CCJ3600 Management for law enforcement discussion

timer Asked: Feb 9th, 2019
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Answer each question minimum of 300 words. Use provided material (PDF book) as well 2 additional sources to help support answers. Remember to use in-text citations in each new paragraph. Reference/cite in APA format. DO NOT PLAGIARIZE. Here is the reference for the PDF: Cordner, G. W. (2016). Police administration (9th ed.). New York: Routledge

1. After reading the assigned text and using the internet research the Homeland Security Bill enacted in 2003 as a result of the September 11, 2001 attacks on the U.S. Give a brief narrative and overview of the bill and the duties and responsibilities of the four divisions the bill created within the Homeland Security Department.

2. The domestic preparedness cycle includes prevention, protection, response and recovery. How does the Homeland Security Bill meet these four categories?

3. Is the United States in a better position since the passage of the Homeland Security Bill for a catastrophic event that before its passage. Why or why not?

4. If you were the president in 2003, would you have vetoed or supported the bill and what changes would do think should be made in order to strengthen the bill?

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L I CHAPTER 14 Police and D Security D E L L LEARNING OBJECTIVES , • • • • • • • Homeland Identify the four systems in which police play a major role in the context of homeland security. Identify the elements of the mission of the Department of Homeland Security (DHS). Explain the term “interoperability” and why it is such a significant issue in policing today. Identify the four primary phases of the preparedness cycle, including the police role in each phase. Describe the National Incident Management System (NIMS) and its importance to policing today. Explain why information sharing is so important to the police role in homeland security. Describe intelligence-led policing and contrast it with community policing and problem-oriented policing. T I F F A N The term “homeland security” was Y not common or familiar at the end of the twen- tieth century. At that time, just a few years ago, most experts, as well as casual observers, had no difficulty distinguishing between the military responsibility for homeland 1 the police responsibility for protecting people defense against our nation’s enemies and and property against crime and criminals. 5 But then the world changed. We learned that modern international terrorism represents both a military threat and a crime. Today, it 6 is commonly accepted that the police have an important role to play in protecting both 8 terrorism. Additionally, it has become more local communities and the nation against widely accepted that the police role extends T to “all hazards.” The police role today within the context of homeland security includes important responsibilities related to crime, national defense, security, and safety. S 14 Police and Homeland Security    419 The Police Role in Homeland Security The police occupy a central role in homeland security, which is comprised of four important sectors or systems (see Figure 14.1). In accordance with the traditional view of policing, the police are the gatekeepers at the front end of the criminal justice system. They try to prevent crime, respond when crime does occur, and make criminal cases against suspected offenders. For the most part, L the rest of the criminal justice system depends on the police, who control the entry point I to the system and largely determine which offenders will be handled by prosecutors, judges, and correctional officials. D has done is highlight several other What the new concept of homeland security systems in which the police also play important roles. D Since the events of September 11, 2001, it has been recognized that the police are an E important part of the anti-terrorism effort, working in cooperation with the military, intelligence agencies, and others in the L “Police and Terrorism,” Box 14.1). national defense or national security system (see America’s 18,000 state, local, and special-purposeLlaw enforcement agencies have much more intimate connections to local people and local , communities than do the military, the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA), or the FBI, and thus are a crucial resource for intelligence gathering and information sharing. Based on their own observations as well as information provided by the public, police canTplay the role of “first preventers” of terrorism.1 Also, should terrorist acts occur, state and local police will be the first responders, I not federal law enforcement agencies or the military. The crucial role of local police in the United States was highlighted by Israeli terrorismFexpert Tal Hanan: F local police officers must be trained regarding the threat [of suicide attacks], in A particular the identification of suspicious activities and patterns used by terrorN ist cells in preparation for attacks. Police intelligence functions should include Y Safety System National Security System 1 5 POLICE 6 8 Security T System S Figure 14.1 The Central Role of Police in Homeland Security Criminal Justice System 420   The Strategic Management Perspective BOX 14.1 Police and Terrorism It has been said that 9/11 changed everything. This is certainly true for local police agencies and their chiefs. It is increasingly clear that federal agencies, such as the FBI and the U.S. Secret Service, can no longer work alone in protecting the United States from further attack. Rather, they must work in partnership with other public and private agencies, and most important, with local police. Local police can identify potential terrorists living or operating in their jurisdictions, they can help protect vulnerable targets, and they can coordinate the first response to terror attacks. These are heavy new responsibilities, but they cannot be shrugged off, because elected officials and the public will increasingly expect their police to be prepared. L I D Source: Graeme R. Newman and Ronald V. Clarke. 