GEOG100 MSU Harrat Rahat Volcanic Field summary

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I want you to summarize the article that you will find it in the file and there is some steps that in the exercise one

it must be 2 pages. try to explain at lest one of the Pic that in the article. pleas use simple words. and the last thing all the informations that you will need you will find it in the file

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Wilkerson Due: __________________ (25 pts.) This exercise is designed to introduce you to the wealth of information available through research publications in scholarly journals at MSU. For this assignment you will focus on a geographic topic, but remember that regardless of your major, your discipline publishes research in scholarly journals. This aspect of library research should become invaluable to the rest of your career! What you will learn from completing this exercise: • The difference between a peer-reviewed scholarly research journal (science) and commercial magazines. • How to search for geographic topics in the MSU electronic library databases. • How to use references cited in journal publications. What you will do to complete this exercise: • Find a professional research (scholarly) journal article that presents research on some topic in geography. • Start your topic search by looking for research that has been published in 2017-2019. • Focus on some topic that is of interest to you, maybe something we mentioned during class but didn’t have time to explore in-depth: alternative energy sources, global warming, population growth, religions, economic geography, urban geography, or a specific country or region, etc. • Summarize the research presented in the article including the methods used and the results. • Consult the references cited within the article and look one up. Review the cited article. Why was it cited? Background Information and Requirements The article that you choose must be published in a refereed (scholarly, peer reviewed) research journal. Articles submitted for publication in refereed journals are reviewed by other scholars and are subject to revision or rejection. This process attempts to insure that only reliable, high quality research results are published. Commercial magazines such as National Geographic, Scientific American, and Geo World pay their staff or hire guest writers. Even though these magazine articles may contain good scientific information, they are not subject to the rigorous process of peer review. Commercial magazines and trade journals are not suitable for this assignment. ➢ If the article does not have references cited within the text and a list of these cited references provided at the end of the article, it does not fulfill the requirements of this assignment. If the source you are using includes numerous color glossy photographs, chances are it is a commercial magazine, not a research journal. Please check with me, or a librarian, if you are not sure about your source. ➢ Pdf’s describing scholarly journals are posted on D2L or you can view a tutorial at the address provided above. ➢ Be aware that many professional journals contain portions that are not research summaries. Your article cannot be an editorial, a book review, or general article review. If you are not sure about something, please ask for help. Write-Up: Your article should be summarized and written-up as follows. Your final product should be typed (12 pt., double-spaced) and should be a minimum of two written pages (no more than three) plus the required attachments. 