The Autobiographies of Malcolm X

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Responses should be at least 250-300 words per file. They should be descriptive and analytical, and you can also raise questions about the reading toward the end of your response. In each response, try to identify the main argument and a couple of key ideas you learned about the subject matter.

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In chapter seventeen of “autobiography of Malcolm X”, Malcolm X face Muslims who intend to expose him for not practicing what they identified as their true religion. Throughout his ministerial carrier he was often offended and forced to constantly reexamine his thoughts. He makes several trips to Muslim countries and experience how people of different shape, race and color exhibit no division. During his trip to Cairo, he has to undergo pilgrimage and interact with the Muslim counsel before he is allowed to go to Mecca. Finally, through the help of Dr Omar Azzam he travels to Mecca. The excitement at Mecca obliges him to write a letter which addresses his experiences in Muslim world. This chapters begs the question, who would have thought? Emphasis is placed on the need to unite with examples drawn from Islam practices and unity as well as pilgrimage. 

In chapter eighteen, Malcolm X learns that intellects who belong to non-white countries are concerned with the revolutions of African-Americans. He makes trips to different Africa and middle east countries where he is warmly received. After several of his last trips in Africa, he travels home. Unfortunately, as soon as he begins his journey, he was already being blamed for race riots in America. Ironically, he was out of the united states when these events happened. Upon arrival, reporters were waiting for him with questions on erupted riots with violence and the letter he wrote in Mecca. He responds that his own country should be tired of denying humans their rights.

Chapter two 

 This chapter is compared to the classical texts with translations of both Christianity and Islam and their specific interpretation. Islam being the focus, there are interpretations on the life and works of a prophet, Muslim communities, understanding of the word of God as well as the Quran, prophet and the law. According to the writer’s first introductory line, he asserts that Muhammud did not found Islam. In Christian view, prophets are understood as a section of God’s mercies in his providence while Islam believe that prophets were sent by Allah. In this retrospective, claims of Islam being a worldly religion rather than a religion itself is eliminated. Certainly, there are translations provided in this chapter’s collected materials which explains God’s creation and final existence of earth and heaven.

 Through varied significant chapters, the world-view of the Islam religion is presented as well-integrated. Each theme in the book is by segments with short texts derived from significant sources. For instance, Ibn Ishaq’s life, a Muslim prophet, is presented as a biography.  There are connected events in south Arabia which turns the narrative into the birth of the prophet of Islam. Conversely, the gospel presentation of Jesus as God’s life messenger begins with a genealogy. Further, it stretches to him being the father of all mankind (p. 44). The writer places emphasis on the content of each chapter rather than the author and their particular situation. The overall perspective of the book is presented in a non-historical manner with Khaldun marking the end of the classical period.

Chapter 14 and 16 of ‘a reader of classical Islam”

Chapter 14 of “a reader of classical Islam” address prophet Muhammud background, beliefs and development of Islam. The fundamental doctrines of Muslims are acknowledged by accepting Allah as their god and Muhammud as their prophet. They pray facing Mecca daily. They also diligently observe the month of Ramadhan and contribute to help the needy and weak. The chapter explains how Muhammud was born and his origin. At the age of six, he lived with his uncle and grandfather through a difficult life. During his early adult years, he worked for a rich woman called Khadija whom he ended up marrying. At about 40 years of age, he underwent a life-changing spiritual experience where he was more drawn to God and identified that there is only one God. According to the reading, Muhammud was born poor. Therefore, one of his pillars was to give to the needy which was so meaningful to him.

This chapter covers varied ritual activities presently performed and previously performed by Muslims. In their religion, they are governed by five pillars. It excludes different life-cycle celebrations, special days or months of the year celebrations, possessive cults, mastering qur’an, practice of Sufi and several other local activities. According to this chapter, ibadat is not considered controversial. Instead, the practice of keeping their women invisible and prohibiting gender dynamics analysis is controversial as a religious practice. Ibadat is a symbolic practice of purification of the body, the posture of prayer cycle and the pilgrim walks in mecca. During prayers, verbalization is another significant element because there is recitation of Qur’an passages. Therefore, ignorance of the ritual components composed by the Islam law are conducted through mental and physical affiliation.