2008. Policing Terrorism: An Executive’s Guide. Washington, DC: Office of Community Oriented D Policing Services, Brief 01. E L gathering methods, especially the montraining on terrorist-related intelligence itoring of “risk groups” and the components used to prepare bombs. … local L police departments must ensure that, every police officer is properly prepared for 2 his or her role in combating suicide attacks, as they are the last line of defense. Since the experience of Hurricane Katrina in 2005, there is also greater recognition T of the vital role that police play within the safety system. The key players in this system I include fire protection personnel, emergency medical staff, public health, hospitals, and F first responders to a serious natural or manemergency managers. But, often, the very made emergency are police. Also, if a catastrophic situation requires mandatory evacuaF tion, the police are the ones who will have to coordinate the evacuation and, if necessary, A enforce it.3 Likewise, if a chemical, biological, or pandemic situation creates the need for N to enforce that. In fact, through traffic safety quarantine, the police will be called upon and related functions the police have long Ycontributed significantly to the safety system— it just has not been widely recognized or emphasized until recently. One more system in which police play an important part is the security system. We 1 and expect to make a clear distinction vis-àtraditionally think in terms of private security vis public police. However, private security 5 and private policing have grown substantially in recent decades, and now often perform their duties in quasi-public places such as 6 schools, malls, and even downtown business districts. Also, formal and informal public– 8 and public police have become extremely private partnerships between private security 4 common. This takes on great importance T in the homeland security context because it is estimated that 85 percent of the nation’s critical infrastructure is privately owned. Among these expanded police roles,S perhaps the most challenging and controversial is the anti-terrorism role associated with national security. According to Larry Hoover, a new vision of American policing’s national security role and responsibility has emerged.5 He 14 Police and Homeland Security    421 identifies four challenges faced by local law enforcement in participating in efforts addressing homeland security: technological, logistical, political, and ethical. The most significant technological challenge is interoperability, which is the ability to exchange information between organizations. Interoperability, or the lack thereof, pertains to both voice and data communications. Organizations that should be able to exchange information may include not only local, state, and federal law enforcement, but also public health departments, emergency medical services (ambulances and hospitals), and fire departments. L data off written reports and out of The most problematic logistical issue is getting officers’ heads and into electronic formats that can I be searched and shared. The necessity of this function is apparent but, if a majority of police officers’ time is spent collecting data and entering it into a computer, little time isDleft for other responsibilities. Political issues take a variety of forms that focus on finances, D role expectations, secrecy, and productivity, among others. Finally, ethical challenges E include the issues of profiling and open records legislation. While technological, logistical, political, and ethical challenges are not new for the police administrator, those L associated with homeland security are unlike ones faced before. L , MODERN POLICING BLOG T I January 11, 2015 F There has been an ongoing debate since 2001 over whether the best response to terrorism is military F or police. This column argues that the tragic events in Paris demonstrate the folly of treating terrorists as criminals. A follow-up rebuttal column argues just theAopposite, that the French experience doesn’t lend any credence to the necessity of treating terrorism asN war. Source: The above is a reproduction of a post from the Modern Policing blog. The link to the post is https://gcordner.­wordpress. Y com/2015/01/11/terrorism-military-or-police-problem/. The hyperlink at “This column” links to https://www.­lawfareblog. Terrorism—military or police problem? com/war-or-crime-figure-it-out, and the hyperlink at “rebuttal column” links to on-war-and-crime-a-response-to-brian-cunningham/. 1 5 Contemporary policing themes of community engagement, collaboration, globali6 zation, and privatization (discussed in Chapter 15) are all associated with the expanded 8 highlights the need to design and homeland security mission. Community engagement implement roles for the public to play other than T as victims of terrorism and disasters. Collaboration and coordination among so many separate law enforcement agencies, S levels of government is a huge chalother providers of safety and security, and multiple lenge. In regard to community engagement and collaboration, the adoption of community policing since the 1980s certainly broadened the police perspective and taught the 422   The Strategic Management Perspective importance of partnerships, but the new homeland security mission and context present even greater demands and difficulties. The effect of globalization is that, increasingly, we may be dealing with issues that originate in another country, but affect us locally. This was demonstrated most dramatically by 9/11, but is also evidenced on a daily basis by transnational crime, especially cybercrime, that can realistically be regarded as a threat in every community in the nation. Privatization, as noted before, is not a new trend but assumes heightened importance in L If one considers that airlines, chemical plants, the high-stakes arena of homeland security. bioengineering labs, and nuclear powerIplants (just to name a few) are mainly privately owned in the United States, and largely protected by private security and private police, the D in order to protect public safety is obvious. critical nature of public–private collaboration Two critical events that occurred early D in this twenty-first century have had a very significant impact on American society, E including American policing and police administration. These two events were the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, and Hurricane L Katrina in August 2005. September 11, 2001 L , On September 11, 2001, 19 hijackers commandeered four airplanes leaving from Boston, Newark, and Washington, DC,T evading airport security at every juncture.6 More than 3,000 people were killed in New York City at the World Trade Center, in Arlington, I Virginia, just outside Washington, DC at the Pentagon, and in Stoney Creek Township, F it was learned that several of the hijackers Pennsylvania, in an open field. Subsequently, had come to the attention of law enforcement F authorities in the months and years leading up to the attack, but no one had “connected the dots.” This gave rise to considerably more A emphasis on intelligence analysis and information sharing. In addition, the heroic efforts N personnel in New York and at the Pentagon of police, firefighters, and other emergency were hindered by overloaded communications networks and a lack of interoperability; Y that is, the inability of first responders from different agencies to communicate with each other across voice radio and data systems. This gave rise to technological enhancements 1 for shared and coordinated communications and, just as important, improved protocols in emergencies. 