and less committed.[5] This is not surprising, as people who are determined to see the glass as “half full” will notice the good things in their work environment, while those with the opposite character will find more things to complain about. In addition to our affective disposition, people who have positive core self-evaluations (individuals who have high generalized self-efficacy, high self-esteem, internal locus of control, and low levels of neuroticism) tend to have more positive job attitudes.[6] Research also suggests that even though all five of the big five personality traits are correlated with organizational commitment, agreeableness has the strongest relationship.[7] Either these people are more successful in finding jobs and companies that will make them happy and build better relationships at work, which would increase their satisfaction and commitment, or they simply see their environment as more positive—whichever is the case, it seems that personality is related to work attitudes. Person–Environment Fit The fit between what we bring to our work environment and the environmental demands influences both our behavior as well as our work attitudes. Therefore, person–job fit and person–organization fit are positively related to job satisfaction and commitment. When the abilities of individuals match those of the job demands and company values, they tend to be more satisfied with the job and more committed to the company.[8] When companies hire employees, they are interested in assessing at least two types of fit. Person–organization fit refers to the degree to which a person’s personality, values, goals, and other characteristics match those of the organization. Person–job fit is the degree to which a person’s knowledge, skills, abilities, and other characteristics match the job demands. (Human resources professionals often use the abbreviation KSAO to refer to these four categories of attributes). Thus, someone who is proactive and creative may be a great fit for a company in the high-tech sector that would benefit from risk-taking individuals but may be a poor fit for a company that puts a high priority on routine and predictable behavior, such as a nuclear power plant. Similarly, a proactive and creative person may be a great fit for a field-based job such as marketing manager but a poor fit for an office job highly dependent on rules, such as an accountant. © 2018 Boston Academic Publishing, Inc., d.b.a. FlatWorld. All rights reserved. person-job fit The degree to which a person’s skill, knowledge, abilities, and other characteristics match the job demands. person-organization fit The degree to which a person’s values, personality, goals, and other characteristics match those of the organization. 122 Organizational Behavior Some companies are in a great position to attract people who fit. For example, lifestyle retailers such as Patagonia, Columbia Sportswear, and Nike draw people who are attracted to the active, outdoorsy lifestyle these companies focus on. The core values of these businesses, such as preserving the environment, appeal to these job candidates who enjoy spending a lot of time in nature. To someone who enjoys surfing, being a product tester for surfing gear may be highly appealing. Thus, it is no surprise that when people fit into their organization, they tend to be more satisfied with their jobs, more committed to their companies, more influential in their company, and remain longer in their company.[9] The presence of certain characteristics on the job seems to make employees more satisfied and more committed. Using a variety of skills, having empowerment at work, receiving feedback on the job, and performing a significant task are some job characteristics that are related to satisfaction and commitment. However, the presence of these factors is not important for everyone. Some people have a high growth need. They expect their jobs to help them build new skills and improve as an employee. These people tend to be more satisfied when their jobs have these characteristics.[10] Psychological Contract psychological contract An unwritten understanding about what the employee will bring to the work environment and what the company will provide in exchange. psychological contract breach Violation of the unwritten understanding between the employee and the organization regarding expectations. After accepting a job, people come to work with a set of expectations. They have an understanding of their responsibilities and rights. In other words, they have a psychological contract with the company. A psychological contract is an unwritten understanding about what the employee will bring to the work environment and what the company will provide in exchange. When people do not get what they expect, they experience a psychological contract breach, which leads to low job satisfaction and commitment. Imagine that you were told before being hired that the company was family friendly and collegial. However, after a while, you realize that they expect employees to work 70 hours a week, and employees are aggressive toward each other. You are likely to experience a breach in your psychological contract and be dissatisfied. One way of preventing such problems is for companies to provide realistic job previews to their employees. Individuals may recover from psychological contract breaches in cases where the emotional impact of the breach is modest or when the organization shows support following the breach.[11] Organizational Justice A strong influence over our satisfaction level is how fairly we are treated. People pay attention to the fairness of company policies and procedures, treatment from supervisors, and pay and other rewards they receive from the company.[12] As a case in point, workplace incivility is a negative predictor of job attitudes. When individuals are targets of demeaning remarks or rude and discourteous actions, their job attitudes suffer.[13] While fair treatment matters for job attitudes, evidence suggests that job attitudes have little to do with how much money a person makes. Meta-analytic findings suggest that the correlation between pay level and job satisfaction is 0.15, which indicates a weak relationship.[14] Relationships at Work Two strong predictors of our happiness at work and commitment to the company are our relationships with coworkers and managers. The people we interact with, their degree of compassion, our level of social acceptance in our work group, and whether we are treated with respect are all important factors surrounding our happiness at work. Research also shows that our relationship with our manager, how considerate the manager is, and whether we build a trust-based relationship with our manager are critically important to our job attitudes.[15] Other people serve a number © 2018 Boston Academic Publishing, Inc., d.b.a. FlatWorld. All rights reserved. Created exclusively for modi alabdulwahab Job Characteristics Chapter 4 Individual Attitudes and Behaviors of key functions for employees. Coworkers and managers may affect employee job attitudes by providing task assistance, career support, emotional support, friendship, helping with personal growth, and providing opportunities for individuals to assist and mentor others.[16] Created exclusively for modi alabdulwahab Stress Not surprisingly, the amount of stress present in our job is related to our satisfaction and commitment. For example, experiencing role ambiguity (vagueness in relation to what our responsibilities are), role conflict (facing contradictory demands at work), and organizational politics, and worrying about the security of our job are all stressors that make people dissatisfied. Among new employees, stress caused by uncertainty (regarding relationships or one’s ability to perform well) is particularly relevant to job attitudes. On the other hand, not all stress is bad. Some stressors actually make us happier. For example, working under time pressure and having a high degree of responsibility are stressful, but they can also be perceived as challenges and tend to be related to high levels of satisfaction.[17] Work-Life Balance In the 1950s, work was all-consuming. Employees went to work, worked long hours, and the rest of the family accepted that work came first. As society changed, the concept of always putting work ...
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School: University of Virginia


Surname 1
Values, Attitudes, & Emotions
Emotional intelligence (EI) is beneficial to both the leaders and subsequently the
organization as a whole. EI can be delineated as the capability of an individual to monitor his or
her emotions and other individuals’ emotions, to distinguish between different feelings, traverse
social networks, manage relationships, and discern them appropriately and to employ emotional
information to control and guide behavior and thinking. Leaders who possess emotional
intelligence have desirable organizational attributes such as self-awareness, emotional
management, socia...

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Tutor went the extra mile to help me with this essay. Citations were a bit shaky but I appreciated how well he handled APA styles and how ok he was to change them even though I didnt specify. Got a B+ which is believable and acceptable.

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