Chapter 5 –The Quran, the prophet and the Law

This chapter analyze the rules, structure and legal system of Islam and how they came to be. The Muslim region had previously been exploited by corruption and Islam states made attempts to try and integrate with civilians with claims that its system was legitimate. By jahiz days, a great deal of Muslims beliefs and practices were offered as the basis. The people considered the prophe’ts traditions as authoritative as the Quran was at that time. For both legal and doctrinal issues, they asserted to some prophetic traditions. Without any argument or demonstration, the earliest Muslims followed the prophet as god’s messenger placed among them. A hundred years after the death of Muhammud, the prophets’ traditions were being neglected more frequently. This created a need for new traditions.

 Across the Islamic world, the evolution of Islamic jurisprudence began in widely scattered centers across Islam regions. Despite the constraints in ideology, the Islamic leaders recognized how the traditions of the prophets was faced by challenges that were not anticipated during the prophets’ time. As an effort to address twentieth century problems, leaders had to develop legal policies that can be traced and accepted by the Quran. It was necessary that sharia courts and judges apply rules by the context of Quran and additional accepted legal rules. As a result, Islam countries have been able to address regulations and legal rules that govern literally every aspect of their lives. For example, the siyasa shar’iyya doctrine has not been confused with any secular concept of judicial independence. Similar to medieval consensus developed among Christians, Muslims as well ended what they referred to as “the gate of independent judgement”.

The Life and work of the prophet (page 71-98)

According to the life and work of a prophet, the entry acknowledges Muhammad as the founder of Islam. From the perspective of Islam religion, he was named God’s messenger. His valuable biographies are found in the Qur’an, the Islamic scriptures which is depicted as a record of what he spoke during his lifetime. Quran is a candid continual response to the prophet’s historical situation with most chapters (suras) containing his own recitations during his existence. Muhammud in the entire Quran is a normal person with hopes, fears, anxiety and power that clarify him as a prominent leader. Full accounts of his life are shown in traditional biographies collectively called the sirah. Additionally, sirah is supplemented by collections termed as hadith which contains historical accounts of things done and said by Muhammud. However, reconstructing the life of Muhammud is one of the hardest and most disputed topics in the study of Islam in modern studies.

ee main accounts of sirah, its nature changes dramatically in three distinct phases of the prophet’s life. First, during the period of the earliest written pieces of the book of Quran, legends pre-dominated. According to Quran, they attribute this to rising from the dead. The second period from early Quran pieces shows the migration of the prophet and his followers to Medina from meccca. However, these stories offer exaggerated stories with little historical information of value to a biographer. The medina period from hijar to the time the prophet life came to an end gives more details about Muhammud. His historical bibliography is constructed from this period.

