Art history Response Questions

timer Asked: Feb 7th, 2019
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Question Description

View the powerpoint in the folder attached and answer the questions below:

List and explain reasons why you believe that patterns can be useful in developing interesting designs.

Compare and contrast the use of complementary and analogous colors in two different paintings. Use examples from the PowerPoint presentation or the text.

What techniques can be utilized to create the illusion of three-dimensional space on a two-dimensional surface (or picture-plane)? There are several listed in the Notes and the Powerpoint.

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Visual Elements of Art Line Examples Above are four different types of lines. The top line is known as an Irregular Line. It is irregular in width and direction. The second line is obviously a Straight Line. The Third and Fourth examples are curved and known as Implied Lines because they utilize space within the marks. In other words, the line is “implied.” Our eyes join the marks together just like joining the dots in the game Dotto. Form/Shape Examples The terms Form and Shape can be used interchangeably. The top row is an example of Geometric Forms. Notice the straight edges and angles that are used to define these shapes. I actually believe that the circle should not be considered a geometric form since it contains neither. The second row contains organic forms since they have curved edges and no angles. In row three, numbers three and four illustrate forms that utilize a combination of both curved edges and angles. CURVED LINES can be used in combination to create organic forms. Note how the shapes swirl and undulate to create motion on the twodimensional surface. STRAIGHT LINES can be placed parallel with each other to produce the illusion of three-dimensional forms. Particularly note #1 and #4. Pattern Forms can be placed together in an organized manner to create PATTERN. In this example, the circular forms in the bottom rows are repeated and overlapped as they move upward in lines across the two-dimensional surface. As the lines of circles begin to overlap, the overlapping areas begin to create new forms which then develop a new pattern. Pattern in Nature Pattern is repetitive form and does not always have to be created from exact shapes. Notice the similarity (yet uniqueness) of the forms and their repeated usage on the underside of these leaves. Pattern in Nature The Use of Pattern in Painting This innovative painting by Gustav Klimt from 1906, utilizes various patterns that make the background and her dress blend together. This makes her white skin contrast with the patterns and stand out. Since the face and hands (and sometimes shoulders) of a person are special areas of communication, this contrast emphasizes those areas so that they become focal points for our eyes. Pattern in Arrangement Patterns can also be created by arranging objects in repetitive designs. Notice the quadrilateral clover-shaped forms that are created when placing the chairs around the tables. Then, the table arrangements are arranged in a patterned grid. Texture and Sculpture Note the surface of this old Volkswagen Beetle, which has an added texture. Since texture is tactile we could actually feel this if we were next to the Volkswagen. This being the case, this would be considered “real” texture. Texture and Painting In this modern abstract painting, fabric was used with thick acrylic paint to create a “real” texture. Artificial Texture This portrait by Hans Holbein is a good example of the use of painting to create the illusion of texture. Note the fur collar that really looks like fur, as well as the velvet sleeves that look soft enough to touch. Contrast These two forms, the circle and square, show contrast in many ways. Not only are they contrasts in lightness and darkness, but also symbolically. The circle represents nature, and the square often represents the mind or humanity. Positive and Negative Forms In this abstract composition, one can view the white area as background, which makes the dark areas become positive forms, or it is possible to see the dark area as the background, which makes the white organic form become the positive area. Either way, this is a good example of contrast between light and dark, and organic and geometric forms. Multi-layered Contrast In this image there is contrast between the upper, solid area and the lower, more gestural area. The upper form is very solid and heavy, while the lower area is light and expressive. Symbolically, this could represent the division between mental or physical rigidity and emotional expressiveness. Value or Shade The terms Value and Shade can be used interchangeably, and refer to the gradations between black and white and also in colors. Value Scale in Color Each color exists in its brightest or most intense state but then can be made lighter or darker by adding white or black until it becomes white or black. Symmetrical Balance A good example of symmetrical Balance is the White House. Note how the fountain and flagpole become the center line in the building, with all aspects of the structure equal on both sides. Symmetrical Balance in Painting In this painting titled “The Execution of St. Stephen,” the focal point is St. Stephen in the upper center area, and he becomes the center line for the symmetrical composition. Note the number of people and similarity of positions on both sides of him. Also note how the arrows and position of the archers’ arms guide our eyes in the direction of the focal point. Asymmetrical Composition This asymmetrical composition guides our eyes through each shape in the picture. This visual journey begins at the upper-left, as if we were reading a book, and takes us down through the composition via the red sphere and metallic cylinder in the center. However, when we reach the bottom, our view moves to the right to the white semicircle and then is projected upward along the wooden rod toward the yellow sphere. Once arriving at the yellow sphere, our eyes move back towards the left to begin the journey again. This is a good example of how an artist carefully composes a picture so that we explore all areas of the composition. Color Wheel The name for each color is called a Hue. First, note the primary colors: red, blue and yellow. Then, notice that the equal mixing of two primary colors produces the secondary colors of violet, green and orange. Finally, when the primary and secondary colors are mixed, they produce the tertiary colors. Notice the lines that are drawn across the color wheel from one color to the other. These opposite colors are known as complementary colors. Colors positioned adjacent to each other on the color