1) Include your name, GEOG 100-(Your section #), Exercise 1 in one line at the top of your first page and staple your assignment (1 pt.) 2) Identify the MSU library database you used to find your article. (ex. Science Direct) (1 pt.) 3) Provide a copy of the first page and the reference list of your 2017-2019 article (this should include the abstract, title, and authors on the first page, and the reference list on the other). Highlight or circle your chosen reference. (3 pts) 4) Summarize the research in your own words by describing the main points discussed in the article. This could include such things as unique methodology, new theories, results, discussion of controversy, etc. (What did they do, where, and why?) Be specific! (6 pts) 5) List at least two questions that you have about your article. These could include basic assumptions that you don't understand or don't believe; or questions about the methodology or any theories or results generated by the author(s). (4 pts) Wilkerson Due: __________________ (25 pts.) 6) From all the references cited in your article, pick one that you would most like to read. Summarize the article and explain why the authors cited that article. (6 pts) 7) Make your own reference list for your summary. This reference list should include the article you summarized in detail (#4) and the one you read from the reference list (#6). (4 pts.) Place your reference list either at the beginning or end of your summary. Because you are listing your references, do not repeat the titles of your articles in your summary, rather use an in-text citation to refer your reader to your reference list. For example, using the reference examples below, they would be referred to in your summary paragraphs as (Didier, 2001) and (Malanson et al. 2002). ➢ You just finished reading an article with multiple citations, notice how they are used! Making a Reference List Use the reference format below and include the following information: • All authors must be included and full names should be used if available. • The year of publication must be obvious. • Article titles must be included. • Full journal titles must be used (NO abbreviations for journal titles). • Journal volume, issue, and page numbers must be included. If you are not familiar with reference styles, follow these examples from the Annals of the Association of American Geographers: Author(s). Year. Title of the article capitalized sentence style. Full Journal Name in Italics. Volume (Issue number): page numbers. If the citation is more than one line long, all lines after the first are indented (a hanging indent). Didier, Lydie. 2001. Invasion patterns of European larch and Swiss stone pine in subalpine pastures in the French Alps. Forest Ecology and Management 145(1-2): 67-77. Malanson, George P., David R. Butler, David M. Cairns, Theresa E. Welsh, and Lynn M. Resler. 2002. Variability in an edaphic indicator in alpine tundra. Catena 49(3): 203-215. ➢ DO NOT just copy and paste the citations from your on-line search pages. It will be obvious that you have done this, and this is not acceptable (Plagiarism) and you will receive a score of Zero. You can access MSU’s Memorial Library online databases through either of the following library links: Article Databases A-Z or Class & Subject Guides ➢ Class & Subject Guides (check the different disciplines covered, but for this exercise you may want to use Geography and Earth Science) ➢ Alphabetical A-Z (this works best if you know the name of the database you want to access) Note: If you are working from home, or another non-university connection, you will be asked to log-in as an MSU user. Use your normal MSU login, and this will identify you as a paid subscriber to those databases. Examples of on-line MSU databases for geographic research include: ➢ ScienceDirect (strongly recommended) ➢ GeoRef ➢ GeoScienceWorld ➢ Academic Search Premier ➢ Environmental Issues & Policy If the database you are using does not provide full text articles or direct links to full text sources, use the Journals List search option on the main MSU Library home page. Type in the title of the journal (spelled correctly with no abbreviations) and it will tell you which MSU library databases carry that particular journal. Please, do not hesitate to ask for help if you have any trouble completing this assignment! ➢ Bring any questions to class, or during office hours (questions are too complicated for email) ➢ The Reference Librarians in the MSU Memorial Library are also very helpful!! Research Paper GEOSPHERE GEOSPHERE; v. 14, no. 3 Volcanic history of the northernmost part of the Harrat Rahat volcanic field, Saudi Arabia Drew T. Downs1, Mark