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A READER ON CLASSICAL ISLAM F. E. PETERS Princeton University Press Princeton, New Jersey the life and work of the prophet 71 senger to fight and protect himself against those who wronged them and treated them badly. The first verse which was sent down on this subject from what I have heard from Urwa ibn al-Zubayr and other learned persons was: “Permission is granted those (to take up arms) who fight because they were oppressed. God is certainly able to give help to those who were driven away from their homes for no other reason than that they said “Our Lord is God.” And if God had not restrained some men through some others, monasteries, churches, synagogues and mosques, where the name of God is honored most, would have been razed. God will surely help those who help Him.—Verily, God is allpowerful and all-mighty—Those who would be firm in devotion, pay the tithe, and enjoin what is good and forbid what is wrong, if we give them authority in the land. But the result of things rests with God.” (Quran 22:39–41) The meaning is: “I have allowed them to fight only because they were unjustly treated, while their sole oVense against men is that they worship God. When they are in the ascendent they will establish prayer, pay the poor tax, enjoin kindness and forbid iniquity, that is, the Prophet and his companions, all of them.” Then God sent down to him (the verse): “Fight so there is no more persecution,” that is, until no believer is seduced from his religion, “and the religion is God’s,” that is, until God alone is worshiped (Quran 2:193). This permission to fight, to turn from passive to active resistance to the Quraysh, was no trifling matter, as its divine sanction shows. The Quraysh’s commercial enterprises were protected by their own religiously sanctioned prohibitions against violence and bloodshed during the months of pilgrimage and the annual fairs that were connected to it. 16. The Hijra or Migration to Medina (622 c.e.) When God had given permission to fight, and this clan of the “Helpers” had pledged their support to him in Islam and to help him and his followers, and the Muslims had taken refuge with them, the Messenger commanded his companions to emigrate to Medina and to link up with their brethren the “Helpers.” “God will make for you brethren and houses in which you may be safe.” So they went out in companies, and 72 chap ter 2 the Messenger stayed in Mecca waiting for the Lord’s permission to leave Mecca and migrate to Medina. (Life 314) [ibn ishaq 1955: 204] Thus the arrangements were now complete and the hijra, the migra- tion of Muslims to Mecca began, though gradually and with great caution. After his companions had left, the Messenger stayed at Mecca waiting for permission to migrate. Except for Abu Bakr and Ali, none of his supporters were left but those who were under restraint and those who had been forced to apostatize. The former kept asking the Messenger for permission to migrate and he would answer, “Don’t be in a hurry; it may be that God will give you a companion.” Abu Bakr hoped that it would be Muhammad himself. When the Quraysh saw that the Messenger (now) had a party and companions not of their tribe and outside their territory, and that his companions had migrated to join them, and knew that they had settled in a new home and had gained protectors, they feared that the Messenger might join them, since they knew that he had decided to fight them. So they assembled in their council chamber, the house of Qusayy ibn Kilab, where all their important business was conducted, to take counsel what they should do in regard to the Messenger, for they were now in fear of him. After a discussion of various possibilities, it was Muhammad’s archrival Abu Jahl who took the floor. He knew well how to play upon at least the religious anxieties of his fellow Quraysh. “Muhammad alleges that if you follow him you will be kings of the Arabs and the Persians. Then after death you will be raised to gardens like those of the Jordan. But if you do not follow him you will be slaughtered, and when you are raised from the dead you will be burned in the fire of hell.” Abu Jahl had a plan, however. . . . Each clan should provide a young, powerful, well-born aristocratic warrior; that each of them should be equipped with a sharp sword; and that each of them should strike a blow at him and kill him. Thus they would be relieved of him, and the responsibility for his blood would lie on all the clans. The Banu Abd Manaf could not fight them all and would accept the blood-money to which they would all contribute. . . . Having come to a decision, the people dispersed. Then Gabriel came to the Messenger and said, “Do not sleep tonight on the bed on which you usually sleep.” Before much of the night had passed they [the deputized assassins] assembled at his door waiting the life and work of the prophet 73 for him to go to sleep so they might fall upon him. When the Messenger saw what they were doing, he told Ali to lie on his bed and wrap himself in his green Hadrami mantle; for no harm would befall him. He himself used to sleep in that mantle. . . . When the Messenger decided to go, he came to Abu Bakr and the two of them left by a window in the back of the latter’s house and made for a cave on Thawr, a mountain below Mecca. Having entered, Abu Bakr ordered his son Abdullah to listen to what people were saying and to come to them by night with the day’s news. . . . The two of them stayed in the cave for three days. When the Quraysh missed the Messenger they oVered a hundred she-camels to anyone who would bring them back. During the day Abdullah was listening to the plans and conversations and would come at night with the news. (Abu Bakr’s freedman) Amir used to pasture his flocks with the shepherds of Mecca and when night fell would bring them to the cave where they milked them and slaughtered some. At Medina meanwhile Muhammad’s arrival was eagerly awaited. Muhammad ibn Ja‹far ibn al-Zubayr from Urwa ibn al-Zubayr from Abd al-Rahman ibn Uwaymir ibn Sa‹ told me, saying, men of my tribe who were the Messenger’s companions told me: “When we heard that the Messenger had left Mecca and we were eagerly expecting his arrival, we used to go out after morning prayers to the lava tract beyond our land to await him. This we did until there was no more shade left, then we went indoors in the hot season. On the day the Messenger arrived we had sat as we always had until there being no more shade we went inside, and it was then that the Prophet arrived. The first to see him was a Jew. He had seen what we were in the habit of doing and that we were expecting the arrival of the Messenger, and he called out at the top of his voice, ‘O Banu Qayla, your luck has come!’ So we went out to greet the Messenger, who was in the shadow of a palm tree with Abu Bakr, who was of like age. Now most of us had never seen the Messenger and as the people crowded around him they did not know him from Abu Bakr until the shade left him and Abu Bakr got up with his mantle and shielded him from the sun, and then we knew.” Ali stayed in Mecca for three days and nights until . . . he joined the Messenger and (also) lodged at Kulthum’s house. . . . The Messenger ordered that a mosque be built and he stayed with Abu Ayyub until the mosque and his houses were completed. The Messenger joined in the activity to encourage the Muslims to work and both the (Meccan) “Migrants” and the (Medinese) “Helpers” labored hard. . . . The Mes- 74 chap ter 2 senger stayed in Medina from the month of First Rabi‹ to Safar of the following year until his mosque and his quarters were built. This tribe of the “Helpers” all accepted Islam, and every house of the “Helpers” accepted Islam except Khatma, Waqif, Wa›il and Umayya who were Aws Allah, a clan of the Aws who clung to their paganism. (Life 323– 340) [ibn ishaq 1955: 221–230] 17. The Constitution of Medina Included in Ibn Ishaq’s Life of the Prophet is a document that purports to record the political arrangements contracted between Muhammad and his partisans and the citizens of Medina. There is little reason to doubt its authenticity since it constitutes Medina the same kind of “protected” enclave found elsewhere in Arabia, though here not around a shrine, as at Mecca, for example, but on the authority of a recognized “holy man.” By it the contracting parties agreed to recognize Muhammad as their leader and to accept his judgments. In so doing they were acknowledging, as was the Prophet himself, that they were one community or umma, not yet uniquely composed of Muslims, but committed to defend its own joint interests, or what was now newly defined to be the common good. The Messenger wrote a document concerning the “Migrants” and the “Helpers” in which he made a friendly agreement with the Jews and established them in their religion and their property, and stated the reciprocal obligations as follows: In the Name of God, the Compassionate, the Merciful. This is a document from Muhammad the Prophet [concerning the relations] between the believers and Muslims of the Quraysh and Yathrib [Medina], and those who followed them and joined them and labored with them. They are one community to the exclusion of all men. The Quraysh emigrants according to their present custom shall pay all the blood-money within their number and shall redeem their prisoners with the kindness and justice common among believers. . . . A believer shall not take as an ally the freedman of another Muslim against him. The God-fearing believers shall be against the rebellious or him who spreads injustice, or sin or enmity or corruption between believers. A believer shall not slay a believer for the sake of an unbeliever, nor shall he aid an unbeliever against a believer. God’s protection is one, the least of them may give protection to a stranger on their behalf. Believers are friends one to the other to the exclusion of outsiders. To the Jew who follows us belongs help and equality. He shall the life and work of the prophet 75 not be wronged nor his enemies aided. The peace of believers is indivisible and no separate peace shall be made when believers are fighting in the way of God. Conditions must be fair and equitable to all. . . . The Jews must bear their expenses and the Muslims their expenses. Each must help the other against anyone who attacks the people of this document. They must seek mutual advice and consultation, and loyalty is a protection against treachery. A man is not liable for his ally’s misdeeds. The wronged must be helped. The Jews must pay with the believers so long as war lasts. Yathrib [Medina] shall be sanctuary for the people of this document. . . . If any dispute or controversy should arise it must be referred to God and to Muhammad the Messenger of God. (Life 341–343) [ibn ishaq 1955: 231–233] 18. Jewish Opposition Almost as soon as the Prophet and his followers had settled down in Medina, or Yathrib, as it was still called at that time, his relations with the Jews of the place began to deteriorate. Soon after his first great victory over his Meccan rivals at Badr Wells, the conflict with the Jews turned to open warfare, as we shall see, but commercial, religious, and psychological differences may have surfaced even before. Muhammad was, after all, claiming to be a prophet in the tradition of Moses and the Torah. In the Jewish community of Medina he encountered, perhaps contrary to his own expectations, a rebuV from the contemporary partisans of that same tradition. About this time the Jewish rabbis showed hostility to the Messenger in envy, hatred and malice, because God had chosen His Messenger from the Arabs. They were joined by men from (the Arab tribes of) al-Aws and al-Khazraj who had obstinately clung to their heathen religion. They were hypocrites, clinging to the polytheism of their fathers, denying the resurrection; yet when Islam appeared and their people flocked to it they were compelled to accept it to save their lives. But in secret they were hypocrites whose inclination was towards the Jews because these latter considered the Messenger a liar and strove against Islam. It was the Jewish rabbis who used to annoy the Prophet with questions and introduce confusion, so as to confound the truth with falsity. The (verses of the) Quran used to come down in reference to questions of theirs, though some of the questions about what was allowed and forbidden came from the Muslims themselves. . . . The first hundred verses of the Sura of the Cow (2:1–100) came down in reference to 76 chap ter 2 these Jewish rabbis and the hypocrites of the Aws and Khazraj, according to what I have been told, and God knows best. (Life 351) [ibn ishaq 1955: 239–240] 19. Fighting in the Sacred Month The first real fighting between the Emigrants and the Quraysh took place in December of 623 c.e. and provoked a moral crisis. Muhammad had sent out a raiding party of only eight Muslims with sealed orders. The orders commanded them to spy out the Quraysh at Nakhla on the road between Mecca and Ta›if and “find out for us what they are doing.” What the Quraysh were doing was transporting, under very light escort, camel-loads of raisins and leather from Ta›if to Mecca. Ibn Ishaq continues the story. When the caravan saw them [that is, the Muslims] they were afraid because they had camped nearby. Ukkasha [that is, one of the Emigrants], who had shaved his head (like a pilgrim), looked down on the Quraysh, and when they saw him they felt safe and said: “They are pilgrims; we have nothing to fear from them.” The raiders took counsel among themselves, for this was the last day of Rajab, and they said: “If we leave them alone tonight they will get into the haram and will be safe from us; and if we kill them, we will kill them in a sacred month.” So they were hesitant and feared to attack them. Finally the Muslims decided to attack, holy month or not. Some of the Quraysh were killed and the caravan was taken back to Medina together with two captives. They had set aside a fifth of the booty for the Prophet— this was reportedly the first time this practice, which later became customary, was followed—and divided the rest among themselves, but on their entry into Medina they found a cold reception. When they came to the Apostle, he said: “I did not order you to fight in the sacred month,” and he held the caravan and the two prisoners in suspense and refused to take anything from them. When the Apostle said that, the men were in despair and thought they were doomed. Their Muslim brethren reproached them for what they had done, and the Quraysh said, “Muhammad and his companions have violated the sacred month, shed blood therein, taken booty and captured men.” . . . The Jews of Medina turned this raid into an ill omen against the Apostle. . . . And when there was much talk about it, God sent down to His Apostle: the life and work of the prophet 77 They ask you concerning fighting in the prohibited month. Say: “Fighting therein is a grave oVense; but graver it is in the sight of God to prevent access to the path of God, to deny Him, to prevent access to the sacred shrine and drive out its members. Tumult and oppression are worse than slaughter.” (Quran 2:217) . . . And when the Quran came down about that and God relieved the Muslims of their anxiety in the matter, the Apostle took the caravan and the prisoners. (Life 424–426) [ibn ishaq 1955: 287–288] 20. The Battle at the Badr Wells This is the background against which a major military operation unfolded in March of 624 c.e. News came to Muhammad that a very large caravan was on its way southward from Palestine to Mecca. Muhammad summoned the Muslims of Medina and said, “‘This is the Quraysh caravan containing their property. Go out and attack it; perhaps God will give it as prey.’ The people answered his summons, some eagerly, others reluctantly because they had not thought that the Messenger would go to war.” The Quraysh heard of the intended attack and mobilized their own forces, thus setting up a major confrontation between the Muslims and their opponents at Mecca. During the preliminaries, when Muhammad was positioning his forces, the following interesting incident is reported. Al-Hubab ibn al-Mundhir ibn al-Jamuh said to the Messenger: “Is this the place which God has ordered you to occupy, so that we can neither advance nor withdraw from it, or is it a matter of opinion and military tactics?” When Muhammad replied that it was the latter alHubab pointed out to him that this was not the place to stop but that they should go on to the water-hole nearest the enemy and halt there, stop up the wells beyond it and construct a cistern for themselves so that they would have plenty of water. . . . The Messenger agreed that it was an excellent plan and it was immediately carried out. (Life 439) [ibn ishaq 1955: 296–297] The fighting began and at first it went badly for the outnumbered Muslims. The Prophet rallied his troops, however, with this promise. Then the Messenger went forth to the people and incited them saying, “By God in whose hand is the soul of Muhammad, no man will be slain this day fighting against them (the Quraysh) with steadfast courage, advancing and not retreating, but God will cause him to enter Paradise.” (Life 445) [ibn ishaq 1955: 300] 78 chap ter 2 The Muslims were in the end victorious, with a great eVect on their own and the Quraysh’s morale for the rest of the struggle between them. The jubilation that followed was tempered only by a quarrel about the distribution of the rich spoils. They ask you (O Muhammad), about the spoils of war. Say: the spoils of war belong to God and the Messenger, so keep your duty to God and adjust the matter of your diVerence and obey God and his Messenger, if you are true believers. (Quran 8:1) Thus the event is referred to in the opening verse of Sura 8, called “The Spoils.” Most of the sura is in fact devoted to the events surrounding the battle of Badr and is interpreted at length in Ibn Ishaq’s Life of the Messenger of God (ibn ishaq 1955: 321–327). 21. The Fate of the Banu Qaynuqa‹ After the success at Badr, the issue of the Jews of Medina surfaced once again, or at least as it concerned one tribe of them, the Banu Qaynuqa‹. Meanwhile there was the aVair of the Banu Qaynuqa‹. The Messenger assembled them in their market and addressed them as follows: “O Jews, beware lest God bring upon you the vengeance He brought upon the Quraysh and become Muslims. You know I am the Prophet who has been sent—you will find that in your Scriptures and God’s covenant with you.” They replied, “O Muhammad, you seem to think that we are your people. Do not deceive yourself because you encountered a people with no knowledge of war and got the better of them; for by God, if we fight you, you will find that we are real men!” A freedman of the family of Zayd ibn Thabit from Sa‹id ibn Jubayr from Iqrima from Ibn Abbas told me that the latter said that the following verses came down about them: “Say to those who disbelieve: you will be vanquished and gathered to Hell, an evil resting place. You have already had a sign in the two forces which met,” that is, the Messenger’s companions at Badr and the Quraysh. “One force fought in the way of God; the other, disbelievers, thought they saw double their own force with their very eyes. God strengthens with His help whomever He wills. Verily in that is an example for the discerning” (Quran 3:12–13). Asim ibn Umar ibn Qatada said that the Banu Qaynuqa‹ were the first of th ...
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Running head: HISTORY


