PSY 699 Integrative Literature Review: Psychology

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The primary goal of this literature review is to integrate concepts from four different content domains within the larger field of psychology. The four content domains should be chosen from previous coursework in this program. In this paper, students will review the findings in the individual empirical articles, organize the research in a meaningful way, evaluate the reliability, validity, and generalizability of the research findings, and present an integrated synthesis of the research that sheds new light on the topics within and across the four domains.

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Week 6 - Final Assignment 

Integrative Literature Review 

Pathbuilder is being used for this assignment. Please be certain to complete the “Survey Acknowledgement Quiz” this week in order to submit the Integrative Literature Review. You will not be allowed to submit your Final Paper until you have completed the quiz this week.

The primary goal of this literature review is to integrate concepts from four different content domains within the larger field of psychology. The four content domains should be chosen from previous coursework in this program. In this paper, students will review the findings in the individual empirical articles, organize the research in a meaningful way, evaluate the reliability, validity, and generalizability of the research findings, and present an integrated synthesis of the research that sheds new light on the topics within and across the four domains.

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Week 6 - Final Assignment Integrative Literature Review Pathbuilder is being used for this assignment. Please be certain to complete the “Survey Acknowledgement Quiz” this week in order to submit the Integrative Literature Review. You will not be allowed to submit your Final Paper until you have completed the quiz this week. The primary goal of this literature review is to integrate concepts from four different content domains within the larger field of psychology. The four content domains should be chosen from previous coursework in this program. In this paper, students will review the findings in the individual empirical articles, organize the research in a meaningful way, evaluate the reliability, validity, and generalizability of the research findings, and present an integrated synthesis of the research that sheds new light on the topics within and across the four domains. The result of a successful integrative literature review may be a significant contribution to a particular body of knowledge and, consequently, to research and practice. Therefore, before writing this literature review, substantive new research must be conducted via the Internet and within the Ashford University Library for each of the four chosen domains. A minimum of six sources must be included for each of the four domains. Although content from literature reviews completed in prior courses within this program may be included, it may not constitute the total research for the individual domains addressed within this assignment. No more than four sources from previous literature reviews completed in this program may be utilized for this integrative review. The headings listed below must be used within the paper to delineate the sections of content. These sections include the following: a clear introduction that provides a general review and organizes the research in a meaningful way; a discussion in which the evidence is presented through analysis, critique, and synthesis; and a conclusion in which the discussion is drawn together in a meaningful way, the claims of the introduction are brought to a logical closure, and new research is proposed. Introduction • • • • • Provide a conceptual framework for the review. Describe how the review will be organized. The questions below may be used to guide this section. o What are the guiding theories within the domains? o How are the domains connected? o Are there competing points of view across the domains? o Why is the integration of these domains important? o What is the history of these domains? o What are the related theories or findings? Describe how the literature was identified, analyzed, and synthesized. How and why was the literature chosen? What is your claim or thesis statement? Discussion • Analysis Provide the analysis, critique, and synthesis for the review. • • • • Examine the main ideas and relationships presented in the literature across the four domains. Integrate concepts from the four different content domains within the larger field of psychology. What claim(s) can be made in the introduction? What evidence supports the claim(s) made in the introduction? Critique • • • • • • • • • • Evaluate the reliability, validity, and generalizability of the chosen research findings. How well does the literature represent the issues across the four domains? Identify the strengths and the key contributions of the literature. What, if any, deficiencies exist within the literature? Have the authors omitted any key points and/or arguments? What, if any, inaccuracies have been identified in the literature? What evidence runs contrary to the claims proposed in the introduction, and how might these be reconciled with the claims presented? Explain how the APA’s Ethical Principles of Psychologists and Code of Conduct might influence the reliability and/or generalizability of the chosen findings. Did the ethical issues influence the outcomes of the research? Were ethical considerations different across the domains? Synthesis • • • • Integrate existing ideas with new ideas to create new knowledge and new perspectives. Describe the research that has previously been done across these domains, as well as any controversies or alternate opinions that currently exist. Relate the evidence presented to the major conclusions being made. Construct clear and concise arguments using evidence-based psychological concepts and theories to posit new relationships and perspectives on the topics within the domains. Conclusion • • • • • • • • Provide a conclusion and present potential future considerations. State your final conclusion(s). Synthesize the findings described in the discussion into a succinct summary. What questions remain? What are the possible implications of your argument for existing theories and for everyday life? Are there novel theories and/or testable hypothesizes for future research? What do the overarching implications of the studies show? Where should the research go from this point to further the understanding of these domains and the greater study of psychology? Attention Students: The Masters of Arts in Psychology program is utilizing the Pathbrite portfolio tool as a repository for student scholarly work in the form of signature assignments completed within the program. After receiving feedback for this Integrative Literature Review, please implement any changes recommended by the instructor, go to Pathbrite (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site. and upload the revised Integrative Literature Review to the portfolio. (Use the Pathbrite Quick-Start Guide (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site. to create an account if you do not already have one.) The upload of signature assignments will take place after completing each course. Be certain to upload revised signature assignments throughout the program as the portfolio and its contents will be used in other courses and may be used by individual students as a professional resource tool. See the Pathbrite (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site. website for information and further instructions on using this portfolio tool. The Integrative Literature Review • • • • • • • • Must be 20 to 30 double-spaced pages in length (not including title and references pages) and formatted according to APA style as outlined in the Ashford Writing Center. (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site. Must include a separate title page with the following: o Title of paper o Student’s name o Course name and number o Instructor’s name o Date submitted Must begin with an introductory paragraph that has a succinct thesis statement. Must address the topic of the paper with critical thought. Must end with a conclusion that reaffirms your thesis. Must use at least 24 peer-reviewed sources, including a minimum of 20 from the Ashford University Library. Must document all sources in APA style as outlined in the Ashford Writing Center. Must include a separate reference list that is formatted according to APA style as outlined in the Ashford Writing Center. ...
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School: UT Austin

