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Research Process Step 1: Synthesis writing is a written discussion that draws on one or more sources. In an academic synthesis, you make explicit the relationships that you have inferred among separate sources. Go beyond summary to make judgments – judgments based, of course, on critical reading of the sources. Go beyond the critique of individual sources to determine the relationship among them.

4-5 pages of content, Title and References additional, double-spaced in 12pt font. APA Format.

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Women's Rights, Shari'a Law, and the Secularization of Islam in Iran Ghamari-tabrizi, Behrooz . International Journal of Politics, Culture, and Society ; New York 26, 3, (Sep 2013): 237-253. ‫ دنتسم طابترا‬ProQuest Rather than a simple imposition of the shari'a law, the Islamization of postrevolutionary Iran transpired at the intersection of political necessities, social realities, religious considerations, and legislative initiatives. As much as the Islamization project transformed society, this social transformation also reconfigured the meaning of the shari'a and expanded the boundaries of communities with interpretive authority over its legal injunctions. The Iranian postrevolutionary experience highlights the fallacies of bifurcated conceptions of religion and politics and more specifically that of church and state. Through the examination of two important legislations on abortion rights and women's inheritance, I show the contingencies in which the shari'a is understood and contested in public. The success or failure of the Islamic Republic depends not on the separation of church and state but on how pluralistic and open the communities that lay claim on religious interpretive authority will become.[PUBLICATION ABSTRACT] : Womens rights movement; Secularism; Islamic culture; Islamism; Religion &politics; Abortion : Iran : Women's Rights, Shari'a Law, and the Secularization of Islam in Iran : Ghamari-tabrizi, Behrooz : International Journal of Politics, Culture, and Society; New York : 26 : 3 : 237-253 : 2013 : Sep 2013 : Springer Nature B.V. PDF SEARCH.PROQUEST.COM Page 1 of 2 : New York : Netherlands, New York : Political Science--International Relations : 0891 4486 : Scholarly Journals : English : Feature DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10767-013-9143-x ProQuest: 1417402836 : http://lynnlang.student.lynn.edu:2048/login?url=https://search.proquest.com/docview/141740 2836?accountid=36334 : Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013 : 2018-10-05 : ProQuest Central  2019 ProQuest LLC. . ‫طورشلاو دونبلا‬ ‫ ـب لصتا‬ProQuest PDF SEARCH.PROQUEST.COM Page 2 of 2 Iran and the Caucasus 12 (2008) 101-122 Iran’s Contributions to Human Rights, the Rights of Wome n and Demo cracy Dariu sh B orb or Arya International University, Yerevan Abstr act Most scholars generally pre-suppose that the concept of democracy is the exclusive creation of classical Greece and a token of the West to the rest of the world. This concept has originated mainly due to the fact that much of the ancient Iranian history was only known through classical Greek writings before the ever-increasing archaeological finds and decipherments of ancient Near Eastern primary sources, which have shed a very different light on the subject. This paper attempts to alleviate and restore a few of the more vital recurring misunderstandings, misinterpretations and misconceptions in this field, and endeavours to present them in a more realistic historic and historiographic perspective in the light of the latest available scholarship. Beginning in 2200 B.C. Old Elamite Kingdom, was the first manifestation in the world of a structured and, at times, democratically elected heads of state based on matriarchal right of descent. Beginning in Elam and continuing at least to the beginning of the Islamic period, no ancient peoples, including the Greeks and the Egyptians, have surpassed the practice of the rights of women, and the equality of men and women as in Iran. In early 7th century B.C. Iran, the pronouncement by Zoroaster, through Avestan literature, was the first manifestation of the rights of women and unequivocal equality of gender in all aspects and positions of society. In the second part of the 7th century B.C. Media, we encounter the ratification by popular vote of the first constitution for a