Due: __________________ (25 pts.)
This exercise is designed to introduce you to the wealth of information available through research publications
in scholarly journals at MSU. For this assignment you will focus on a geographic topic, but remember that regardless
of your major, your discipline publishes research in scholarly journals. This aspect of library research should become
invaluable to the rest of your career!
What you will learn from completing this exercise:
• The difference between a peer-reviewed scholarly research journal (science) and commercial magazines.
• How to search for geographic topics in the MSU electronic library databases.
• How to use references cited in journal publications.
What you will do to complete this exercise:
• Find a professional research (scholarly) journal article that presents research on some topic in geography.
• Start your topic search by looking for research that has been published in 2017-2019.
• Focus on some topic that is of interest to you, maybe something we mentioned during class but didn’t have
time to explore in-depth: alternative energy sources, global warming, population growth, religions, economic
geography, urban geography, or a specific country or region, etc.
• Summarize the research presented in the article including the methods used and the results.
• Consult the references cited within the article and look one up. Review the cited article. Why was it cited?
Background Information and Requirements
The article that you choose must be published in a refereed (scholarly, peer reviewed) research journal. Articles
submitted for publication in refereed journals are reviewed by other scholars and are subject to revision or rejection.
This process attempts to insure that only reliable, high quality research results are published.
Commercial magazines such as National Geographic, Scientific American, and Geo World pay their staff or hire
guest writers. Even though these magazine articles may contain good scientific information, they are not subject to the
rigorous process of peer review. Commercial magazines and trade journals are not suitable for this assignment.
➢ If the article does not have references cited within the text and a list of these cited references provided at the end of
the article, it does not fulfill the requirements of this assignment. If the source you are using includes numerous
color glossy photographs, chances are it is a commercial magazine, not a research journal. Please check with me,
or a librarian, if you are not sure about your source. http://libguides.mnsu.edu/content.php?pid=202797&sid=1775732
➢ Pdf’s describing scholarly journals are posted on D2L or you can view a tutorial at the address provided above.
➢ Be aware that many professional journals contain portions that are not research summaries. Your article cannot be
an editorial, a book review, or general article review. If you are not sure about something, please ask for help.
Write-Up: Your article should be summarized and written-up as follows. Your final product should be typed (12 pt.,
double-spaced) and should be a minimum of two written pages (no more than three) plus the required attachments.
1) Include your name, GEOG 100-(Your section #), Exercise 1 in one line at the top of your first page
and staple your assignment (1 pt.)
2) Identify the MSU library database you used to find your article. (ex. Science Direct) (1 pt.)
3) Provide a copy of the first page and the reference list of your 2017-2019 article (this should include
the abstract, title, and authors on the first page, and the reference list on the other). Highlight or circle
your chosen reference. (3 pts)
4) Summarize the research in your own words by describing the main points discussed in the article.
This could include such things as unique methodology, new theories, results, discussion of
controversy, etc. (What did they do, where, and why?) Be specific! (6 pts)
5) List at least two questions that you have about your article. These could include basic assumptions
that you don't understand or don't believe; or questions about the methodology or any theories or
results generated by the author(s). (4 pts)
Due: __________________ (25 pts.)
6) From all the references cited in your article, pick one that you would most like to read. Summarize
the article and explain why the authors cited that article. (6 pts)
7) Make your own reference list for your summary. This reference list should include the article you
summarized in detail (#4) and the one you read from the reference list (#6). (4 pts.)
Place your reference list either at the beginning or end of your summary. Because you are listing your
references, do not repeat the titles of your articles in your summary, rather use an in-text citation to
refer your reader to your reference list. For example, using the reference examples below, they would
be referred to in your summary paragraphs as (Didier, 2001) and (Malanson et al. 2002).
➢ You just finished reading an article with multiple citations, notice how they are used!
Making a Reference List
Use the reference format below and include the following information:
• All authors must be included and full names should be used if available.
• The year of publication must be obvious.
• Article titles must be included.
• Full journal titles must be used (NO abbreviations for journal titles).
• Journal volume, issue, and page numbers must be included.
