Problem-Solving Application Case Essay

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Problem-Solving Application Case on page 118 in the textbook. (CASE IS ATTACHED, TEXTBOOK IS TOO LARGE TO UPLOAD BUT I CAN EMAIL IF NEEDED)

Apply the 3-Step Problem-Solving Approach to Organizational Behavior and write a response paper to the case integrating the course concepts from the course material through Chapter 3. (CHAPTER 1,2,3 POWER POINTS ATTACHED)



essay needs to include the following:


1. well organized paper within 1500 minimum word limit that includes a thesis statement and a conclusion

2. Integrates at least 3 organizational examples from personal experience in the discussion.

3. Represents a solid understanding and implementation of course material covered to date into the writing assignment.

4. Includes at least 3 peer reviewed references external to the article/book/or concept reacting to for the assignment

5. Use APA Style Guide for all citations

6. Complete Reference List

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CHAPTER 3 Individual Differences and Emotions ©McGraw‐Hill Education. All rights reserved. Authorized only for instructor use in the classroom. No reproduction or further distribution permitted without the prior written consent of McGraw‐Hill Education. Major Questions You Should Be Able to Answer 3.1 How does understanding the relative stability of individual differences benefit me? 3.2 How do multiple intelligences affect my performance? 3.3 How does my personality affect my performance at school and work? 3.4 How do self‐evaluations affect my performance at work? 3.5 What is emotional intelligence and how does it help me? 3.6 How can understanding emotions make me more effective at work? ©McGraw‐Hill Education. How Does Who I Am Affect My Performance? We all differ along a vast number of personal attributes. How we differ has been shown to influence how we approach each of the following: Work Solving problems Conflict Interactions with co‐workers ©McGraw‐Hill Education. The Differences Matter Which individual differences do you think managers can influence? Jump to Appendix 1 for description ©McGraw‐Hill Education. Test Your OB Knowledge (1 of 6) Maria is a manager for Greens and Grits. Maria would like to improve job satisfaction for her employees. She can accomplish this by implementing different policies dealing with A. personality. B. intelligence. C. cognitive ability. D. emotions and attitudes. E. All of the above. ©McGraw‐Hill Education. Intelligence: There Is More to the Story Than IQ (1 of 2) Gardner’s theory of multiple intelligences (MI) • Linguistic • Logical‐mathematical • Musical • Bodily‐kinesthetic • Spatial • Interpersonal • Intrapersonal • Naturalist ©McGraw‐Hill Education. Intelligence: There Is More to the Story than IQ (2 of 2) We also have practical intelligence The ability to solve everyday problems by utilizing knowledge gained from experience in order to purposefully adapt to, shape, and select environments We all have strengths and weakness, so knowledge of our intelligences may help in • Choosing a career or selecting the best candidate • Development of ourselves or others ©McGraw‐Hill Education. Test Your OB Knowledge (2 of 6) George does not score particularly well on standard IQ tests yet he has a unique ability to deal with complex interpersonal situations. What would explain this phenomenon? A. practical intelligence B. multiple intelligences C. reasoning ability D. emotions and attitude E. gender. ©McGraw‐Hill Education. The Big 5 Personality Dimensions What is Personality? The combination of stable physical, behavioral, and mental characteristics that give individuals their unique identities Comprised of five dimensions ©McGraw‐Hill Education. • • • • • Extroversion Agreeableness Conscientiousness Emotional stability Openness to experience What Does It Mean to Have a Proactive Personality? • You’re someone who is relatively unconstrained by situational forces and who affects environmental change. • You’re someone who identifies opportunities and acts on them. • The many benefits • Increased job performance • Higher job satisfaction • Higher affective commitment • Entrepreneurial ©McGraw‐Hill Education. Personality and Performance (1 of 2) • The strongest effects result when when both you and your manager have proactive personalities. • Conscientiousness has the overall strongest effect on job performance. • Extroversion has a smaller positive effect on job performance. • Those higher on agreeableness are more likely to seek new opportunities. ©McGraw‐Hill Education. Personality and Performance (2 of 2) The problem with workplace personality tests • Pre‐ and post‐hire personality testing is fairly common • However, most personality test are not valid predictors of job performance, and here’s why ― Test takers do not describe themselves accurately (faking). ― Tests are bought off the shelf and given by untrained employees. ― Personality tests are meant to measure personality, not what individual differences are needed to perform a particular