Research Proposal On Leptis Magna Archeological Site

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Topic: Leptis magna. The below website may help develop an idea about the cite so you can write a proposal paper about it.

https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/183


Please prepare a two-page, double- spaced research proposal that will outline the scope of your project. The idea here is to articulate a sense of the set of questions and problems that you are interested in pursuing, so as to develop for yourself a research path. In order to do this, I want you to address the following questions: What drew you to the site that you selected? What is it about the site that you have selected that is so intriguing? What are you trying to explain or understand about your selected site? What do you see as the historical significance of the site? What might your site help us to understand about our common human history? What potential difficulties to you envision confronting in the course of this project? Is there something about the site that you have selected that is problematic in any way?

As a part of your proposal, you will also include a working bibliography of the secondary sources (both monographs and journal articles) you might need to consider in order to finalize your research and your paper. This bibliography is to include at least six sources, with a good balance of both monographs and articles. The bibliography should be formatted according to The Chicago Manual of Style.

Answer that you might need for what drew me to choose this cite?

- Because I am from there and when I visited it the last time it was very non taking care of and that's what drew me to select this cite.

Please let me know if you have any questions. Also please give me your best excellent quality paper

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Roman Bath at Leptis Magna Author(s): George Fraser and Albert W. Van Buren Source: Memoirs of the American Academy in Rome, Vol. 10 (1932), pp. 129-133+2 Published by: University of Michigan Press for the American Academy in Rome Stable URL: https://www.jstor.org/stable/4238567 Accessed: 08-02-2019 07:46 UTC REFERENCES Linked references are available on JSTOR for this article: https://www.jstor.org/stable/4238567?seq=1&cid=pdf-reference#references_tab_contents You may need to log in to JSTOR to access the linked references. JSTOR is a not-for-profit service that helps scholars, researchers, and students discover, use, and build upon a wide range of content in a trusted digital archive. We use information technology and tools to increase productivity and facilitate new forms of scholarship. For more information about JSTOR, please contact support@jstor.org. Your use of the JSTOR archive indicates your acceptance of the Terms & Conditions of Use, available at https://about.jstor.org/terms University of Michigan Press, American Academy in Rome are collaborating with JSTOR to digitize, preserve and extend access to Memoirs of the American Academy in Rome This content downloaded from 66.194.72.152 on Fri, 08 Feb 2019 07:46:00 UTC All use subject to https://about.jstor.org/terms ROMAN BATH AT LEPTIS MAGNA. ARCHITECTURAL RESTORATION BY GEORGE FRASER; TEXT BY ALBERT W. VAN BUREN. (FRONTISPIECE, PLATES 30-33). 1 O NE of the outstanding developments of the past twenty years in the world of archaeology has been the opening to scientific research of the ancient cities of the Tripo- litania. 2 In this sandy region, sparsely inhabited ever since the close of the Roman period, the circumstances in which the remains were buried and preserved have provided abundant material for the enlightened labors of the Italian archaeological service. Nowhere within the circuit of the Mediterranean lands can one trace with a greater sense of reality Romanos rerum dominos gentemque togatam. Of the three famous cities of the Tripolitan coast, Sabrata, Oea and Leptis Magna, the last-named claims preeminence by virtue of its favored geographical position, its bestowal upon the empire of a strong ruler, Lucius Septimius Severus, and the extent, splendor and preservation of its monumental remains. 3 A special feature of this place consists in a splendid bath structure, which under the able direction of DR. RENATO BARTOCCINI has now been liberated from its deep covering of sand and has received the reinforcement and reconstruction essential for its preservation. With a liberality which is herewith gratefully acknowledged, Dr. Bartoccini, in 1927, granted Mr. Fraser, Fellow in Architecture at the 1 The text of this article was prepared by Albert W. Van Buren, the Editor of Publications, after Mr. Fraser's return from Rome to America. 