summarize an article about (Cross-border movement, economic development and malaria elimination in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia)

timer Asked: Feb 8th, 2019
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you have all the information that you need in the file i need it done with in 6 hours pleas

it must be 2 pages

there are 3 Pic in the article you have to explain one of them

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Wilkerson Due: __________________ (25 pts.) This exercise is designed to introduce you to the wealth of information available through research publications in scholarly journals at MSU. For this assignment you will focus on a geographic topic, but remember that regardless of your major, your discipline publishes research in scholarly journals. This aspect of library research should become invaluable to the rest of your career! What you will learn from completing this exercise: • The difference between a peer-reviewed scholarly research journal (science) and commercial magazines. • How to search for geographic topics in the MSU electronic library databases. • How to use references cited in journal publications. What you will do to complete this exercise: • Find a professional research (scholarly) journal article that presents research on some topic in geography. • Start your topic search by looking for research that has been published in 2017-2019. • Focus on some topic that is of interest to you, maybe something we mentioned during class but didn’t have time to explore in-depth: alternative energy sources, global warming, population growth, religions, economic geography, urban geography, or a specific country or region, etc. • Summarize the research presented in the article including the methods used and the results. • Consult the references cited within the article and look one up. Review the cited article. Why was it cited? Background Information and Requirements The article that you choose must be published in a refereed (scholarly, peer reviewed) research journal. Articles submitted for publication in refereed journals are reviewed by other scholars and are subject to revision or rejection. This process attempts to insure that only reliable, high quality research results are published. Commercial magazines such as National Geographic, Scientific American, and Geo World pay their staff or hire guest writers. Even though these magazine articles may contain good scientific information, they are not subject to the rigorous process of peer review. Commercial magazines and trade journals are not suitable for this assignment. ➢ If the article does not have references cited within the text and a list of these cited references provided at the end of the article, it does not fulfill the requirements of this assignment. If the source you are using includes numerous color glossy photographs, chances are it is a commercial magazine, not a research journal. Please check with me, or a librarian, if you are not sure about your source. ➢ Pdf’s describing scholarly journals are posted on D2L or you can view a tutorial at the address provided above. ➢ Be aware that many professional journals contain portions that are not research summaries. Your article cannot be an editorial, a book review, or general article review. If you are not sure about something, please ask for help. Write-Up: Your article should be summarized and written-up as follows. Your final product should be typed (12 pt., double-spaced) and should be a minimum of two written pages (no more than three) plus the required attachments. 1) Include your name, GEOG 100-(Your section #), Exercise 1 in one line at the top of your first page and staple your assignment (1 pt.) 2) Identify the MSU library database you used to find your article. (ex. Science Direct) (1 pt.) 3) Provide a copy of the first page and the reference list of your 2017-2019 article (this should include the abstract, title, and authors on the first page, and the reference list on the other). Highlight or circle your chosen reference. (3 pts) 4) Summarize the research in your own words by describing the main points discussed in the article. This could include such things as unique methodology, new theories, results, discussion of controversy, etc. (What did they do, where, and why?) Be specific! (6 pts) 5) List at least two questions that you have about your article. These could include basic assumptions that you don't understand or don't believe; or questions about the methodology or any theories or results generated by the author(s). (4 pts) Wilkerson Due: __________________ (25 pts.) 6) From all the references cited in your article, pick one that you would most like to read. Summarize the article and explain why the authors cited that article. (6 pts) 7) Make your own reference list for your summary. This reference list should include the article you summarized in detail (#4) and the one you read from the reference list (#6). (4 pts.) Place your reference list either at the beginning or end of your summary. Because you are listing your references, do not repeat the titles of your articles in your summary, rather use an in-text citation to refer your reader to your reference list. For example, using the reference examples below, they would be referred to in your