democratically elected confederated empire, headed by Dioces, who was the first recorded popularly elected emperor. In 539 B.C., we come upon the declaration of the first generally accepted Charter of Rights of Nations by Cyrus the Great. In 522-486 B.C., in the reign of Darius the Great, appeared the first confirmation of a written entrenched democratic constitution. In the 4th century A.D. (or earlier) Sasanian Iran, the first appearance of an advanced system of Common Law based on well-documented jurisprudence was materialised. And finally, the confederated system of government in Iran, which survived the vicissitudes of history and changes of several dynasties, remained in force one way or the other to become the most enduring system of government in world history spanning a period of two-and-half millennia.  Koninklijke Brill NV, Leiden, 2008 DOI: 10.1163/157338408X326235 102 D. Borbor / Iran and the Caucasus 12 (2008) 101-122 Ke ywor d s History of Iranian Democracy, Human Rights in Iran, Rights of Women in Iran INTRODUCTORY NOTE Whereas Iran’s influence on the arts, poetry, philosophy, religion, and world civilisation has been studied reasonably extensively, Iran’s important contributions to democracy, human rights and the rights of women have been sadly neglected. Even though a number of historical studies on the origins of democracy in the neighbouring Mesopotamia1 and India2 are available, none exists for Iran. At the same time, a great deal of fallacy has reigned among many scholars who have pre-supposed that the concept of democracy is the exclusive creation of classical Greece and a token of the West to the rest of the world. This concept originated mainly due to the fact that much of the ancient Iranian and the Near East history was only known through classical Greek writings before the ever-increasing archaeological finds and decipherments of ancient Near Eastern primary sources, which have shed a very different light on the subject. In spite of the fact that a number of modern scholars have presented a more balanced and objective view on some of the aspects in recent times, there is still much misperception concerning certain elements. The ensuing pages attempt to alleviate and restore a few of the more vital recurring topics, and endeavour to present them in a more realistic historic and historiographic perspective in the light of the latest available scholarship. As the achievement and propagation of democracy is dependant on a number of major inter-related criteria, which must exist and operate simultaneouslythe most important being urbanisation, constitutionalism, rule of law, human rights and the rights of womenwe treat each of these separately. URBANISATION One of the important pre-conditions for democracy is urbanisation. Generally speaking, a basic pastoral or tribal society does not sense a 1 S. N. Kramer, The Sumerians: Their History, Culture, and Character, Chicago-London, 1971: 37, 74, 186 ff., records the convening of man’s first political assembly, which met over forty-five hundred years ago. 2 In early Vedic, mentions of various categories of assemblies such as vidatha, samiti, and sabha are made. D. Borbor / Iran and the Caucasus 12 (2008) 101-122 103 great necessity for democracy until it develops or is associated with an urban community. The origins of democracy, both in the ancient East and later Greece developed concurrently with the formation of citystates.3 Consequently, the presentation of a brief overview of urbanisation in ancient Iran becomes indispensable for a better understanding of the development of democracy. Permanent settlements in favourable locations on the plateau date to as early as 7000 B.C., developments with regional centres to 4000 B.C., and regional states to 1700 B.C., much earlier than the western neighbours,4 and preceding Greece by 2000 years. 5 “Completely developed settlement systems in the Susiana plain, with centres such as Susa that exceed in size anything else we know of up to that time”6 subsisted in continuous development in Iran as early as 3000 B.C. The area from the Lower Mesopotamia up to the ridges of the Zagros Mountains presents all types of settlements, from the first developments of the Pre-pottery Neolithic, and the Pottery Neolithic, through the first larger permanent communities, up to all the higher forms of organisation, such as the city and the state. 