Assignment Sheet for Career-Issue Memo Project
For this project, you will be writing a memo to Howard Wagner, your supervisor at Keystone Holdings,
Inc., regarding an article you have selected and reviewed. (Keystone Holdings, Inc., can be any type of
company you would like it to be—as it relates to your career and interests.)
After locating three top journals in your major field of study, select and photocopy or download an
article from one of them. The article should treat a topic in detail (2,000-3,000 words or so). Because
you will be using this article for two assignments—a written memo and a brief oral presentation—you
will want to select an article that truly interests you and relates to issues of the workplace.
For your written article summary, please do the following:
Critically read and then summarize the article: Determine the article’s main points and briefly
summarize these in the memo, showing how these points are important for your company.
Enhance readability: Present information clearly in both content and form. In other words, in
addition to looking at language issues, consider how you can visually present the information to
make it easy to read by using sound principles of memorandum layout.
Role play: Begin and conclude with role-playing moves to make this memo sound more natural.
For instance, you should start by setting the context for the memo by reminding Mr. Wagner
why you are writing it and how you think the information you have researched relates to
Keystone. Here is the scenario:
Howard Wagner, your supervisor at work, has recognized you as a motivated individual with
special knowledge and interest in [article topic of your choice]. Mr. Wagner believes that this
topic will be critical for Keystone Holdings, Inc., in the 21st century. He has asked you to uncover
the latest information on your topic with hopes that the information can be used to the
company’s benefit. He may ask you eventually to research the topic further, but currently he has
asked you simply to consult one of the leading journals. (This implies that you might want to
offer to research the topic further as you conclude your memo.)
Here is how you might structure the content of your memo:
• First, as stated above, set the context—that you are responding to the CEO's request. This may
include that you are addressing a problem or concern or need at the business.
• Then, state that in your research you came across a helpful article that can help meet that
problem, concern or need; provide the title of the article, the author’s name, and a brief (1-2
sentence) summary of the article.
• Next, point out the highlights of the article and how the information, again, more specifically
can benefit the company or meet some business need.
• In closing the memo, you may make a formal recommendation or propose a change in
procedure and/or some new way of doing business. Also, tell the boss that you are available to
do more research and would be glad to discuss the matter with him further.
September 25, 2018
Howard Webb director university of Yale
Factors affecting credibility of online degrees
Following the request on how to determine the credibility of online degrees, a research was
conducted and the results are posted on this memo. The research involves case studies that were
carried out on two Arab countries. The study was carried out as a way of comparing if degrees
earned online have the same value as degrees earned through physical class attendances. The
research went further to determine the perceived disadvantage of the degree earned online
compared to a physically attended degree. The Arab countries chosen were Egypt and Oman.
Technology makes it possible for distance learning
With the advancement of technology, many traditional universities have been seeking ways of
conducting conventional and distant education at the same time. Many universities are now
willing to offer off-campus programs for bachelor’s degree and master’s degree. Some of these
universities have even engaged in collaborations that ensure the service of distant learning
program has been executed in the best way possible. Cairo university in Egypt has partnered with
British Open University to enable such a healthy program between the two countries. The media
through which such learning is done includes shared printed materials, recorded videotapes and
other interactive multimedia such as CDs.
The total number of people who have access to modern technology is high and this makes it
easier to enroll for the program of distant learning. Online education would not be possible
without the latest advancements in technology. The two Arabian countries happen to have online
presence of about 360 million. If only a quarter of the number wanted to have an online degree, it
would be possible since they already have access to online technology.
Perception of the online degree
The question that most people ask themselves is the credibility of online degrees. Many people
still believe that the on-campus degree is authentic based on the kind of exposure given to the
students. Face to face interaction with the lecturers and fellow students is believed to give the
student a certain level of interaction and exposure ability which the online student may not have.
The on-campus classes build the social character of a student and they are then able to interact
with other people even in the workplace environment. Employers in both countries are often
reluctant to accept papers of interviewees who have online degrees. Based on this perception, the
on-campus graduates have an upper hand in the two regions.
The challenge of acceptability of online degrees does not end with the employers alone. During
the research, university educators were asked to give their honest thoughts about online degrees
through interviews. The presented candidates had the same qualifications as the two except that
one of them had a different learning mode. In this case online degree learning while the other
two used on-campus learning. To a surprising result, most educators expressed their doubts on
the online degree candidate by picking the on-campus candidate. When asked to justify their
decision, they claimed that they had more trust in degrees gained through the traditional
There are traditional degrees that the general public does not believe can be earned through
online learning. These degrees include, medicine and related studies, engineering and any law
related degree. These degrees are perceived to be complex and cannot be fully delivered online.