2 R. BARTOCCINI, Rinvenimenti vari di interesse archeo- logico in Tripolitania (1920-1925), in Africa Italiana, i, 1927, 213-248; G. CALZA, Sabratha and Leptis Magna, in Art and Archaeology, xx, 1925, 211-221; F. NOACK, Archiologische Entdeckungen in Tripolitanien, in Die Antike, i, 1925, 204-212; R. PARIBENI, Gli Scavi di Leptis Magna e di Sabratha, in Dedalo, v, 1924-1925, 665-688; all these four articles are well illustrated. Also, Guida d'Italia del Touring Club Italiano, Possedimenti e Colonie, Milan, 1929, 169-396; BARTOCCINI, Le Antichitaf della Tripolitania, Milan, 1926. 3 H. DESSAU, s. v., in PAULY-WISSOWA, Real-Ency- clopadie, xii, 2074-2076; P. ROMANELLI, Leptis Magna (c Africa Italiana ), Collezione di Monografie a cura del Ministero delle Colonie, i), Rome (1925); Guida d'Italia, loc. cit., 365-376; ROMANELLI, (( I Porto di L. M. ), in Atti d. Pontif. Accad. Rom. di Archeol., Ser. iii, Rendiconti, ii, 1924, 93-105; BARTOCCINI, (II Foro Imperiale di Lepcis (Leptis Magna)), in Africa Italiana, i, 1927, 53-74; ii, 1928-1929, 30-49; ID., Guida di Lepcis (Leptis Magna), Rome-Milan, 1927; G. GUIDI, ((La Data di Costruzione della Basilica di L. M. ), in Africa Italiana, ii, 1928-1929, 231-245; S. AURIGEMMA, (( Mosaici di L. M. ), ibid., 246-261. Fuller bibliographies in ROMANELLI, op. cit., page viii, and Katalog des Deutschen Arch. Inst. in Rom, ii (1914), 1151 ; Neue Bearb., 1. Suppl. (1930), 400. For the form of the name, see DESSAU, 1. c. This content downloaded from 66.194.72.152 on Fri, 08 Feb 2019 07:46:00 UTC All use subject to https://about.jstor.org/terms i30 GEORGE FRASER AND ALBERT W. VAN BUREN '-S C American Academy in Rome, the privilege of executing an architectural survey of thi remarkable monument. The restoration resulting from this is presented in the accom- panying Plates 30-32, and is supplemented by the Frontispiece, reproducing an etching by MR. CECIL BRIGGS in the preparation of which a drawing by MR. G. P. STEVENS serve as basis. Illustrative material is added on Plate 33. A detailed scientific monograph on this Bath by Dr. Bartoccini himself has just been published,' and its appearanc is warmly welcomed by archaeologists and architects alike. It is an authoritative treat ment of the monument to which so much of his time and care has been devoted. The essential information as to the Bath from an architectural point of view is to be found on pages 1-90; the following brief account, based chiefly on that work, will serve to explain the present restoration. The area in question, exclusive of I, the palaestra, is slightly greater than 7,000 square meters : this is a large and grandiose structure. 2 The masonry consists in part of cut stone (limestone for outer walls and jambs, lintels and architraves; sandstone for interior walls) in part of a combination of cut stone and concrete; there is an occasional addition in the characteristic ((block-and-brick)) work of Septimius Severus. Almost everywhere, however the walls received a veneering of marble, of which there is little now remaining in place. The vaults were of concrete, those over the great central hall being relieved of weight by th use of pumice-stone as filling. The orientation, with the hot bath rooms facing slightly to east of south, was practical in this climate, and in accordance with the precept of VITRUVIUS, V, x, 1 ; although in Rome itself the architects of the great baths, from the time of Trajan down, realised that in their climate, given the practice of afternoon bathing, a south west exposure had its advantages, and hence they adopted it for their own structures. The element at the north end marked I on the plan, P1. 30, is the only important fea- ture of the whole scheme which deviates from strict symmetry, 3 doubtless owing to neigh boring streets or buildings : an oblong area, open to the sky, is enclosed by a colonnade of cipollino columns; the colonnade is raised on two steps and varied in plan by two curving ends. Here was found in many fragments an inscription with the name of the proconsul Publius Valerius Priscus, governor of Africa under Hadrian. The presence in the pavement of holes for setting up gymnastic apparatus confirms the supposition that the function o this area was that of the palaestrae in the baths of the Capital, and in general it is obviou that the Roman edifices served as models for the African city. At the time the drawing was made, the palaestra had not been completely excavated. The plan should show a path of flagging stones running north and south in the middle of the palaestra. 