7 The Pre-pottery Neolithic, but also the earliest sites from the Pottery Neolithic period were all situated in the valleys of the Zagros or at the exits of such valleys. They included: Teppe Guran, Teppe Sarab, Ganj Dareh, and Qal‘e Rostam. These were isolated developments, each situated far away from other sites of the same period. In the following period settlements start to advance into the smaller plains, Ja‘ffarabad and Chogha Mish are such examples. Completely developed urbanisation appear, for the first time, in the Late Susiana period.8 The existence of communities, fortified citadels with ruler’s palace, dwellings of the aristocracy, paved streets, outer town with crowded dwellings and a nearby cemetery; combined with agriculture, vine growing, breeding of cattle and working of metal and other handicrafts9 3 For the origins of the city-states in the East, cf. M. Van de Mieroop, A History of the Ancient Near East, Malden, MA-Oxford, 2004: 18ff. 4 H. J. Nissen, The Early History of the Ancient Near East 9000-2000 B.C., Chicago-London, 1988: 5, fig. 1; Van de Mieroop, op. cit.: 44, map 3.1. 5 A. Parrot, Sumer, Paris, 1981: 131-199. 6 Nissen, op.cit.: 54-55, 108, and fig. 16 (distribution of settlements in Susiana, Late Uruk period). 7 Ibid.: 48-49. 8 Ibid.: 52. 9 E.g., for Hasanlu, near the south-western corner of Lake Urmya, see R. H. Dyson, “Hasanlu teppe”, Encyclopaedia Iranica, XXII, fasc. 1, Winona Lake, 2004: 41– 46; for Sialk, near present day Kn, see R. Ghirshman, L’Iran des origines à Islam, 104 D. Borbor / Iran and the Caucasus 12 (2008) 101-122 in various parts of the Iranian plateau is further decisive indication of well developed urban settlements. Other urban areas such as Teppe Yahy 10 (4th and 3rd Millennia B.C.) 156 miles south of Kermn, and the ahr S xteh11 near Zbol in Sstn-Baloestn, later Ecbatana and others are other examples of urbanisation in ancient Iran. Contemporary Accadian and Sumerian records prove that Elam,12 in fact, was the earliest part of present-day Iran to reach the level of urban civilisation, and already had been previously ruled on confederated lines. Reliefs by the Assyrian king Sargon II (end of the 8th century B.C.), also ancient seals show well developed fortressed citadels and towerdwellings in the Empire of the Median Confederation. 13 Jeremiah (25:25; 50:41-43; 51:27-28) in his discourse refers to “kings of Media” in the plural, alongside with satraps (phth, Assyrian pehte), and governors (sägän, Assyrian aknu). The later Persepolis Tablets14 (509-458 B.C.) attest well organised, urban administration, management and finance. The statement by Herodotus (I: 125) that “the Persian nation contains a number of tribes ... Pasargadae, Maraphii, and Maspii, upon which all the other tribes are dependent. Of these, the Pasargadae are the most distinguished; they contain the clan of the Achaemenids from which spring the Perseid kings. Other tribes are the Panthialaei, Derusiaei, Germanii, all of which are attached to the soil, the remainder Dai, Mardi, Dropici, Sargati being nomadic”15 has tended to bewitch and confuse many scholars in mistakenly referring to Elamite, Median, Achaemenian, and Parthian administrations as a federation of tribes, whereas Herodotus himself distinguishes between the already settled peoples attached to the soil16 and the nomadic. Long before Herodotus, the pre-Median Assyrian inscriptions talk of twenty-seven “kings” of Parsua with the determinative of “country”, Paris, 1976: 43 ff; I. M. Diakonoff, “Media”, Cambridge History of Iran (CHI), vol. 2, Cambridge, 1985: 57-58. 10 Discovered by C.C. Lamberg-Karlovsky. 11 Found in 1967 and gradually excavated ever since. 12 J. Hansman, “Charax and Karkheh”, Iranica Antiqua, VII, Leiden, 1967: 21-58. 13 R. Ghirshman, Persia from the Origins to Alexander the Great, London, 1964: 85, plate 110. 14 Administrative records in the reigns of Darius the Great, Xerxes and Artaxerxes I (R. T. Hallock, Persepolis Fortification Tablets, Chicago, 1969; idem, “A New Look at the Persepolis Treasury Tablets”, JNES 19, Chicago, 1960: 90-100; idem, “Selected Fortification Texts”, CDAF 18 (1978): 109-36; etc.). 15 Herodotus, trans. A. de Sélincourt, London, 1988: 93-94. 