5 To provide a description and analysis of the events of September 11, including 6 preparedness and response, a 10-member commission, the National Commission on 8 (Public Law 107–306) was formed. The 9/11 Terrorist Attacks upon the United States Commission, as it was better known, T eventually produced 41 recommendations that directed the revamping of the national security apparatus to combat terrorism and defend the nation against weapons of S mass destruction. Several of the commissioners subsequently tracked the implementation of the commission’s recommendations. In a status report in December 2005 (the last official status report), the government received 14 Police and Homeland Security    423 only one A grade, for making “significant strides in using terrorism finance as an intelligence tool.”7 Categories in which the government performed most poorly included recommendations related to airline passenger screening, critical infrastructure assessment, and efforts to prevent terrorists from acquiring weapons of mass destruction; for 15 of the 41 recommendations, the government received either a D or F grade. Later, on the tenth anniversary of the attacks (in 2011), the Bipartisan Policy Center identified nine remaining unfinished commission recommendations.8 L I Hurricane Katrina D Louisiana, Mississippi, Alabama, On August 29, 2005, Hurricane Katrina struck Florida, and Georgia, causing more than 1,300 fatalities, with additional people missing D and many injured. Hurricane Katrina was the costliest hurricane ever recorded in the E United States, estimated at approximately $75 billion, and the fifth deadliest. As if the hurricane itself was not enough devastation forLthe city of New Orleans, a breach of the levees that surrounded the city occurred andLleft thousands homeless. While much debate ensued about whether the federal government, Louisiana state government, or , New Orleans city government was most negligent (with particular attention focused on FEMA, the Federal Emergency Management Agency, a branch of the Department of Homeland Security), one thing is certainly evident: T “the country was not prepared for a disaster of this magnitude, and the ensuing lack of planning, coordination, communicaI tion and response proved to be too little, too late.”9 F A bipartisan congressional committee that investigated the problems that occurred during and after Hurricane Katrina devoted one of F its chapters to law enforcement. They made several specific findings: A • A variety of conditions led to lawlessness andNviolence in hurricane-stricken areas. Y • The New Orleans Police Department was ill-prepared for continuity of operations and lost almost all effectiveness. 1 strategy and media hype of violence • Lack of a government public communications exacerbated public concerns and further delayed 5 relief. • The Emergency Management Assistance Compact 6 and military assistance were critical for restoring law and order. 8 • Federal law enforcement agencies were also T critical to restoring law and order and coordinating activities.10 S The congressional committee also found that law enforcement and public safety communications interoperability was once again, as it had been on September 11, 2001, a 424   The Strategic Management Perspective BOX 14.2 Hurricane Katrina: Breakdown in Law Enforcement General unrest and lawlessness arose in crowded areas where people were uncertain about their survival, or rescue, or prospects for evacuation. In some areas, the collapse or absence of law enforcement exacerbated the level of lawlessness and violence. Several police departments lost dispatch and communication capabilities, police vehicles, administrative functions such as booking, and jails to confine arrested suspects. Tremendous additional burdens were imposed on the police, like search and rescue operations, that took priority over normal police functions. The extent of crime and lawlessness is difficult to determine, partly because of the loss of police record keeping during the disaster and partly because of unsubstantiated reporting by the media. The breakdown of law enforcement was particularly notable in New Orleans. Despite the wellknown threat from flooding, the New Orleans Police Department had not taken basic steps to protect its resources and ensure continuity of operations. For example, communications nodes, evidence rooms, and even emergency generators were housed in lower floors susceptible to flooding. When the levees broke and the floodwaters overtook police headquarters and district offices, the department lost its command and control and communications functions. Police vehicles believed to be moved out of harm’s way were lost to the floodwaters. Hundreds of New Orleans Police Department officers went missing—some for legitimate reasons and some not—at a time they were needed most. This left the city unable to provide enough manpower and other resources to maintain law and order at shelters and on the streets. L I D D E L L , T I F serious impediment to disaster response F and recovery operations. See “Hurricane Katrina: Breakdown in Law Enforcement,” Box 14.2. A N Department of Homeland Security Y Source: Select Bipartisan Committee to Investigate the Preparation for and Response to Hurricane Katrina. 2006. A Failure of Initiative. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, p. 241. Since September 11, 2001, the United States has come to view terrorism and its responses to terrorism differently. The 1 acts that occurred that day were unlike any we had ever seen before. While previous incidents at the World Trade Center in 1993 and 5 in Oklahoma City in 1995 gave us pause, we had nothing of this magnitude—which 6 affected so many people and professions—with which to compare these events. Similarly, 8 lesson about the severity of natural disasters Hurricane Katrina gave Americans a sober and the critical importance of a coordinated T and effective government response to emergency situations. S in 2003, mandated that 22 previously existing The Homeland Security Bill, enacted federal agencies (with combined budgets of about $40 billion and employing 170,000 workers) be collapsed into one new cabinet-level department, with additional new 14 Police and Homeland Security    425 divisions being created to fill existing gaps. This represented the most sweeping federal government reorganization since the creation of the Department of Defense in 1947. The FBI and the CIA, two premier intelligence-gathering agencies, remained independent from the new Department of Homeland Security (DHS). However, many other agencies with law enforcement, border protection, emergency management, and intelligence-gathering capabilities became part of DHS. The initial mission of the new department was to: (1) prevent terrorist attacks; (2) L the damage from attacks that do reduce vulnerability to terrorism; and (3) minimize occur.11 The official mission statement was: I D America. We will prevent and We will lead the unified national effort to secure deter terrorist attacks and protect against andDrespond to threats and hazards to the nation. We will ensure safe and s ...
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School: Rice University