1 BARTOCCINI, Le Terme di Lepcis, ((( Africa Italiana ), 3 The rooms XIV and IV adjacent to it on the south- Coil. di Monografie, iv), Bergamo, 1929. west were subjected to a similar treatment, but in their 2 In Rome, the central structure of the Baths of Trajan case the resulting lack of symmetry would hardly have (i. e., exclusive of the open space enclosed by the outer been observed by the visitor. wall) is more than 24,000 square meters. This content downloaded from 66.194.72.152 on Fri, 08 Feb 2019 07:46:00 UTC All use subject to https://about.jstor.org/terms ROMAN BATH BATH AT LEPTISAT MAGNA ROMAN LEPTIS From the proper three a and tall coarse of south steps the The may were and been destrictaria nelli to that their as some the other fact as originally The part of and stone in and vault with the cornice was 1 The rium; have Italian but by neither rooms been found. part is the qua high also of bases fo Th columns which on with the its in This content downloaded from 66.194.72.152 on Fri, 08 Feb 2019 07:46:00 UTC All use subject to https://about.jstor.org/terms up two a p an prev consider the wo ma architrave, heating a white Severus. blocking of three 8.65 hall, nor IV, ed aperture, for the whole granite here orga was are archaeologists arrangements serv and effective limestone ap bathi have marble central obtained the in m. th of which Septimius ten li altho that main cornice and thr for that the frigidarium,' and each open of ceiling central the main beyond and the dressi latrinae, of r sphaeristeria the cipollino, of hall, Beyond to its benches, honor had must The supporting architrave or complete feature with columns high a di grouped constructed, corridor, 33), V parts piscinae. imposing PI. of transition west impressive was corridors in lateral port theory purpose abo The call the c wall. massage-rooms, propose lateral were sout partially or II the the we in to marked which this columns apodyteria probably in the has rooms IX, the sides symmetrically have smaller of Bath two its buttresses reinforcing of accessories; and mosaic; massive of colonnade their 131 131 MAGNA this larger either hal the GEORGE FRASER AND ALBERT W. VAN BUREN 132 admitted from above, and here too seats and statues either served the comfort or ro the interest of the visitor. Next a small rectangular room effects the transition to the heated parts of the The large central hall in this group, 22 x 11 meters, is shown by the presence of a hyp and of tubes for hot air in the walls to be the caldarium; the two long basins are ins in the massive side walls; the circulation of the hot air was assured by round apertur the cornice. As to the three basins on the south of this hall, it is interesting to o that the windowed apse lighting the central one seems to have been planned only du the progress of construction (it may also have been an alteration of a somewha period), as its walls do not bond with those adjacent. These basins, and also those ends of the large hall XI, received light from windows directly behind them. There communication by the hypocaust and tubes with the furnaces, praefurnia, which were situ at a lower level, near the points marked XIII. The four rooms X, which are here called tepidaria rather than caldaria or laconic lying somewhat more remote from the principal praefurnia, were also heated; each inner ones had a small basin, and each of the outer ones not only a window, but mosaic treatment of its vaulted ceiling, with concentric bands of vegetable and geom motives, for adornment. The structure at XII is here considered the reservoir, for supplying water to the whole system. The interpretation of the lateral pairs of rooms, VI, VIII, and IX, given in the le to P1. 30, - sphaeristeria, apothecae, gymnasia, - appears to conform to the practice ancients. 