wheel are known as analogous colors. Complementary colors, such as red & green or blue & orange, tend to “vibrate” more when placed next to each other. A good example of this vibration or high energy relationship is the use of red & green at Christmas time to create visual excitement. Because analogous colors such as yellow-orange & yellow share a common color, they are more compatible with each other and are used to create a more relaxed mood. Finally, notice the diagonal line from the lower left to upper right that separates the warm colors from the cool colors on the wheel. Composition Using Primary Colors This abstract painting from 1930 by Piet Mondrian is titled “Composition II Using Red Blue and Yellow” and is a good example of the use of primary colors in an asymmetrical composition. Many artists during this time began exploring simpler issues of painting, such as color and composition. They discarded the use of realistic imagery to focus on very specific areas. Primary Colors in Sculpture Several sculptors, such as David Smith, painted their three-dimensional works using primary colors. This made the sculpture look interesting, but also fragmented the three joined forms that you see to the right. Having multiple colors in this sculpture makes it polychromatic. Monochromatic Sculpture This abstract sculpture by Anthony Caro has been painted in a monochromatic style. Notice how the individual parts are visually joined together by the use of one color. This is in contrast to the previous sculpture by David Smith. Bedroom in Arles This painting by Vincent van Gogh in 1888 is of his own bedroom in the town of Arles in southern France. Instead of using realistic colors, van Gogh chose the complementary colors of blue & orange and red & green to create an image of his bedroom that is not soothing, but rather unsettling. This was a direct expression of his troubled, emotional life. Use of Analogous Colors This painting of haystacks in northern France by Claude Monet exemplifies the use of analogous or adjacent colors. Note how soothing the overall composition is. Monet chose not to paint realistically, but rather to paint his impression of what he saw in the world. He was one of the leaders of the Impressionist movement in Europe. Intensity in Color The square in the center of each of these compositions is an example of color intensity. It is the brightest area and the richest in color. As white is added to the intense color, it becomes lighter as the design progresses outward. Illusion of Space In the diagram above, imagine that the picture plane is the surface of a painting. To create the illusion of space on that picture plane, artists utilize different techniques to differentiate the foreground from the background. This is known as creating the Illusion of Space. The Alba Madonna In order to create the illusion of space in his painting of Mary, Jesus and John the Baptist, the artist Raphael utilized several techniques. First, notice that the baby Jesus is positioned in front of Mary’s right shoulder. This overlapping of forms creates the illusion that there is depth on this picture plane. Then notice how the figures in the foreground are much larger than the buildings in the background. These contrasting sizes are another tool for creating the illusion of space. Finally note the blurred mountains to the left and behind the figures. This blurred effect re-creates the moisture in the atmosphere and is known as atmospheric perspective. We see all of these techniques in real life every day. Foreshortening Mantegna’s painting, “Lamentation over the Dead Christ,” was completed in c. 1480 and is an excellent example of using foreshortening to create the illusion of space or depth on the picture plane. By tilting and compressing the subject, Mantagna leads us, as viewers, to believe that there is extreme depth in the image. Linear Perspective As seen in the diagram above, all parallel lines converge at a point on the horizon line. This is the case for all the objects we see in the world, since liner perspective is based on the way we see. See the next image for a real life reference. Linear Perspective Example The converging lines of the railroad tracks are the obvious examples in the photograph above of linear perspective. In addition, notice the sides of the buildings to the left as their top and bottom edges (lines) converge toward the horizon. This is also the case for the fences near the railroad tracks. Abstract Composition This composition has been developed by simplifying, or abstracting, a realistic setting. The figures have been replaced by ovals and shapes, the walls are now geometric forms, and our eyes are led through the composition by the use of different values or shades of grey. As mentioned earlier, our eyes usually view a composition beginning at the upper left, moving toward the bottom right. In this case, the eyes are guided by the oval head-forms and are assisted by the edges of the geometric planes. There are many visual elements working in this composition: balance, form, value/shade, contrast, rhythm, etc. Abstraction Process This series of four images illustrates the process of abstraction from realistic to abstract. In this case, abstraction is a process of refinement and simplification from the realistic photograph in the upper left to the semi-realistic composition at the lower right. Each stage eliminates detail and retains important elements that maintain the content or meaning of the original photograph. If one were to take the lower-right image and abstract it further, it might become what we refer to as totally abstract, or nonobjective. By this, it is meant that it no longer refers to the original realistic church image. Mass This extraordinary realistic sculpture entitled “David” by Michelangelo exemplifies large-scale sculpture since it is greater than life-size at over fourteen feet high. Since it is carved from marble and gives the appearance of great weight, it is considered to be of great mass, or massive. Mass Quite opposite from Michelangelo’s “David,” this human-size bronze sculpture by Alberto Giacometti is considered delicate in terms of mass, and not massive. Because it is thin and lanky in design, it does not convey the feeling of heaviness like the “David.” Each has mass, but only the “David” is considered massive, or containing great mass. ...
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Surname 1
February 7, 2019
Art History
Question 1
1. I believe patterns bring a nice appeal and create a beautiful texture in a work of art.
2. Patterns bring a sense of heritage to some communities. A lot of people trace back
patterns in their cultural heritage.
3. Patterns can be either simple or com...

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