Hi, please see the attached paper. Have a look at it and in case of any edit, please let me know. Otherwise, it is my pleasure to have you as my buddy now and future. Until the next invite, Bye!


Management of Law Enforcement
Student’s Name
Institutional Affiliation


Question 1: A brief narrative and overview of the Homeland Security Bill
The Homeland security bill was effectively passed in 2003 to accord 22 agencies an
opportunity to work together as one department. It is the bill that led to the establishment of
American Homeland security. The primary mandate of the department was to protect America
from any acts of terrorism while also reducing the vulnerability of the country to acts of terror.
The responsibility of the department was also to ensure minimal damages in case of any terrorist
act. The divisions of Homeland security were later established and assigned different roles to
ensure the nation’s security (De Giorgi, 2018). The Border and transportation security division
had the responsibility to ensure the American borders are safe, so they were tasked to check the
transportation system as well as the immigration laws (De Giorgi, 2018). There have been so
many people moving to the U.S to seek for a better opportunity for life in the States, and the
large numbers of these immigrants create a vulnerability that is easy to be utilized by terrorists.
On the other hand, The Emergency Preparedness and Response Division of Homeland
Security were given the responsibility to respond to attacks as well as natural disasters that
happen in the country (Logan, 2018). The division was to detect any threat for a potential hazard
before it occurs and natural evacuation orders and directions as mitigation measures. However,
the Emergency Preparedness and Response Divisio...

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