2 To the south and south-east of the whole Bath edfice was an open sp bounded beyond by a series of reservoirs. The exact balance of secondary parts throughout practically the whole of this str is in keeping with the tradition of the Capital, and may well have been adopted merely in the striving for symmetry as such, but also with an eye to practical utility occasion, one series of rooms could be withdrawn from general use, perhaps for pur of cleaning, or of economy of personnel, or possibly a series could be assigned to the w while the men were still using the main part of the establishment; these large baths o imperial age do not follow the Republican practice, which was advocated by VITRU V, x, 1, and is represented by the two older public baths at Pompeii, of providing f women a complete and independent series of bath rooms served by the common praef it may have been demonstrated more economical to construct one great series of for the use of both sexes, at different hours or on different days; with some excep 1 Dr. Bartoccini considers these rooms the laconica or 3 These formal plans have however received sweating-rooms. tive adverse criticism from A. VON GERKAN, Griechische 2Somewhat different suggestions will be found in Stadteanlagen, Berlin and Leipzig, 1924, 1 BARTOCCINI, Terme, 88. This content downloaded from 66.194.72.152 on Fri, 08 Feb 2019 07:46:00 UTC All use subject to https://about.jstor.org/terms 133 ROMAN BATH BATH AT LEPTISAT MAGNA ROMAN LEPTIS MAGNA 133 promiscuous bathing was viewed with off conceivable that the requirements of the bath building, still to be discovered. As to the period to which the sumptuou study is to be assgned, the stamps on som that was found in the palaestra 2 indicate struction, and are valuable testimony to o important of the successive restorations Severus. The structure which we have been studying deserves a position of distinction in the repertory of Roman baths known to us: its admirable preservation renders it a valuable complement to the sadly damaged buildings of the Capital. It is slightly later in date than the famous baths of Trajan, which were the last great edifice of the sort in Rome to adhere to the custom of keeping the main bath rooms close to one side of the available area; the later builders, whose work is known through such masterpieces as the Antonine Baths and those bearing the name of Diocletian, isolated the baths proper in the midst of a broad open space. The Bath of Leptis Magna observes the older tradition.4 1 C.I.L., xv, 124, 244, 847, 1029 c (BARTOCCINI, Le 3 BARTOCCINI, Terme, pp. 79 and 80, thus interprets Antichita della Tripolitania, p. 67, fig. 100), 1066, 2000; the inscription of Rusonianus, and that of Marcianus lunate stamp, Ascla....; also the circular stamp, C. A. and Rufinianus, as evidence for dating this restoration. Marsi, op. cit., p. 67, fig. 98. These tiles, with the pos- 4 Cf. JORDAN-HULSEN, Topogr., I, iii, 313; and espe- sible exception of the last two, were made in Rome itself; cially E. PFRETZSCHNER, Die Grundrissentwicklung der Rdm. but others in the Bath, showing Roman characters but the Punic language, are of local manufacture (op. cit., p. 30, fig. 33; BARTOCCINI, Terme, 186 f.). 2Above, p. 130. Thermen, Strassburg, 1909. The best general treatment of ancient baths and bathing customs is by A. MAU, s. v. Bdder, in PAULY-WISSOWA, Real-Encyclopddie, ii, 2743-2758. 9* This content downloaded from 66.194.72.152 on Fri, 08 Feb 2019 07:46:00 UTC All use subject to https://about.jstor.org/terms PLATE 30. rn. u. LEPTISS MAGNA ... .......... .. I : TRIPOTANIA : : I PLAN. This content downloaded from 66.194.72.152 on Fri, 08 Feb 2019 07:46:00 UTC All use subject to https://about.jstor.org/terms PLATE 31. I1 o O This content downloaded from 66.194.72.152 on Fri, 08 Feb 2019 07:46:00 UTC All use subject to https://about.jstor.org/terms -I ::i~~~~~~~~~~~- ,~~~~~~~~~~~~ g:~~~~~~~~*! ~ ~ ~ ~ -· -. I - --·; ~~~~~~11:1::: 111111 - _:_ : _i -- _ 5~~~~~~~~~ This content downloaded from 66.194.72.152 on Fri, 08 Feb 2019 07:46:00 UTC All use subject to https://about.jstor.org/terms - ii -:· This content downloaded from 66.194.72.152 on Fri, 08 Feb 2019 07:46:00 UTC All use subject to https://about.jstor.org/terms PLATE 32. --- - -1 - I- - . -- -: .I - -A, I F :·XP i ·· a .A ti r--I! ii i '"^ ·a:u: This content downloaded from 66.194.72.152 on Fri, 08 Feb 2019 07:46:00 UTC All use subject to https://about.jstor.org/terms w 1 : -~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ ::·~ ~~~ ~~~ ~~~ ~~~ ~~~ ~~~ ~~~ ~~~ ~~~ ~~~ ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ : :' .