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Running Head: INTEGRATIVE LITERATURE REVIEW

Integrative Literature Review
Student’s Name

Institution Affiliation

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INTEGRATIVE LITERATURE REVIEW

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Integrative Literature Review

INTRODUCTION

Provide a conceptual framework for the review.

According to psychologists, there are different ways of studying how people behave and
think and therefore, there is no one right way to study them. To this effect, different schools of
thought have been developed under psychology where they are used to investigate human
behavior and shape how we investigate human development in general. This is the reason a
psychologist attributes one behavior to biological factors and another to cognitive factors
(Lumen, 2016). As the differnt schools of thought develop, new ones evolve in the process like is
the case with language processing and newborn intelligence. While psychology as a field of
study is vast, this work focuses on four concept domains of psychology:
❖ Domain 1: Biological- this domain discusses sensation and consciousness
❖ Domain 2: Cognitive- it describes neuroscience, neuroimaging, cognition, intelligence,
and memory
❖ Domain 3: Social and Personality- it describes culture, gwnder, emotion, and the different
personalities in the social space
❖ Domain 4: Mental and Physical Health- it desceibes what abnormal psychology entails,
human psychology, and therapy

The guiding theories within the domains are flexible where each domain is described in
the simplest way possible and the scientific connection between the domains is clearly
illustrated. A classic example is the bio-psycho-social model, which is explained in depth for

INTEGRATIVE LITERATURE REVIEW

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better understanding. The notable competing points across the domains are connections between
the domains and psychology in general. These connections are quitre similar for some domains
like Social and personality and Behavioral resulting in repetitiveness while also showing that the
two theories are related. Integrating these domains is important as it proves that there is efficient
flow of information, which results in better mental care especially among patients suffering from
psychological disorders. The literature used was retrieved from peer reviewed secondary sources
and reliable websites and qualitative analysis was adopted to sieve out the relevant information
from all the sources. Images and photographs in this work are retrieved from reliable sources.

Thesis

Since all psychology is not clinical psychology, psychologists have developed different ways
of studying how people behave and think, as there is no one right way to study it. Its
diverse nature calls for different domains and the need to investigate human behavior
while shaping human development investigations.

DISCUSSION

a) Provide the analysis, critique, and synthesis for the review.

i.

The Biological Domain

Introduction
This concept domain is also referred to as biopsychology, psychobiology, or biological
psychology. It is the application of biology principles in mental processes and behavioral studies.
Interest in the biological domain was struck by the fact that biological psychologists wanted to

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understand how the function and structure of the nervous system relates to human behavior.
Subfields of behavioral neuroscience include neuropsychology and cognitive neuroscience.
Different areas of interest fall under biological psychology including plasticity of the nervous
system, neurodevelopment, reproductive behavior, ingestive behavior, drug use and abuse, sleep,
motor and sensory systems (Lumen, 2016). As a result, more professionals like chemists,
psychologists, medical practitioners, and biologists are involved in psychobiological research
and this interdisciplinary approach results in development of neuroscience.