If you are not familiar with reference styles, follow these examples from the Annals of the Association of American Geographers:
Author(s). Year. Title of the article capitalized sentence style. Full Journal Name in Italics. Volume (Issue number):
page numbers. If the citation is more than one line long, all lines after the first are indented (a hanging indent).
Didier, Lydie. 2001. Invasion patterns of European larch and Swiss stone pine in subalpine pastures in the French
Alps. Forest Ecology and Management 145(1-2): 67-77.
Malanson, George P., David R. Butler, David M. Cairns, Theresa E. Welsh, and Lynn M. Resler. 2002. Variability in
an edaphic indicator in alpine tundra. Catena 49(3): 203-215.
➢ DO NOT just copy and paste the citations from your on-line search pages. It will be obvious that you have
done this, and this is not acceptable (Plagiarism) and you will receive a score of Zero.
You can access MSU’s Memorial Library online databases through either of the following library links:
Article Databases A-Z or Class & Subject Guides
➢ Class & Subject Guides (check the different disciplines covered, but for this exercise you may want to use
Geography and Earth Science)
➢ Alphabetical A-Z (this works best if you know the name of the database you want to access)
Note: If you are working from home, or another non-university connection, you will be asked to log-in as an MSU user. Use your
normal MSU login, and this will identify you as a paid subscriber to those databases.
Examples of on-line MSU databases for geographic research include:
➢ ScienceDirect (strongly recommended)
➢ Academic Search Premier
➢ Environmental Issues & Policy
If the database you are using does not provide full text articles or direct links to full text sources, use the
Journals List search option on the main MSU Library home page. Type in the title of the journal (spelled correctly
with no abbreviations) and it will tell you which MSU library databases carry that particular journal.
Please, do not hesitate to ask for help if you have any trouble completing this assignment!
➢ Bring any questions to class, or during office hours (questions are too complicated for email)
➢ The Reference Librarians in the MSU Memorial Library are also very helpful!!
Al Zahrani et al. BMC Medicine (2018) 16:98
Cross-border movement, economic
development and malaria elimination in
the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
Mohammed H. Al Zahrani1*, Abdiasiis I. Omar1, Abdelmohsin M. O. Abdoon1, Ali Adam Ibrahim1,
Abdullah Alhogail1, Mohamed Elmubarak1, Yousif Eldirdiry Elamin1, Mohammed A. AlHelal1, Ali M. Alshahrani2,
Tarig M. Abdelgader2, Ibrahim Saeed2, Tageddin B. El Gamri3, Mohammed S. Alattas3, Abdu A. Dahlan3,
Abdullah M. Assiri4, Joseph Maina5, Xiao Hong Li6 and Robert W. Snow5,7*
Malaria at international borders presents particular challenges with regards to elimination. International borders share
common malaria ecologies, yet neighboring countries are often at different stages of the control-to-elimination
pathway. Herein, we present a case study on malaria, and its control, at the border between Saudi Arabia and Yemen.
Malaria program activity reports, case data, and ancillary information have been assembled from national health
information systems, archives, and other related sources. Information was analyzed as a semi-quantitative time series,
between 2000 and 2017, to provide a plausibility framework to understand the possible contributions of factors related
to control activities, conflict, economic development, migration, and climate. The malaria recession in the Yemeni
border regions of Saudi Arabia is a likely consequence of multiple, coincidental factors, including scaled elimination
activities, cross-border vector control, periods of low rainfall, and economic development. The temporal alignment of
many of these factors suggests that economic development may have changed the receptivity to the extent that it
mitigated against surges in vulnerability posed by imported malaria from its endemic neighbor Yemen. In many border
areas of the world, malaria is likely to be sustained through a complex congruence of factors, including poverty,
conflict, and migration.