It is becoming evident that even with the concept of online degree becoming more and more
popular, there exists a gap on the part of societal acceptance as indicated by the results of the
research. The society does not credit distant education degrees in a trustworthy manner as
compared to traditionally earned degrees.
Reason for the existence of societal gap
The main reason why most people do not have faith in the online degrees is the quality domains
of the instruments used. The technology used to offer the service can again be used as the source
of student cheating and engaging in fraudulent activities. This undermines the process of
administering online degrees. The rating scales used to measure the capability of such students
can be challenging. Not many people believe that an online tutor can rate a student without
observing the character and social behavior of the student.
Finally, online degrees lack the exposure of field experience. Through online degree, there is no
proof that the student was able to attend an internship in order to gain field experience.
Therefore, there is no recommendation from a field agent and hence the student with an online
degree cannot prove that he is able to execute what is required in the field.
There is no doubt that online distance education programs are a convenient option for degreeseeking students. While providers of online distance education believe that the quality of
education is similar to that offered in campus, the perception expressed by respondents indicate
that online education is inferior. Online education providers need to come up with a campaign
that will help create awareness on online education and improve the societal ratings and
Benefit exchange in the social media–based learning experience.
Social media platforms are thriving on the co-creation of content, usually socially orientated
content about the social interests of participants. There is also a growing trend of social media
application in the human resources and marketing for business purposes. This memo to show you
the factors affecting direct and indirect benefit exchange in the social media-based learning
experience. In addition, this study evaluates the difference between direct and indirect benefit
exchange expected by students when sharing knowledge. Therefore, results indicate that there is
a significant mean difference between direct and indirect benefit exchange and that issues
concerning social identity and trust should be taken into account when developing social media
This study focuses on the investigation of factors that influence students’ decision to share
knowledge directly or indirectly with their fellow students in an Open Distance Learning ODL
environment, using social media platforms. This study is based on students who are registered
with the University of South Africa UNISA.
Facts and Key Points
In the knowledge society, knowledge has become a key resource for many organizations. In line
with the argument of Ma and Yu (2010), organisations are becoming increasingly dependent on
knowledge as an intangible asset, which is difficult to clone; socially complex; and could be the
source of superior performance to sustain competitiveness in the industry. However, knowledge
is illusive in a sense that it is linked to the retention of employees and their mobility.
The fact that an ODL model thrives on information and communications technology (ICT) could
prove to be problematic for an institution that is based in a developing country from where it
serves the students. However, it is important to note that social media exposure in South Africa is
as good as in the developed countries (World Wide Worx 2013). There has been an increase in
the number of users of social media and more and more time is spent on social media platforms.
Identification can be defined as a process whereby a human being sees himself or herself as one
with another human being or a group of people (Nahapiet 1998; Wang & Noe 2010). Social
identification is derived from the concept of group identification, as a result these two terms can
be used interchangeably (Tolman 1943). Social identity can be better explained using the social
identity theory (SIT) developed by Tajfel and Turner in 1985. Social identity could also be a
source of metaphoric boundary that may be impenetrable to allow the sharing of knowledge with
Individual member’s reputation in a social group is evaluated and defined based on the
experiences of others. Such experiences are captured in the minds of participants in the
knowledge sharing initiative. Even though these evaluations are not formal, they are stored and
used as a frame of reference in future engagements with the same person. It is also important to
note that personal honour is a more important determinant of reputation than an individuals’
measurable accomplishment with the exception of educational achievements.
Shared language could provide an instrument to evaluate the benefit of sharing knowledge and
facilitate access to the insight of other people. This enables engagement in knowledge sharing at
multiple levels of the organisation, and the sharing of mutual respect and benefit. Pi, Chou and
Liao (2013) asserted that shared language has a positive effect on the sharing of knowledge,
where members of the community share a specific vocabulary.
Trust is a universal concept that influences any sort of human engagement especially where
contentious issues are concerned. Newton (2001) defined trust as the individual’s belief that, at
worst, other people will not harm him or her knowingly or willingly, and that he or she is going
to act in his or her interest. Ability and competence are sometimes used interchangeably as the
factor of social trust.
In this article, the authors concluded that instructional designer can design teaching and learning
experience in the social media platform by catering for both direct and indirect benefit
knowledge exchange. The results of the study further confirmed that some students share
knowledge with the expectation of direct exchange benefit and, meanwhile, expect indirect
exchange benefit. Also, the researcher set out to test the hypotheses outlined in the theoretical
framework section of this study and achieved the research objectives of the study. To test the
hypotheses, a survey research design was employed so that the researcher could gather as many
responses as possible from the sample
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