16 Herodotus, trans. G. Rawlinson, New York, 1942: 56 (“husbandry”). D. Borbor / Iran and the Caucasus 12 (2008) 101-122 105 never with that of “tribe”.17 Further evidence for the non-tribal nature of the administration is found in place names and the names of rulers in written sources down to the second quarter of the 1st millennium B.C., with rare mention of tribes.18 The widespread existence of tribes,19 which we do not deny or dispute, must not be taken for evidence of a nomadic system of government in ancient Iran.20 In view of the written and archaeological evidence that point strongly towards overall organised urban settlements throughout the territory, we may conclude that both Elamite and Median, and later Acheamenian, Parthian, and Sasanian empires were, in fact, confederations of a number of united, autonomous city-states in a geographical or administrative region, which were in turn combined into a kingdom or a state, amalgamated with other states into an empire. This well-established confederated mode of administration continued one way or the other until Reza Shah who opted for a highly centralised method of rule. The augmentation in the number of the Ostns (states), and an increased delegation of power to the provinces, after the Islamic Revolution is a step in the right direction for a possible return to the confederated manner of government. Talking of the system of rule of the Medes, Herodotus, along with other Greeks, who did not clearly comprehend the doctrines of a confederated state gave the following clumsy picture: “the various nations governed each other, the Medes being the supreme authority and concerning themselves specially with their nearest neighbours; these in turn ruling their neighbours, who were responsible for the next, and so on”.21 It denotes in modern terms a decentralised, hierarchal, delegated approach to administration based on geographical distance, in which the states that were far away from the central government were directed by nearer states, a type of rule that must have created great convenience and speed in all affairs, including decision making. The existence of the “Satrap of Satraps”, on the analogy of “King of Kings”, well explains the hierarchic delegation of power in the sense that the affairs 17 Diakonoff, op. cit.: 61. Ibid.: 44. 19 Such as the Qut, Lullub, Kassites and others who were originally situated to the west of Media proper. 20 The main social basis of the Achaemenian society, and probably the Medians, was kra- “Kriegvolk” (see I. M. Diakonoff (Dyakonov), Isroriya Midii, Moscow-Leningrad, 1956: 333ff.). 21 Herodotus, I:134, trans. Sélincourt: 97. 18 106 D. Borbor / Iran and the Caucasus 12 (2008) 101-122 of one satrapy were managed by another.22 Such complicated method of rule with a multitude of sub-divisions must have been the cause for various historians’ to have given different numbers for the administrative divisions of ancient Iran, some of which appear much exaggerated: “King Xerxes ruled over 127 provinces, all the way from India to Sudan”.23 CONSTITUTIONALISM The underlying concept of how an ancient or modern country is politically managed or ruled, including its aspirations to democracy, have always been dependant on the percept of its basic or constitutional law. The ancient Near East has been the cradle of quite well developed basic laws dating back to more than four millennia. Briefly, the earliest known constitutional law was issued by the Sumerian king Urukagina of Lagash (c. 2300 B.C.) 24 The oldest existing constitutional document is that of Ur-Nammu (c. 2050 B.C.)25 The most comprehensive of the ancient constitutions, which is well preserved is that of Hammurabi, reign c. 1792-1750 B.C., the basic theme focusing on the concept of justice: “to make justice appear in the land, to destroy the evil and the wicked that the strong might not oppress the weak”. 26 This idea has been closely echoed by many later monarchs, including Darius the Great and Xerxes I: “…By the favour of Ahuramazda I am of such a kind that I am a friend to what is right, I am no friend to what is wrong. It is not my wish that to the weak is done wrong because of the mighty, it is not my wish that the weak is hurt because of the mighty, that the mighty is hurt because of the weak. What is right, that is my wish” (DNb, §§ 2-3; XNb).27 The constitutional laws of the Hittites consisted of some 200 articles, the earliest surviving version dates to c. 1650 B.C.28 In contrast to the Hammurabi law, which was retributive, the Hittite law was compensa- 22 E. Herzfeld, Am Tor von Asien: Felsdenkmale aus Irans Heldenzeit, Berlin, 1920: 39; R. N. Frye, The Heritage of Persia, London, 1962: 192. 