job. ©McGraw‐Hill Education. Test Your OB Knowledge (3 of 6) Martha would like to hire employees who will be strong performers in her organization. Which of the Big Five personality dimensions should she try to make sure the new employees score high on? A. extraversion B. agreeableness C. conscientiousness D. emotional stability E. openness to experience ©McGraw‐Hill Education. Core Self‐Evaluations and Your Performance Core self‐evaluations (CSEs) A broad personality trait comprised of four narrow and positive individual traits • Generalized self‐efficacy • Self esteem • Locus of control • Emotional stability ©McGraw‐Hill Education. How Self‐Efficacy Works Self‐efficacy is a belief about your chances of successfully accomplishing a specific task. Jump to Appendix 2 for description ©McGraw‐Hill Education. Self‐Esteem and Your Performance Self‐esteem is a general belief about your self‐worth. • It is relatively stable across your lifetime but it can be improved. • Best to apply yourself to areas or goals that are important to you. Why? In those areas your motivation will likely be highest and presumably you’ll work the hardest ©McGraw‐Hill Education. Locus of Control and My Performance (1 of 2) Locus of Control describes how much personal responsibility someone takes for their behavior and its consequences. External Locus of Control Internal Locus of Control Things happen to me. I make things happen. I blame others for failures. I can determine my future. I can’t control the future. I accept personal responsibility for failures. ©McGraw‐Hill Education. Locus of Control and My Performance (2 of 2) In the workplace External Locus of Control Internal Locus of Control More anxious Higher motivation Earn less, receive smaller raises Higher expectations Less motivated by incentives Exert more effort when given difficult tasks ©McGraw‐Hill Education. Emotional Stability and My Performance What Is Emotional Stability? People High in Emotional Stability Tend To Be: Relaxed Secure Unworried Less likely to experience negative emotions under pressure ©McGraw‐Hill Education. Higher job performance More organizational citizenship behaviors Few counter‐productive work behaviors Test Your OB Knowledge (4 of 6) Joe was terminated from his job and believed the reason was his boss did not like him and his hard work was not appreciated. Joe likely has A. high emotional stability. B. an internal locus of control. C. low self‐efficacy. D. an external locus of control. E. low self‐esteem. ©McGraw‐Hill Education. The Value of Being Emotionally Intelligent Emotional intelligence (EI) The ability to monitor one’s own emotions and those of others, to discriminate among them, and to use this information to guide one’s thinking and actions ©McGraw‐Hill Education. Key Components of Emotional Intelligence Personal Competence Social Competence Self‐awareness Social awareness Self‐management Relationship management Benefits/Drawbacks of EI Better social relationships Greater well‐being Increased satisfaction No clear link to improved job performance Research remains unclear ©McGraw‐Hill Education. Emotions and Performance What are emotions? • Emotions are complex, relatively brief responses aimed at a particular person, information, experience, or event. • Emotions can change our psychological and physiological states. • There are both positive and negative emotions plus past versus future emotions. ©McGraw‐Hill Education. Managing Emotions at Work Anger Fear People are angry about what happened or did not happen in the past. People are afraid of things that might happen in the future. Anger is a “backward‐looking” or retrospective emotion. Fear is a “forward‐looking” or prospective emotion. Knowing this, managers can guide their own actions as to how they communicate with employees knowing their reactions to events. But, organizations have emotion display norms, or rules that dictate which types of emotions are expected and appropriate for their members to show. ©McGraw‐Hill Education. Test Your OB Knowledge (5 of 6) Liu has a goal to work hard and eventually apply for a promotion at the Great Grain Company. Liu is most likely to exhibit positive emotions if A. the emotions are congruent with his goal. B. he has emotional intelligence. C. the emotions are incongruent with his goal. D. he feels inadequate. E. he had a bad experience being promoted at his former company. ©McGraw‐Hill Education. Test Your OB Knowledge (6 of 6) Jessica would like to be a best‐selling author. She studied OB and knows this will take at least 10,000 hours of deliberate practice. Jessica should do all of the following EXCEPT A. identify aspects of performance that need improvement. B. get a coach to receive feedback. C. study other writers and their works. D. take breaks to maintain concentration. E. only practice as long as it remains fun. ©McGraw‐Hill Education. Individual Differences: Putting It All in Context Figure 3.6 Organizing Framework for Understanding and Applying OB Jump to Appendix 3 for description ©McGraw‐Hill Education. Copyright 2014 Angelo Kinicki