E. Stelten1, Duane E. Champion1, Hannah R. Dietterich1, Zohair Nawab2, Hani Zahran3, Khalid Hassan3, and Jamal Shawali3 United States Geological Survey, California Volcano Observatory, 345 Middlefield Road, Menlo Park, California 94025, USA Saudi Geological Survey, Office of the President, P.O. Box 54141, Jeddah, 21514, Saudi Arabia 3 Saudi Geological Survey, National Center for Earthquakes and Volcanoes, P.O. Box 54141, Jeddah, 21514, Saudi Arabia 1 doi:10.1130/GES01625.1 2 11 figures; 5 tables; 1 supplemental file CORRESPONDENCE: ddowns@​usgs​.gov ABSTRACT CITATION: Downs, D.T., Stelten, M.E., Champion, D.E., Dietterich, H.R., Nawab, Z., Zahran, H., ­Hassan, K., and Shawali, J., 2018, Volcanic history of the northernmost part of the Harrat Rahat volcanic field, Saudi Arabia: Geosphere, v. 14, no. 3, p. 1253–1282, doi:10.1130/GES01625.1. We present a detailed geologic investigation of Pleistocene to Holocene mafic volcanism within the northernmost part of the Harrat Rahat volcanic field, proximal to the city of Al-Madinah, Saudi Arabia. Our study area covers ~570 km2, and encompasses lava flows, scoria cones, and shield volcanoes of 32 mapped eruptive units consisting of continental, intraplate alkalic and tholeiitic basalts, hawaiites, and a mugearite that erupted from at least 1014 ± 14 ka to a single Holocene event at 1256 A.D. Typical lava flows are roughly 10–15 km long, although they reach nearly 23 km, 1–3 km wide, and ~10 m thick. The majority of eruptives in our study area erupted ca. 400–340 ka and ca. 180–100 ka. Despite small individual volumes (<1 km3 dense rock equivalent), each unit resulted from eruption of a distinct magma batch that was influenced by clinopyroxene, olivine, and plagioclase fractionation. Some of these units are interpreted to have undergone magma mixing prior to eruption. Combining our age determinations, geochemistry, and paleomagnetic data sets indicates that several eruptions were temporally and/or spatially clustered. Aligned scoria cones and elongate vent edifices were constructed atop fissure vent systems that reflect the stress field controlling dike ascent through the middle to upper crust. Science Editor: Shanaka de Silva Associate Editor: Jan Marie Lindsay Received 21 October 2017 Revision received 21 December 2017 Accepted 26 February 2018 Published online 29 March 2018 INTRODUCTION OL D G OPEN ACCESS This paper is published under the terms of the CC‑BY-NC license. Small-volume mafic volcanoes (rarely exceeding ~1 km3) are the most prevalent continental volcanic landform on Earth. These landforms have been documented within volcanic fields associated with subduction zones, rift systems, hot spots, and intraplate settings (e.g., de Silva and Lindsay, 2015; Valentine and Connor, 2015) with >200 volcanic fields considered active during the Holocene (Siebert et al., 2010). Eruptive activity is often spatially and temporally (within hundreds to tens of thousands of years) clustered, with tectonism or preexisting structures controlling or strongly influencing vent locations (e.g., Condit and Connor, 1996; Muffler et al., 2011; Le Corvec et al., 2013; Fleck et al., 2014; Deligne et al., 2016). Spatial, temporal, and geochemical evolution of some small-volume mafic volcanic fields have been studied in considerable detail (e.g., Kuntz et al., 1986; Conway et al., 1997; Shaw et al., 2003; Valentine and Perry, 2007; Duncan and Al-Amri, 2013; Fleck et al., 2014; Deligne et al., 2016; Duncan et al., 2016), but most have received little attention. In addition, few investigations of individual eruptions, and their associated hazards, within volcanic fields have been undertaken (e.g., Valentine and Gregg, 2008; Rowland et al., 2009; Brand et al., 2014). Investigations into the evolution of mafic volcanic fields yield insights on eruptive styles, volumes, and durations, as well as the episodic nature of volcanic activity. The western Arabian plate encompasses at least 15 continental, intraplate volcanic fields (known in Arabic as harrat) that stretch >3000 km south to north from Yemen through Saudi Arabia to Jordan, Syria, and Turkey (Figs. 1A and 1B). In total, these