~~~~~~~~ =~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ t s ~~: uX _ -·· lpam9s: ; e m : _ - 0~~~~~~~~: ii I . ' . I GID _~· _ _ t~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ i e - 0 This content downloaded from 66.194.72.152 on Fri, 08 Feb 2019 07:46:00 UTC All use subject to https://about.jstor.org/terms PLATE 33, *^**~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~....:.;,::,, · ,~i ,,:' .,ma,..~.'--" . . . . , . aM ... s""," .-:.. 2. Great Hall of Frigidarium. 1. Great Hall of Frigidarium. ;.~~~C'-- __ ,.....l· ;~~~~~~~~~~~~:..Wflz I ... 3. . . - . · r.C- 3 General View ROMAN BATH AT LEPTIS MAGNA. This content downloaded from 66.194.72.152 on Fri, 08 Feb 2019 07:46:00 UTC All use subject to https://about.jstor.org/terms of N FRONTISPIECE. n-i-A'P.!J rxl lil i n C·C..: ·) KC- i'··it) .R 1 I i; Z''1 ; ···· j ; t u! . : . . * . - f .P .i k "' ·rr : -r·· I' 1·; .: · :* I .. r ; 'B IZ S%r F·r- i. . ;-t al: r t C" ,Sr ..I : .·· . * --U --- i IB - · : . - 1? jI . · F u. ··iP· i· ···- rY . - ...-.. _f, ' .77Z- - _ . CENTRAL HALL. Roman Bath at Leptis Magna. (Etching by CECIL C. BRIGGS. See pages 130, 131). This content downloaded from 66.194.72.152 on Fri, 08 Feb 2019 07:46:00 UTC All use subject to https://about.jstor.org/terms BETWEEN HISTORY AND MYTH: SEPTIMIUS SEVERUS AND LEPTIS MAGNA Author(s): ORIETTA DORA CORDOVANA Source: Greece & Rome, Second Series, Vol. 59, No. 1 (APRIL 2012), pp. 56-75 Published by: Cambridge University Press on behalf of The Classical Association Stable URL: https://www.jstor.org/stable/23275156 Accessed: 08-02-2019 07:54 UTC JSTOR is a not-for-profit service that helps scholars, researchers, and students discover, use, and build upon a wide range of content in a trusted digital archive. We use information technology and tools to increase productivity and facilitate new forms of scholarship. For more information about JSTOR, please contact support@jstor.org. Your use of the JSTOR archive indicates your acceptance of the Terms & Conditions of Use, available at https://about.jstor.org/terms Cambridge University Press, The Classical Association are collaborating with JSTOR to digitize, preserve and extend access to Greece & Rome This content downloaded from 66.194.72.152 on Fri, 08 Feb 2019 07:54:34 UTC All use subject to https://about.jstor.org/terms Greece & Rome, Vol. 59, No. 1, ©The Classical Association, 2012. All rights reserved doi:10.1017/S0017383511000246 BETWEEN HISTORY AND MYTH: SEPTIMIUS SEVERUS AND LEPTIS MAGNA The aim of this article is to demonstrate the connections between political history and the use of myth for political purposes at Lept Magna, birthplace of the African emperor Septimius Severus. The cit capital of the Tripolitanian Emporia in North Africa, was extensive restructured by the emperor and his son, Caracalla, after the civil wars of 193-7 AD. The urban renewal involved the harbour, perhap ...
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EngDuke1993
School: UIUC

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RESEARCH PROPOSAL ON LEPTIS MAGNA ARCHEOLOGICAL SITE, OUTLINE:
1.0 Introduction to the Problem Statement
2.0 Literature Review
3.0 Objectives and Hypothesis statement
4.0 Methodology
4.1 Purpose of the study and type of investigation
4.2 Data Collection
4.3 Sample Design
5.0 Limitations of the Study


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RESEARCH PROPOSAL ON LEPTIS MAGNA ARCHEOLOGICAL SITE

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Date:

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1.0 Introduction to the Problem Statement
The archeological site of Leptis Magna was one of the most magnificent cities of the
Roman Empire. A visit to the site led the author to inquire whether the political history relating
to the place has been linked to its recognition. It was however impressive noticing that the site
is still magnificent even presently. Therefore, it is worth to inquire whether the political history
of Leptis Magna contributes to its prominence in the present day.
2.0 Literature Review
Research shows that Leptis Magna presents diverse knowledge that exceeds the sites
themselves, and the significance of the provincial administration functioning and the local
so...

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Anonymous
Tutor went the extra mile to help me with this essay. Citations were a bit shaky but I appreciated how well he handled APA styles and how ok he was to change them even though I didnt specify. Got a B+ which is believable and acceptable.

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