Evolutionary psychology

This branch of psychobiology seeks to study the immediate biological causes of behavior
based on one’s psychology. It is important to find the basis since some human or animal
behaviors are influenced by genetics or adaptation efforts to the environment. The latter is
important because in most cases, organisms need to adapt to reproduction in new environments,
survival, and socialization with other species. Charles Darwin is the father of evolution by
natural selection and therefore responsible for the study of behavior in the context of evolution.
According to Darwin, behaviors should be adaptive as me pointed out in The Expression of the
Emotions of Man and Animals (1872) and The Descent of Man (1871).

The evolutionary psychology of human beings has been in resurgence for some time
because for a behavior to be subject to evolution by natural selection, it must have a genetic
cause (Lumen, 2016; Craig, Vugt & Van, 2012). In humans therefore, it is expected that all
human beings will express similar behaviors that are caused by genetics because the genetic
differences among human groups are significantly small. Most evolutionary psychologists
predict the outcome of a behavior in a particular situation based on evolutionary theory while

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making observations from experiments. From the results obtained, evolutionary psychologists
can determine whether observations match the theory.

Despite being informative and precise, these studies do not provide conclusive evidence
that a behavior is adaptive as they lack information that behaviors is not cultural and can be
genetic. Besides, demonstrating that a human trait is naturally selected is difficult hence; the
reason evolutionary psychologists assume that human behaviors are genetic. However, this
assumption is inaccurate considering that most human traits that can be traced back from history
show how man evolved under specific social and environmental conditions. Therefore,
“behavioral traits need to be adaptive under current conditions, only under the conditions of the
past when they evolved, about which we can only hypothesize (Lumen, 2016).”

The areas of human behavior in which evolution can make predictions include status,
social organization, parenting, cooperation, friendship, kin relationships, mate choices, and
memory. A classic example is a study on mate preference that showed experimental
correspondence between expectations and observations. Although there were a few deviations in
some cultured, approximately 37 cultures agreed that; men value potential reproductive factors
like youth and attractiveness in their prospective mates while women are all about their mate’s
earning potential factors. These predictions were in line with evolution predictions (Craig, Vugt
& Van, 2012).

Sensations and perceptions

The psychological aspect of sensory systems and psychological experience of sensory
information works within perception and sensory (Lumen, 2016). Therefore, this topic is quite

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interdisciplinary because all senses are at work as we undertake our daily activities as human
beings. Factors of interest like; smell, touch sensations, sounds, and sights all fall under the
domain of perception and sensation.

Levels of explanation in biological psychology

Some concerns have been raised about the future of psychology. This is because other fields
like evolutionary biology, psychopharmacology, genetics, and neuroscience are relying on the
explanation of behavior by biological psychology. As more branches of biology are incorporated
in biological psychology, the latter is becoming more diverse although philosophers argue that
psychology has managed to maintain its identity in the vocabulary, functional, mentalist, and
higher-level of its explanations. Considering that biological psychology is an inter-level
enterprise, this section will look for models of inter-level relations in the philosophy of
psychology because biological psychology has more resources. They include
❖ Classical reduction

It is derived from the deductive-nomological model of explanation. Classical reduction holds
that “explaining an event involves deducing it (more precisely, a statement describing it) from a
theory plus boundary conditions.” Reduction on the other hand is deducing a higher-level theory
from boundary conditions and a lower-level theory. On this note, a higher-level theory has more
complex entities composed of simpler entities while lower-level theories mainly have elementary
constituents. There are two conditions for theory reduction- deductability and connectability. The
former means that the theories are formalized and finished while the latter means those different

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theories are given a cross-theoretical identity. For example, science dictates, “temperature is the
average kinetic energy of molecules in an ideal gas” (De Jong, 2002).

In this case, the theory of thermodynamics can be deducted from statistical mechanics and
the resulting concept maps onto the reducing theory. However, scientists mention that when a
theory is reduced, the meaning of the said theory tends to change in the process. The classical
view of reduction rarely gives a plausible picture of scientific progress and practice and rarely
classifies what brings about reductive success. There are a few failures of deductability and
connectability. For instance, there is need to correct reduced theory and the model of intertheoretical reduction model.

Multiple realizability and its problems

The notions of multiple realization and function were initially expected to save the autonomy
of psychological explanations. According to Fodor (1981), the presence of international la...

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