# Formula Questions XRF instruments

*label*Science

*timer*Asked: Feb 7th, 2019

*account_balance_wallet*$9.99

### Question Description

**to answer these Qs:**

**Chapter 9**

- Exercise 9.7
- Exercise 9.8
- Exercise 9.12

**Chapter 10**

Look up information from the vendor on the following XRF instruments;

- Rigaku ZSX Primus IV,
- Rigaku NEX DE,
- Bruker S1 Titan.

Determine what elements will it detect and give one example of an application from the vendor.

**Attachment preview**

Notes on StatisticsBy S.E. Van BramerMarch 8, 19951.Terminologya.Indeterminate (random) error: evaluate with statisticsb.Determinate (systematic) error: evaluate with reference standards.c.Gross error: big mistake, like spilling everything on the floor.d.One sided probability: Use one sided probability if comparing the size ormagnitude from two different data sets (ie. a is larger than b). e.Two sided probability: Use two sided probability if comparing two differentdata sets for a difference (ie. a is different than b).f.Population: This refers to a set of all possible measurements. This is an idealthat can only be approached. Greek letters are used to symbolize populationstatisticsg.Sample: This refers to a set of actual measurements. The distinction betweensample and population statistics is most important for a small number ofmeasurements (less than 20).h.t-Test: This is one of the most powerful and widely used statistical tests. The t-test (Student's t) is used to calculate the confidence intervals of a measurementwhen the population standard deviation ()) is not know. Which is usually thecase. The t-test is also used to compare two averages. The t-test corrects for theuncertainty of the sample standard deviation (s) caused by taking a small numberof samples.i.Detection Limiti.Action Limit; L 2), 97.7% certain that signal observed is not randomcnoise.ii.Detection Limit; L 3), 93.3% certain to detect signal above the 2) actionDlimit when the analyte is at this concentration.iii.Quantitation Limit; L 10), Signal required for 10% RSD.Qiv.Type I Error; Type I error is identification of random noise as signal. v.Type II Error; Type II error is not identifying signal that is present.

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## Tutor Answer

Attached.

Added Fe

0

5

10

25

Detector Output

5.9

11

16.1

1

Correlation coefficient =1

(a)

DCP-AES

18

y = 5.1x + 0.8

R² = 1

16

Detector Output

14

12

10

8

Series1

6

Linear (Series1)

4

2

0

0

0.5

1

1.5

Added Fe

(b)

Column1

Mean

5

Standard Error2.886751346

Median

5

Mode

#N/A

Standard Deviation

5

Sample Variance

25

Kurtosis

#DIV/0!

Skewness

0

Range

10

Minimum

0

Maximum

10

Sum

15

Count

3

Confidence Level(95.0%)

12.42069

©

relative error

0.02846975

2

2.5

3

3.5

The error is experimental from inaccuracies like a wrong experimental setup ...

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