Keywords: Saudi Arabia, Migration, Yemen, Malaria, Elimination, Conflict
Countries share international borders that pose specific
challenges for malaria elimination and control . National
boundaries are political constructs without reference to the
shared demographic, cultural, or social environments they
bisect. People and disease vectors move between these
map-drawn boundaries. Border malaria occurs because the
contiguous areas share a common ecology, with frequent
mixing of people, parasites, and vectors. Migrants who
cross borders often represent vulnerable populations,
fleeing economic hardship or civil or social disruption and
* Correspondence: email@example.com; firstname.lastname@example.org
National Malaria Elimination Programme, Public Health Agency, Ministry of
Health, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
KEMRI-Wellcome Trust Research Programme, Nairobi, Kenya
Full list of author information is available at the end of the article
may stay under the radar of official statistics [2, 3] and
formal health services .
The Saudi Arabia–Yemen border is an area where people
share a common ancestry, cultural heritage, and malaria
ecology. The border divides two countries at very different
stages of the pathway to malaria elimination and economic
development. The border spans 1326 km from the Red Sea
to the border triangle with Oman. The most densely populated area is toward the Red Sea, including Jazan and Aseer
regions in Saudi Arabia, which share a 330 km land border
with Yemen, and represent the last remaining foci of
malaria transmission in Saudi Arabia [5, 6]. Conversely,
malaria transmission in Yemeni Governorates that border
Jazan and Aseer remains persistently endemic despite some
progress toward control prior to 2014 .
This paper reviews the impacts of cross-border malaria
in the last remaining territories of malaria risk in Saudi
© The Author(s). 2018 Open Access This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0
International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and
reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to
the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver
(http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.
Al Zahrani et al. BMC Medicine (2018) 16:98
Arabia, using assembled contextual data on the potential
for transmission (receptivity), local elimination strategies
with an emphasis on cross-border control activities, and
rates of locally acquired and imported malaria (vulnerability) in Jazan and Aseer between 2000 and 2017.
This region was once occupied by the Ottomans; however, Turkish occupation proved difficult, coming into
conflict with the Zaydi Shiite Imamates in the 1880s.
Following the First World War, North Yemen, the Mutawakkilite Kingdom of Yemen, was declared independent,
and a provisional border treaty agreed in 1924 (Mecca
Treaty) [8, 9]. During the late 1920s, the Mutawakkilite
Kingdom began expanding its control along the Arabian
shores moving toward Saudi Arabia as far as southern
Aseer , bringing conflict between the two neighboring
countries. This was resolved through the Treaty of Taif,
signed in 1934 and establishing the boundary between
the countries. The border established under this treaty
represented political rather than tribal interests, but
granted borderland residents the right to cross the
Page 2 of 9
border through certain checkpoints without restrictions,
whereas other Yemeni citizens were obliged to enter
Saudi Arabia with regular passports and visas .
In 1962, the Yemen Arab Republic was formed, and
the remaining areas of Yemeni territory became the
People’s Democratic Republic of South Yemen in 1967.
Unification of the Republic of Yemen was formalized in
May 1990 . A renewed effort was established to
resolve the border margins with Yemen, which was
finalized under the June 2000, Jeddah Treaty  (Fig. 1).
The long undefined border, previously open for borderland
residents’ crossings, was now fixed by state authorities and
no longer negotiable [8, 10]. Saudi Arabia began to implement a border fortification and enhanced surveillance from
2004, including the beginnings of a fenced and concrete
border project [11, 12], which was completed in 2009–2010.
Economic development and conflict
Petroleum was discovered in 1938 in the Al-Hasa region
in the east, and Saudi Arabia is now the largest oil producer and exporter. From the 1970s, wealth generated
by oil revenues has been channeled by the government
Fig. 1 Neighboring regions/governorates along the border (red line) between Saudi Arabia and Yemen showing the desert areas (hatched areas)
of Al Nafud and Rub Al Khali (the empty quarter); Insert showing margins of transmission in Jazan and Aseer regions, Saudi Arabia and Hajjar and
Sadah governorates in Yemen: because of altitude greater than 2000 m (dark green) and deserts (light green)
Al Zahrani et al. BMC Medicine (2018) 16:98
to increase the quality of life of most Saudis, including
through urbanization, provision of primary, secondary
and university education, improved healthcare systems,
and new media. The GDP increased from US$ 7200 per
capita in 1990 to US$ 20,730 in 2015 , while under
five mortality fell from 44.3 to 14.5 per 1000 live births
during the same period  (Fig. 2).