summary paragraphs as (Didier, 2001) and (Malanson et al. 2002). ➢ You just finished reading an article with multiple citations, notice how they are used! Making a Reference List Use the reference format below and include the following information: • All authors must be included and full names should be used if available. • The year of publication must be obvious. • Article titles must be included. • Full journal titles must be used (NO abbreviations for journal titles). • Journal volume, issue, and page numbers must be included. If you are not familiar with reference styles, follow these examples from the Annals of the Association of American Geographers: Author(s). Year. Title of the article capitalized sentence style. Full Journal Name in Italics. Volume (Issue number): page numbers. If the citation is more than one line long, all lines after the first are indented (a hanging indent). Didier, Lydie. 2001. Invasion patterns of European larch and Swiss stone pine in subalpine pastures in the French Alps. Forest Ecology and Management 145(1-2): 67-77. Malanson, George P., David R. Butler, David M. Cairns, Theresa E. Welsh, and Lynn M. Resler. 2002. Variability in an edaphic indicator in alpine tundra. Catena 49(3): 203-215. ➢ DO NOT just copy and paste the citations from your on-line search pages. It will be obvious that you have done this, and this is not acceptable (Plagiarism) and you will receive a score of Zero. You can access MSU’s Memorial Library online databases through either of the following library links: Article Databases A-Z or Class & Subject Guides ➢ Class & Subject Guides (check the different disciplines covered, but for this exercise you may want to use Geography and Earth Science) ➢ Alphabetical A-Z (this works best if you know the name of the database you want to access) Note: If you are working from home, or another non-university connection, you will be asked to log-in as an MSU user. Use your normal MSU login, and this will identify you as a paid subscriber to those databases. Examples of on-line MSU databases for geographic research include: ➢ ScienceDirect (strongly recommended) ➢ GeoRef ➢ GeoScienceWorld ➢ Academic Search Premier ➢ Environmental Issues & Policy If the database you are using does not provide full text articles or direct links to full text sources, use the Journals List search option on the main MSU Library home page. Type in the title of the journal (spelled correctly with no abbreviations) and it will tell you which MSU library databases carry that particular journal. Please, do not hesitate to ask for help if you have any trouble completing this assignment! ➢ Bring any questions to class, or during office hours (questions are too complicated for email) ➢ The Reference Librarians in the MSU Memorial Library are also very helpful!! Al Zahrani et al. BMC Medicine (2018) 16:98 CORRESPONDENCE Open Access Cross-border movement, economic development and malaria elimination in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia Mohammed H. Al Zahrani1*, Abdiasiis I. Omar1, Abdelmohsin M. O. Abdoon1, Ali Adam Ibrahim1, Abdullah Alhogail1, Mohamed Elmubarak1, Yousif Eldirdiry Elamin1, Mohammed A. AlHelal1, Ali M. Alshahrani2, Tarig M. Abdelgader2, Ibrahim Saeed2, Tageddin B. El Gamri3, Mohammed S. Alattas3, Abdu A. Dahlan3, Abdullah M. Assiri4, Joseph Maina5, Xiao Hong Li6 and Robert W. Snow5,7* Abstract Malaria at international borders presents particular challenges with regards to elimination. International borders share common malaria ecologies, yet neighboring countries are often at different stages of the control-to-elimination pathway. Herein, we present a case study on malaria, and its control, at the border between Saudi Arabia and Yemen. Malaria program activity reports, case data, and ancillary information have been assembled from national health information systems, archives, and other related sources. Information was analyzed as a semi-quantitative time series, between 2000 and 2017, to provide a plausibility framework to understand the possible contributions of factors related to control activities, conflict, economic development, migration, and climate. The malaria recession in the Yemeni border regions of Saudi Arabia is a likely consequence of multiple, coincidental factors, including scaled elimination activities, cross-border vector control, periods of low rainfall, and economic development. The temporal alignment of many of these factors suggests that economic development may have changed the receptivity to the extent that it mitigated against surges in vulnerability posed by imported malaria from its endemic neighbor Yemen. In many border areas of the world, malaria is likely to be sustained through a complex congruence of factors, including poverty, conflict, and migration. Keywords: Saudi Arabia, Migration, Yemen, Malaria, Elimination, Conflict Background Countries share international borders that pose specific challenges for malaria elimination and control [1]. National boundaries are political constructs without reference to the shared demographic, cultural, or social environments they bisect. People and disease vectors move between these map-drawn boundaries. Border malaria occurs because the contiguous areas share a common ecology, with frequent mixing of people, parasites, and