# Formula Questions XRF instruments

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### Question Description

Chapter 9

• Exercise 9.7
• Exercise 9.8
• Exercise 9.12

Chapter 10

Look up information from the vendor on the following XRF instruments;

• Rigaku ZSX Primus IV,
• Rigaku NEX DE,
• Bruker S1 Titan.

Determine what elements will it detect and give one example of an application from the vendor.

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Notes on StatisticsBy S.E. Van BramerMarch 8, 19951.Terminologya.Indeterminate (random) error: evaluate with statisticsb.Determinate (systematic) error: evaluate with reference standards.c.Gross error: big mistake, like spilling everything on the floor.d.One sided probability:  Use one sided probability if comparing the size ormagnitude from two different data sets (ie. a is larger than b).  e.Two sided probability:  Use two sided probability if comparing two differentdata sets for a difference (ie. a is different than b).f.Population:  This refers to a set of all possible measurements.  This is an idealthat can only be approached.  Greek letters are used to symbolize populationstatisticsg.Sample:  This refers to a set of actual measurements.  The distinction betweensample and population statistics is most important for a small number ofmeasurements (less than 20).h.t-Test:  This is one of the most powerful and widely used statistical tests.  The t-test (Student's t) is used to calculate the confidence intervals of a measurementwhen the population standard deviation ()) is not know.  Which is usually thecase.  The t-test is also used to compare two averages.  The t-test corrects for theuncertainty of the sample standard deviation (s) caused by taking a small numberof samples.i.Detection Limiti.Action Limit; L 2), 97.7% certain that signal observed is not randomcnoise.ii.Detection Limit; L 3), 93.3% certain to detect signal above the 2) actionDlimit when the analyte is at this concentration.iii.Quantitation Limit; L   10), Signal required for 10% RSD.Qiv.Type I Error;  Type I error is identification of random noise as signal.  v.Type II Error; Type II error is not identifying signal that is present.

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JeffDaniels
School: Boston College

Attached.

0
5
10
25

Detector Output
5.9
11
16.1
1

Correlation coefficient =1

(a)

DCP-AES
18
y = 5.1x + 0.8
R² = 1

16

Detector Output

14
12
10
8

Series1

6

Linear (Series1)

4
2
0
0

0.5

1

1.5

(b)
Column1
Mean
5
Standard Error2.886751346
Median
5
Mode
#N/A
Standard Deviation
5
Sample Variance
25
Kurtosis
#DIV/0!
Skewness
0
Range
10
Minimum
0
Maximum
10
Sum
15
Count
3
Confidence Level(95.0%)
12.42069
relative error
0.02846975

2

2.5

3

3.5

The error is experimental from inaccuracies like a wrong experimental setup ...

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Review

Anonymous
awesome work thanks

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