Rapid economic development has not been equally
enjoyed across the Kingdom. Economic investment in
the south-western regions of the country did not significantly start until after 2000. Prior to this, many areas
remained rural, without access to piped water, electricity
or paved roads connecting major areas of service delivery. During the 1970s, the Jazan region was largely an
agricultural, rural area, dependent on ground water .
Annual economic and development indicators since
2000 specific to the border regions are not available;
however, night-time lights, observed from earth-orbiting
satellites, are a useful proxy of development and
urbanization in specific areas [16–19]. The expansion of
malaria risk areas of Jazan and Aseer (Fig. 1, insert), now
covered by intense night-time light, suggests rapid, economic growth from 2007 (Fig. 2), coinciding with revised
economic and agricultural development plans for the region, including the development of one of the largest oil
refineries in Saudi Arabia, the expanded economic and
naval port at Jizan, the opening of a regional University,
and the start of one of the largest economic city developments in Saudi Arabia .
Conversely, economic and development indicators for
Yemen are the worst across the Arab world  and investment along the border in Yemen has been almost
Page 3 of 9
non-existent for decades. The area has been subjected to
civil disruption since the 1980s. The most recent crisis
first escalated in June 2004 in the Sa’dah Governorate,
when Houthi rebels came into conflict with Yemeni government forces, resulting in military clashes through to
2010, followed by a temporary cease fire in 2010 .
These conflicts led to a huge population migration .
The escalation of the civil war in Yemen began in July
2014, and further destabilized the Yemeni side of the
border. The entire country is now in a humanitarian crisis
of unprecedented proportions, with a complete breakdown of the economy and health systems, and more than
2 million Yemeni’s having been forcibly displaced because
of the conflict [24, 25].
Families who live along the border have close relatives
living on opposite sides and there is frequent movement
in both directions, following the historical migratory
pattern. Since the late 1980s, there has been a rapid
expansion of the agricultural sector in Jazan which has
attracted informal labor from Yemen. Many illegal
migrants cross the border every day, either returning the
same day or staying for several days or more permanently. Following the completion of a physical barrier to
cross-border movement in 2009–2010, migrants from
Yemen now move either along the Red Sea from Haradh
in Yemen to Altwal, Jazan, in Saudi Arabia, or make a
more perilous journey through eastern mountain passes
where a wall has not been built. Official statistics do not
capture these illegal migrants, nor their precise number
or the status of migrants after crossing the border. Since
Fig. 2 National GDP per Capita (US$) (Black line) , national under five mortality per 1000 live births (Blue Line) , and percentage of surface
area where the night-time light (NTL) index is greater than 35 in the malarious areas of Jazan and Aseer regions (Brown Line). The amount of
NTL, representing a qualitative scaled measure of electric light seen from space, is measured on a 0- to 63-point scale, with dense light at night
measured by a measure in excess of 35 . The proportion of the malaria-risk surface area of Aseer and Jazan provinces covered by intense NTL
(> 35) each year between 1993 and 2013
Al Zahrani et al. BMC Medicine (2018) 16:98
2014, the border area has been patrolled more rigorously.
However, in February 2016, migrants waiting to cross into
Saudi Arabia were allowed to cross in a single humanitarian gesture, resulting in thousands of migrants entering
the Jazan region through the Al Mohammed area.
The stratification of malaria in both Saudi Arabia and
Yemen has often included altitudinal and desert limits
to Plasmodium falciparum and P. vivax transmission
[26–28] (Fig. 1, insert). Both sides of the border, toward
the Red Sea, belong to the Afro-tropical malaria ecological strata, sharing disease eco-types comparable to
those of mainland Africa. The two main malaria vectors
are Anopheles arabiensis and An. sergentii, with disputed
and much smaller contributions from An. culicifacies
var. adenensis and An. d’thali [29–31].
To understand the int ...
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