23 Esther, 1:1-2. 24 Excavated in Iraq by Ernest de Sarzec in 1877. 25 Kramer, op. cit. 83 ff. 26 G. R. Driver, J. C. Miles, The Babylonian Laws, II, Oxford, 1955: 7. 27 R. Kent, Old Persian: Grammar, Texts, Lexicon, New Haven, 1961: 140; P. Lecoq, Les inscriptions de la Perse achéménide, Paris, 1997: 222; B. Gharib, “A Newly Found Inscription of Xerxes”, Iranica Antiqua, 8 (1968): 11-29. 28 T. Bryce, Life and Society in the Hittite World, Oxford-New York, 2002: 34. D. Borbor / Iran and the Caucasus 12 (2008) 101-122 107 tory.29 A fundamental right of the subjects was legal redress for offences committed against their persons or their property, and the granting of fair compensation to the victims of an offence. The Chief Justice, responsible for the administration of the law of the land, had strict guidelines for his performance of duty.30 The first constitutional assembly recorded in history is that of the 7th century B.C. Media, reported by Herodotus: “The Medes discussed the situation at a general meeting…Let us appoint one of our number to rule us so that we can get on with our work under orderly government…The argument prevailed and the assembly was persuaded to set up a monarchy ... The next step was to propose candidates for the royal office, and as during the debate Dioces and his admirable qualities were on everybody’s lips, he was the man they agreed to appoint”.31 The consequence of this event led to the ratification of the first constitution for a democratically elected confederation.32 Agbatana or Ecbatana,33 “place of assembly”, was probably the seat of the event, or so named to honour the occasion. The system did not stop here, and may be detected at different periods throughout the Iranian history. In most matters, the affairs of the Empire of Median Confederation34 was further expanded, developed and refined by the proceeding confederated empires. The first known written entrenched democratic constitution in the world was instituted at the beginnings of the Achaemenian era, prepared by the leading administrators of the Empire either by popular vote or consensus, and subsequently presented to Darius the Great (522-486 B.C.) for his signature and propagation: “Us who administer your empirethe supervisors, the governors, the lieutenant-governors, and the other officialshave agreed that your majesty should issue an order and enforce it strictly… So let your majesty issue this order and sign it, 29 Ibid.: 33. O. R. Gurney, The Hittites, London, 1990: 76. ...
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Women Rights in Iran
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Iran is influenced by arts, poetry, and philosophy and world civilization. Iran has sadly
neglected the rights of women, their democracy and also human rights. Most the historical studies
show that the neighboring countries such as Mesopotamia have justice for women where else in
Iran there exists none. There have been scholars who have to presuppose that the notion of freedom
is the absolute formulation of Doric Greece and taken of the west to the cessation of the world.
Iran has been known for great writing with near east history before the ever-increasing
archeological findings and decoding of archaic adjacent eastern main sources. There have been the
achievement of democracy on a primary interrelated criterion which operates simultaneously.
Women have struggled for their rights, and it has acted as the memorial between the forces of
innovation and beliefs in Iranian politics and community. The struggles entered into a new phase
in the Islamic Republic during the time of emergence of the reformist movement in 1997,
(Ghamari-tabrizi, B., 2013).
Attention Getter
The rights of women have been sadly deserted through Iran’s clout on the arts, poetry,
doctrine and world civilization has been studied judiciously.
Thesis Statement
The worth rights of women have been a controversial issue in Iran. In Iran, there have been
struggles between alteration and keeping with traditional Islamic beliefs.
Throughout the decades, women have experienced changes in t...

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Tutor went the extra mile to help me with this essay. Citations were a bit shaky but I appreciated how well he handled APA styles and how ok he was to change them even though I didnt specify. Got a B+ which is believable and acceptable.

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