and Mel Fugate. All rights reserved. Reproduction prohibited without permission of the authors. Appendix 1 The Differences Matter Organizational, Internal Context Important individual differences at work, moving from relatively fixed to relatively flexible: • • • • Intelligence Cognitive abilities Personality Core self‐evaluations • • • • Self‐efficacy Self‐esteem Locus of control Emotional stability • Attitudes • Emotions Individual level work outcomes would be job performance, job satisfaction, turnover, organizational citizenship behaviors, and counterproductive work behaviors. Return to slide ©McGraw‐Hill Education. Appendix 2 How Self‐Efficacy Works The graphic outlines how self‐efficacy works: Sources of self‐efficacy beliefs Prior experience Behavior models Persuasion from others Assessment of physical and emotional state Feedback, self‐efficacy beliefs High: “I know I can do this job.” Low: “I don’t think I can get the job done.” Behavioral patterns under the high feedback: Be active, select best opportunities. Manage the situation, avoid or neutralize obstacles. Set goals, establish standards. Plan, prepare, practice. Try hard, preserve. Creatively solve problems. Learn from setbacks. Visualize success. Limit stress. This behavior can lead to success. Behavioral patterns under the low self‐efficacy: Be passive. Avoid difficult tasks. Develop weak aspirations and low commitment. Focus on personal deficiencies. Don’t even try, make a weak effort. Quit or become discouraged because of setbacks. Blame setbacks on lack of ability or bad luck. Worry, experience stress, become depressed. Think of excuses for failing. This behavior leads to failure. Return to slide ©McGraw‐Hill Education. Appendix 3 Organizing Framework for Understanding and Applying OB The graphic shows the relationship between the three categories Inputs, Process, and Outcomes. Inputs • Person Factors • Intelligences • Personality • Proactive personality • Core self‐evaluation • Self‐efficacy • Locus of control • Self‐esteem • Emotional intelligence • Situation Factors Leads to Processes Individual Level • Emotions Group/Team Level • Group/team dynamics Organizational Level Leads to Outcomes Individual Level • Task performance • Work attitudes • Well‐being/flourishing • Turnover • Career outcomes Group/Team Level • Group/team performance • Group satisfaction Organizational Level • Financial performance • Survival • Reputation Return to slide ©McGraw‐Hill Education. CHAPTER 2 Values and Attitudes ©McGraw‐Hill Education. All rights reserved. Authorized only for instructor use in the classroom. No reproduction or further distribution permitted without the prior written consent of McGraw‐Hill Education. VALUES AND ATTITUDES Outline Personal Values Personal Attitudes and Their Impact on Behavior and Outcomes Key Workplace Attitudes The Causes of Job Satisfaction Major Correlates and Consequences of Job Satisfaction ©McGraw‐Hill Education. Major Questions You Should Be Able to Answer 2.1 What role do values play in influencing my behavior? 2.2 How do personal attitudes affect workplace behavior and work‐related outcomes? 2.3 Why should management pay attention to workplace attitudes? 2.4 How can changes in the workplace improve job satisfaction? 2.5 What work‐related outcomes are associated with job satisfaction? ©McGraw‐Hill Education. Personal Values Are… Abstract ideals that guide one’s thinking and behavior across all situations ©McGraw‐Hill Education. Schwartz’s Value Theory Values are motivational & Represent broad goals over time Bipolar values are incongruent while Adjacent values are complementary Jump to Appendix 1 for description ©McGraw‐Hill Education. Source: S.H. Schwartz, “An Overview of the Schwartz Theory of Basic Values,” Online Readings in Psychology and Culture 2(1), December 1, 2012, http//dx.doi.org/10.9707/2307‐0919.116. Implications of Schwartz’s Value Theory Workplace Application • Managers can better manage their employees when they understand an employees' values and motivation • Pursuit of incongruent goals may lead to conflicting employee actions and behaviors Personal Application • Employees will derive more meaning from work by pursuing goals that are consistent with their values ©McGraw‐Hill Education. What Do We Know About Values? A person’s values are stable over time but personal values vary across generations and cultures. Attracting employees whose personal values align with those of the organization yields many benefits. • Lower employee turnover • Higher employee retention • Higher employee engagement • Increased customer satisfaction ©McGraw‐Hill Education. Test Your OB Knowledge (1 of 6) Which of the following statements is NOT true about personal values? A. In general, values are relatively stable across time and situations. B. Values tend to vary across generations. C. Schwartz’s value theory can be generalized across cultures. D. Values are not motivational in nature. E. Not all values are compatible. ©McGraw‐Hill Education. Personal Attitudes Encompass our feelings or opinions about people, places, and