vectors. Migrants who cross borders often represent vulnerable populations, fleeing economic hardship or civil or social disruption and * Correspondence:; 1 National Malaria Elimination Programme, Public Health Agency, Ministry of Health, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia 5 KEMRI-Wellcome Trust Research Programme, Nairobi, Kenya Full list of author information is available at the end of the article may stay under the radar of official statistics [2, 3] and formal health services [4]. The Saudi Arabia–Yemen border is an area where people share a common ancestry, cultural heritage, and malaria ecology. The border divides two countries at very different stages of the pathway to malaria elimination and economic development. The border spans 1326 km from the Red Sea to the border triangle with Oman. The most densely populated area is toward the Red Sea, including Jazan and Aseer regions in Saudi Arabia, which share a 330 km land border with Yemen, and represent the last remaining foci of malaria transmission in Saudi Arabia [5, 6]. Conversely, malaria transmission in Yemeni Governorates that border Jazan and Aseer remains persistently endemic despite some progress toward control prior to 2014 [7]. This paper reviews the impacts of cross-border malaria in the last remaining territories of malaria risk in Saudi © The Author(s). 2018 Open Access This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver ( applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated. Al Zahrani et al. BMC Medicine (2018) 16:98 Arabia, using assembled contextual data on the potential for transmission (receptivity), local elimination strategies with an emphasis on cross-border control activities, and rates of locally acquired and imported malaria (vulnerability) in Jazan and Aseer between 2000 and 2017. The border This region was once occupied by the Ottomans; however, Turkish occupation proved difficult, coming into conflict with the Zaydi Shiite Imamates in the 1880s. Following the First World War, North Yemen, the Mutawakkilite Kingdom of Yemen, was declared independent, and a provisional border treaty agreed in 1924 (Mecca Treaty) [8, 9]. During the late 1920s, the Mutawakkilite Kingdom began expanding its control along the Arabian shores moving toward Saudi Arabia as far as southern Aseer [8], bringing conflict between the two neighboring countries. This was resolved through the Treaty of Taif, signed in 1934 and establishing the boundary between the countries. The border established under this treaty represented political rather than tribal interests, but granted borderland residents the right to cross the Page 2 of 9 border through certain checkpoints without restrictions, whereas other Yemeni citizens were obliged to enter Saudi Arabia with regular passports and visas [8]. In 1962, the Yemen Arab Republic was formed, and the remaining areas of Yemeni territory became the People’s Democratic Republic of South Yemen in 1967. Unification of the Republic of Yemen was formalized in May 1990 [9]. A renewed effort was established to resolve the border margins with Yemen, which was finalized under the June 2000, Jeddah Treaty [10] (Fig. 1). The long undefined border, previously open for borderland residents’ crossings, was now fixed by state authorities and no longer negotiable [8, 10]. Saudi Arabia began to implement a border fortification and enhanced surveillance from 2004, including the beginnings of a fenced and concrete border project [11, 12], which was completed in 2009–2010. Economic development and conflict Petroleum was discovered in 1938 in the Al-Hasa region in the east, and Saudi Arabia is now the largest oil producer and exporter. From the 1970s, wealth generated by oil revenues has been channeled by the government Fig. 1 Neighboring regions/governorates along the border (red line) between Saudi Arabia and Yemen showing the desert areas (hatched areas) of Al Nafud and Rub Al Khali (the empty quarter); Insert showing margins of transmission in Jazan and Aseer regions, Saudi Arabia and Hajjar and Sadah governorates in Yemen: because of altitude greater than 2000 m (dark green) and deserts (light green) Al Zahrani et al. BMC Medicine (2018) 16:98 to increase the quality of life of most Saudis, including through urbanization, provision of primary, secondary and university education, improved healthcare systems, and new media. The GDP increased from US$ 7200 per capita in 1990 to US$ 20,730 in 2015 [13], while under five mortality fell from 44.3 to 14.5 per 1000 live births during the same period [14] (Fig. 2). Rapid economic development has not been equally enjoyed across the Kingdom. Economic investment in the south-western regions of the country did not significantly start until after 2000. Prior to this, many areas remained rural, without access to piped water, electricity or paved roads connecting major areas of service delivery. During the 1970s, the Jazan region was largely an agricultural, rural area, dependent on ground water [15]. Annual economic and development indicators since 2000 specific to the border regions are not available; however, night-time lights, observed from earth-orbiting satellites, are a useful proxy of development and urbanization in specific areas [16–19]. The expansion of malaria risk areas of