volcanic fields comprise one of the largest alkalic volcanic provinces on Earth, covering an area of ~180,000 km2 (Coleman et al., 1983). Historic activity has been recorded with at least 21 eruptions proposed over the past ~1500 years, the last of which occurred at Dhamar (within the Yemen Traps in Fig. 1B) in northern Yemen in 1937 A.D. (Ambraseys et al., 2005; Siebert et al., 2010). Eruptions have also occurred near the southern end of the Red Sea rift as recently as 2013 with fatalities reported during a 2007 eruption. However, most proposed Holocene eruptions are both unconfirmed and uninvestigated. In addition, many of these volcanic fields remain poorly studied, but growing populations and infrastructure across the region increase the risks from potential future activity (e.g., Lindsay and Moufti, 2014). As a result, the timing, composition, and magmatic processes controlling and influencing activity within these late Cenozoic volcanic fields are being investigated (e.g., Shaw et al., 2003; Moufti et al., 2012, 2013; Duncan and Al-Amri, 2013; Murcia et al., 2015, 2017; Abdelwahed et al., 2016; Duncan et al., 2016; Konrad et al., 2016). Most of these volcanic fields are situated in sparsely populated regions, but one of the Holocene eruptions occurred within the northernmost part of the Harrat Rahat volcanic field (Fig. 2), near the city of Al-Madinah Al-Muna­ warah (hereafter referred to as Al-Madinah; Figs. 3A–3D). Only a few individual eruptions from Harrat Rahat have been studied in detail, with particular emphasis on the youngest appearing scoria cones and lava flows within the volcanic field’s more northerly confines close to Al-Madinah (e.g., Camp et al., 1987; Murcia et al., 2015, 2017). All remaining studies have dealt with this volcanic field in its entirety and have primarily focused on magmatic processes (e.g., Camp and Roobol, 1989; Moufti et al., 2012, 2013). Still needed is a sys- © 2018 The Authors GEOSPHERE | Volume 14 | Number 3 Downs et al. | Volcanic history of the northernmost part of the Harrat Rahat volcanic field, Saudi Arabia Downloaded from by Minnesota St Univ Mankato user 1253 Research Paper 40°E 50°E 60°E A North Anatolian fault Bitli s su ANATOLIAN PLATE ture B fold yra Palm belt Harrats Turkey Iran 1 EURASIAN PLATE 16 mm/yr East Anatolian fault 40°E 1) Karacalioag 2) Ash Shamah 3) Uwayrid Syria 4) Lunayyir 5) Hutaymah Za Za Aqaba-Dead Sea Transform boundary gro 20-30 mm/yr sf old thr 2 us t 30°N 30°N gro s be 22 mm/yr 9) Hadan Saudi Arabia 3 Makran thrust ea dS Re rift 6 zone 20 mm/yr 20°N AFRICAN PLATE Gulf of Aden rift 12) Tihama Asir 8 13) As Sirat 14) Yemen Traps 15) Atag 9 10 11 12 Sudan 11) Al Birak Arabian shield 50°E 13 Arabian platform Oman Yemen INDIAN PLATE Eritrea 14 Ea st Af ric an Ri ft 10°N Afar plume locus 7 Owe n fra cture 20°N 16 mm/yr ed R ea S Egypt 10) Nawasif-Al Buqum 5 4 ARABIAN PLATE 7) Rahat 8) Kishb an rd Jo lt 6) Khaybar-Kura-Ithnayn Iraq 15 Gulf of Aden Djibouti Ethiopia Somalia Figure 1. Tectonic and volcanic summary maps of the Arabian plate. (A) Map of the Arabian plate with its bounding structures and relative rates and directions of plate motion are shown as red arrows (after Stern and Johnson, 2010). (B) Satellite image (from Google Earth) of the Arabian plate with volcanic fields outlined in yellow and Precambrian Arabian shield outlined in blue. tematic study of eruptive strata for individual volcanoes and volcanic centers within Harrat Rahat. This is critical for: (1) understanding the overall spatial, temporal, and compositional evolution of the volcanic field; (2) determining the timescales of magmatic processes in the mantle and crust; and (3) understanding hazards and risks associated with the varied styles of volcanism in the region. Here we use field relations, petrography, geochemistry, paleomagnetism, and 40Ar/39Ar radiometric and 36Cl cosmogenic surface-exposure dating methods to discriminate individual mafic eruptive units within the northernmost part of Harrat Rahat. These results are used to understand the timing, composition, and eruptive processes of mafic volcanism partly obscured by anthropo­ genic processes of urbanization. GEOSPHERE | Volume 14 | Number 3 VOLCANO-TECTONIC SETTING OF HARRAT RAHAT Harrat Rahat is the largest volcanic field within Saudi Arabia at 50–75 km wide, ~300 km long (Fig. 2), covering an area of ~20,000 km2 with a volume of ~2000 km3, and encompassing >900 observable vents (Coleman et al., 1983; Camp and Roobol, 1989, 1991; Runge et al., 2014). It is a composite of four smaller volcanic fields (Harrat Ar Rukhq, Harrat Turrah, Harrat Bani Abdullah, and Harrat Rashid; Fig. 2) that have coalesced. The northernmost part of Harrat Rahat is sometimes referred to as Harrat Al-Madinah (Moufti, 1985); however, we use Harrat Rahat throughout. In this and other harrats in western Saudi Arabia, dominantly basaltic lava flows were sufficiently clustered and voluminous to obscure underlying Precambrian rocks of the Arabian shield, except Downs et al. | Volcanic history of the northernmost part of the Harrat Rahat volcanic field, Saudi Arabia Downloaded from by Minnesota St Univ Mankato user 1254 1255 40°E 2000 Harrat Kurama (Harrat Hirmah) 1500 Fig. 4 1000 300 Harrat Rashid (Al-Madinah) 24°N 0 Harrat Bani Abdullah Red Sea 23°N Harrat Turrah Harrat Ar Rukhq Figure 2. TanDEM-X digital elevation model (12 m resolution) of the Harrat ­Rahat volcanic field (outlined in black), along with major cities along its margins (white stars) and major roads (gray lines). Harrat Rahat is a composite volcanic field of four smaller volcanic fields, each with its own main vent axis (denoted by solid black lines and arrows). The area of interest for this study is the northernmost part of Harrat Rahat labeled Figure 4. Downs et al. | Volcanic history of the northernmost part of the Harrat Rahat volcanic field, Saudi Arabia meters above sea level Al-Madinah Research Paper Red Sea 0 Kilometers 25 50 ¯ Makkah Downloaded from by Minnesota St Univ Mankato user Ta’if GEOSPHERE | Volume 14 | Number 3 22°N Jeddah Research Paper A B Basalt of Umm Nathilah (bun) vent Basalt of al Basalt of the Rafi’ah (bra) vent Palms (bpa) vent Basalt of Red Basalt of al Mountain (brm) vent Mustarah (bmu) vent Quaternary vent (Qv) Basalt east of p area Figure 2 ma Basalt of al Labah (bla) Figure 3. Photographs of scoria cone and lava-flow exposures within the northernmost part of Harrat Rahat. (A) Photograph looking northwest with Al-Madinah in the background showing the 1256 A.D. bla scoria cone vent complex and lava flows and older mafic scoria cones and lavas to the west. (B) Photograph looking west, near the distal end of unit bla, illustrating expansion of the city over the young eruptive units. (C) Photograph to the south displaying three of the four scoria cones of bdu within the western suburbs of Al-Madinah. (D) Typical exposure of a dense basaltic lava flow (bhg) within the western part of Al-Madinah. See Table 1 and Figures 4 and 5 for unit locations, corresponding names, and descriptions. Quaternary alluvium (Qal) Basalt of al Labah (bla) lava flows and fissure vent Basalt east of Figure 2 map area C Tertiary basalt Precambrian D Precambrian bdu north scoria cone bdu north-central scoria cone Basalt of al Harrah al Gharbiyah (bhg) Basalt of al Du’aythah (bdu) north-c ...
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School: New York University



Harrat Rahat Volcanic Field
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The methodologies used in this paper are observation, carrying out of experiments and the
use of secondary materials. The most common volcanic landform on earth is the small-volume
mafic volcanoes. The western Arabian plate is composed of 15 continental volcanic fields which
are commonly known as the Hin Arabic. 21 eruptions have been proposed in the historical activity
over the past ~1500 years, (Downs, et al., 2018). The last eruption happened in Dhamar which is
located in Northern Yemen in 1937 AD. In 2013, many volcanoes occurred in the southern end
region of the red sea. Holocene eruptions have been proposed although none has been confirmed
or has been investigated. The researchers have not keenly studied the v...

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