objects Comprised of theses three components: 1. Affective — Feelings 2. Cognitive — Beliefs 3. Behavioral — Intentions ©McGraw‐Hill Education. When Attitudes and Reality Collide We experience Cognitive Dissonance We can reduce it by Changing an attitude or behavior or both Belittling the importance of the inconsistent behavior Finding consonant elements that outweigh dissonant ones ©McGraw‐Hill Education. Our Personal Attitudes Affect Behavior via Our Intentions Ajzen’s Theory of Planned Behavior Jump to Appendix 2 for description ©McGraw‐Hill Education. Source: I. Ajzen, “The Theory of Planned Behavior,” Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes,Vol. 50, No. 2, Copyright 1991. Test Your OB Knowledge (2 of 6) José is considering volunteering to help his company with its annual food drive. Which of the following is NOT an indicator of whether he will do so? A. José thinks the food bank is a great way to help his community. B. José is already volunteering at the animal shelter. C. José’s boss expects him to volunteer. D. José’s company gives employees a day off to volunteer. E. The food bank is located close to José’s home. ©McGraw‐Hill Education. Key Workplace Attitudes Some workplace attitudes are more potent than others. The following four are especially powerful: Organizational Commitment Employee Engagement Perceived Organizational Support Job Satisfaction ©McGraw‐Hill Education. Organizational Commitment (1 of 2) The extent to which an employee identifies with an organization and is committed to its goals. And it leads to ©McGraw‐Hill Education. • Greater employee retention • Greater motivation in pursuit of organizational goals Organizational Commitment (2 of 2) Increasing Employee Commitment • Hire those whose personal values most align with those of the organization. • Guard against managerial breaches of psychological contracts. • Build the level of trust. ©McGraw‐Hill Education. What Is Employee Engagement? The extent to which employees give it their all to their work roles. And includes the feeling of Urgency Being Focused Intensity Enthusiasm ©McGraw‐Hill Education. What Contributes to Employee Engagement? A mix of Organizational Level Factors, Person Factors, and Environmental Characteristics ©McGraw‐Hill Education. Employee Engagement Increases in Employee Engagement has been linked to Increased Customer Loyalty and Satisfaction Increased Employee Performance Increased Employee Well‐being Greater Financial Performance ©McGraw‐Hill Education. Perceived Organizational Support It is the extent to which employees believe that the organization • Values their contributions • Genuinely cares about their well‐being ©McGraw‐Hill Education. Perceived Organizational Support Associated with Increased organizational commitment Job satisfaction Organizational citizenship behavior Task performance Lower turnover ©McGraw‐Hill Education. Test Your OB Knowledge (3 of 6) Sandra manages the marketing department for the Greener Grass Corporation. In an effort to increase employee engagement, Sandra could try all the following EXCEPT A. Redesign jobs so that workers have variety and feedback. B. Take a class to learn how to be a charismatic leader. C. Try to limit the stressors in the workplace. D. As staff leave, replace them with new hires who score high in pessimism on a personality test. E. Provide recognition to employees who perform well. ©McGraw‐Hill Education. Job Satisfaction Is… An affective or emotional response toward various facets of one’s job In other words, it is the extent to which an individual likes his or her job ©McGraw‐Hill Education. Models Job Satisfaction Model How Management Can Boost Job Satisfaction Need fulfillment Understand and meet employees’ needs. Met expectations Meet expectations of employees about what they will receive from job. Value attainment Structure the job and its rewards to match employee values. Equity Monitor employee’ perceptions of fairness and interact with them so they feel fairly treated. Disposition/genetic components Hire employees with an appropriate disposition. ©McGraw‐Hill Education. Test Your OB Knowledge (4 of 6) David, an accountant with Brighter Future Corporation, is experiencing job dissatisfaction due to comparing how hard he works and how much he gets paid versus his perception of a coworker’s effort and reward. David’s dissatisfaction can be explained by ______ model. A. disposition/genetic components B. equity C. need fulfillment D. value attainment E. met expectations ©McGraw‐Hill Education. Outcomes Linked with Job Satisfaction Attitudes Behaviors Motivation Job Performance Job Involvement Organizational Citizenship Behavior (OCB) Withdrawal Cognitions Perceived Stress Counterproductive Work Behavior (CWB) Turnover ©McGraw‐Hill Education. Job Satisfaction & Job Performance Research tells us that job satisfaction and performance Are moderately related Indirectly influence each other Better to consider the relationship at the business unit le ...
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ProfessorGivoh
School: University of Virginia