Jazan and Aseer (Fig. 1, insert), now covered by intense night-time light, suggests rapid, economic growth from 2007 (Fig. 2), coinciding with revised economic and agricultural development plans for the region, including the development of one of the largest oil refineries in Saudi Arabia, the expanded economic and naval port at Jizan, the opening of a regional University, and the start of one of the largest economic city developments in Saudi Arabia [20]. Conversely, economic and development indicators for Yemen are the worst across the Arab world [21] and investment along the border in Yemen has been almost Page 3 of 9 non-existent for decades. The area has been subjected to civil disruption since the 1980s. The most recent crisis first escalated in June 2004 in the Sa’dah Governorate, when Houthi rebels came into conflict with Yemeni government forces, resulting in military clashes through to 2010, followed by a temporary cease fire in 2010 [22]. These conflicts led to a huge population migration [23]. The escalation of the civil war in Yemen began in July 2014, and further destabilized the Yemeni side of the border. The entire country is now in a humanitarian crisis of unprecedented proportions, with a complete breakdown of the economy and health systems, and more than 2 million Yemeni’s having been forcibly displaced because of the conflict [24, 25]. Cross-border movement Families who live along the border have close relatives living on opposite sides and there is frequent movement in both directions, following the historical migratory pattern. Since the late 1980s, there has been a rapid expansion of the agricultural sector in Jazan which has attracted informal labor from Yemen. Many illegal migrants cross the border every day, either returning the same day or staying for several days or more permanently. Following the completion of a physical barrier to cross-border movement in 2009–2010, migrants from Yemen now move either along the Red Sea from Haradh in Yemen to Altwal, Jazan, in Saudi Arabia, or make a more perilous journey through eastern mountain passes where a wall has not been built. Official statistics do not capture these illegal migrants, nor their precise number or the status of migrants after crossing the border. Since Fig. 2 National GDP per Capita (US$) (Black line) [13], national under five mortality per 1000 live births (Blue Line) [14], and percentage of surface area where the night-time light (NTL) index is greater than 35 in the malarious areas of Jazan and Aseer regions (Brown Line). The amount of NTL, representing a qualitative scaled measure of electric light seen from space, is measured on a 0- to 63-point scale, with dense light at night measured by a measure in excess of 35 [18]. The proportion of the malaria-risk surface area of Aseer and Jazan provinces covered by intense NTL (> 35) each year between 1993 and 2013 Al Zahrani et al. BMC Medicine (2018) 16:98 2014, the border area has been patrolled more rigorously. However, in February 2016, migrants waiting to cross into Saudi Arabia were allowed to cross in a single humanitarian gesture, resulting in thousands of migrants entering the Jazan region through the Al Mohammed area. Malaria ecology The stratification of malaria in both Saudi Arabia and Yemen has often included altitudinal and desert limits to Plasmodium falciparum and P. vivax transmission [26–28] (Fig. 1, insert). Both sides of the border, toward the Red Sea, belong to the Afro-tropical malaria ecological strata, sharing disease eco-types comparable to those of mainland Africa. The two main malaria vectors are Anopheles arabiensis and An. sergentii, with disputed and much smaller contributions from An. culicifacies var. adenensis and An. d’thali [29–31]. To understand the int ...
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Tutor Answer

School: Carnegie Mellon University

Hello, I'm done, I have attached an outline showing the key areas discussed in the summary as per the instructions, I have explained picture 3 in the third paragraph.



Article Summary



The selected article was found from Science Direct library database. The article “Crossborder movement, economic-development and malaria elimination in Saudi Arabia” was
published by Mohammed H. Al Zahrani among other authors. The article highlights how malaria
has become a threat to international borders. Secondly, the authors present the existing economic
development, conflict and cross-border movement between Saudi Arabia and Yemen. According
to the authors, most of the international borders have similar malaria ecologies. Therefore, the
article presents a case study on malaria infection, the causes and control mechanisms across Saudi
Arabia and Yemen. Among the malaria control measures that have been implemented in Yemen
are: - scaled elimination activities, economic development programs against malaria spread and
cross-border vector control (Al Zahrani et al, 2018). Throughout the article, malaria is said to be
imported since it can be transmitted from one nation to the other due to congruence factors such
as migration, poverty and conflict. Malaria infection in Saudi Arabia...

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Goes above and beyond expectations !

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