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The Autobiographies of Malcolm X
In chapter seventeen of “autobiography of Malcolm X”, Malcolm X face Muslims who
intend to expose him for not practicing what they identified as their true religion. Throughout his
ministerial carrier he was often offended and forced to constantly reexamine his thoughts. He
makes several trips to Muslim countries and experience how people of different shape, race and
color exhibit no division. During his trip to Cairo, he has to undergo pilgrimage and interact with
the Muslim counsel before he is allowed to go to Mecca. Finally, through the help of Dr Omar
Azzam he travels to Mecca. The excitement at Mecca obliges him to write a letter which
addresses his experiences in Muslim world. This chapters begs the question, who would have
thought? Emphasis is placed on the need to unite with examples drawn from Islam practices and
unity as well as pilgrimage.
In chapter eighteen, Malcolm X learns that intellects who belong to non-white countries
are concerned with the revolutions of African-Americans. He makes trips to different Africa and
middle east countries where he is warmly received. After several of his last trips in Africa, he
travels home. Unfortunately, as soon as he begins his journey, he was already being blamed for
race riots in America. Ironically, he was out of the united states when these events happened.
Upon arrival, reporters were waiting for him with questions on erupted riots with violence and
the letter he wrote in Mecca. He responds that his own c...

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Tutor went the extra mile to help me with this essay. Citations were a bit shaky but I appreciated how well he handled APA styles and how ok he was to change them even though I didnt specify. Got a B+ which is believable and acceptable.

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