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Running head: PROBLEM-SOLVING APPLICATION CASE ESSAY

Problem-Solving Application Case Essay: Amazon
Student’s Name
Institution

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PROBLEM-SOLVING APPLICATION CASE ESSAY

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Introduction
Problem-solving is the system of thoughts and actions that individuals take to fix issues
or challenges for themselves or other people. Problem-solving is a job skill that is required in all
position within the organization. It is important to ensure that workplace problems are well
tackled to avoid more problems being created. There are 3-steps required in a problem-solving
approach to organizational behavior. One, it is through identification of the problem. The issue at
hand should be identified and observed closely to form an image that is detailed of what is
wrong. Analysis of the behavior of employees, organizational policies, and the procedures of
operations is very critical in the first step. Focusing on the problem and resisting the need for
defining the problem in terms of a solution should be done. However, the problem should be
defined as per the desired outcomes (Kinicki & Fugate, 2018). The second step is the
identification of the causes. This should be correctly identified as it helps in the last step.
Identification of the causes can be made by asking the question such as how or why does this
cause the problem? The last step is the make recommendations and implementation of solutions.
It is important to be creative and think logically at this stage. All the possible alternatives are
compared, and the expectations from the various strategies that can be taken are also analyzed.
After all the options are considered, the best strategy is implemented through drawing up the
action plan. Strong problem-solving is essential in any organization using defining the problem,
identifying the causes, and implementation of solutions.
The case with Amazon
Amazon is an organization that has faced organizational issues, and this requires
problem-solving skills to improve the overall functioning of the company. The corporate culture
of Amazon is demanding as there are standards expected to be met by all the employees. The

PROBLEM-SOL...

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