HSC 2001 Pathophysiology and Pharmacology Case Study

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Question Description

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Instructions
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The goal of this assignment is to use a real clinical scenario to demonstrate how you can synthesize and integrate the knowledge of pathophysiology and pharmacology in the management of the case’s condition. Keep in mind that disease manifestation varies and may not follow text book description.


Tasks
Note: Everything needs to be in a Singapore context

  • Identify a person (family member or friend) with two or more confirmed medical diagnosis AND had experienced / is experiencing dysfunction in at least 2 body systems. You should choose a person who can provide accurate and detailed information such as investigation process, management plan and especially the specific medications they are on.
  • Explain to your subject the purpose of your interview. Ensure you deidentified the subject in your write up. Offer to share your report to the subject
  • Conduct a health interview. A followup interview session may be required after you read up on the diagnosis, pathophysiology and management of the diseases
  • In the case report:

- Provide a case description

- Pick TWO medical diagnosis, identify which one is primary diagnosis where you will elaborate on the pathophysiology and management approach. Provide a brief description on the secondary diagnosis

- Describe each medical diagnosis and the pathophysiology and disease manifestations

- Compare the classic disease presentation and symptoms to what the subject is informing you

- Describe the types of medications. Explain how the drugs interact with the pathophysiological processes and the expectant outcome.

- Draw implications for the health professional of your course


Formatting & Layout Requirements

- Add page numbers
- Clear paragraphs with relevant headings
- Appendices (if applicable)

Text:

- 1.5 line spacing

- One-inch margins

- font size 12, Times New Roman.

- Highlight important concepts by using italic.


Crucial Requirements:

- A list of references (in APA style)
- 14 references minimum
- Turnitin Similarity Index of under 11% (School is very strict on this)


Please refer to Grading Criteria for more information

I have also attached Lecture Notes for your convenience.




Unformatted Attachment Preview

HSC 2001 Case Report Grading Criteria 6 domains Weightage & remark Case description (250)      Adequate case complexity that involves as at least 2 body systems Adequate case description suggesting thoroughness of subjective interview Describe how the disease was diagnosed and its presenting signs & symptoms Relevant aspects of what is typical and what was experienced were compared Explore and described how the diseases and the management have affected the person’s function and role Pathology of primary disease (750) Poor 1 - 2 - Ave 3 - 4 Excellent - 5 Poor 1 - 2 - Ave 3 - 4 Excellent - 5 Poor 1 - 2 - Ave 3 - 4 Excellent - 5 Poor 1 - 2 - Ave 3 - 4 Excellent - 5 2 - Ave 3 - 4 Excellent - 5 2 - Ave 3 - 4 Excellent - 5  Appropriate description of what is known of the disease in terms of its risk factor, aetiology, pathophysiology and prognosis  Relating the pathophysiology to subjective manifestations Management of the primary disease  Describe the actual management approach, especially the Pharmacotherapeutics interventions and its mechanism Write up demonstrate analysis and synthesis of the case in a scholarly manner Secondary disease (300)  A brief description of the pathophysiology & management  Explore the possibility of diseases interaction. Identify and describe key professional relevance and practice implications (200) Poor 1  Highlight important precaution and contraindication to professional practice  Write up demonstrate understanding & insights of the scope of professional practice Writing style  Correct grammar  Content organization  Discussion is coherent  Writing is succinct & focused (within word limit)  Adequate and correct references (APA standards) (Suggested word counts) Last updated 28 Dec 2018 Poor 1 - HSC2001 eLearning Health Interview & Case Write-up Asst Prof Ong Hwee Kuan This eLearning programme aims to assist you in completing the case written assignment for HSC2001 Pathophysiology and Pharmacology You can download the instructions on written assignment from xSITe or the RESOURCE tab in the top left corner This programme consists of 3 sequential modules. Click on the icons to launch the module Module 1 Module 2 Module 3 Finding the right subject Conducting interview Writing up case report Finding the right subject Conducting the interview Writing up a case report Module 1 How to find the right subject Interviewee : a subject who can provide you the necessary information to construct your case report 1.1 Finding the RIGHT subject: Remember the assignment requirement • Sufficient case complexity: The interviewee should two or more confirmed medical diagnosis AND had experienced / is experiencing dysfunction in at least 2 body systems. Immunity system Integumentary system Nervous system Musculoskeletal system ENT & sensory organ dysfunction Blood & circulatory system Endocrine system Classification of system as described in VanMeter & Hubert (2014) Lymphatic system Digestive system Cardiovascular system Urinary system Respiratory system Reproductive system Quiz the Quiz button to edit this object Activity #1:Click Does the following cases meet the case complexity criteria? Mr Able is 70 years old man with long term, poorly controlled diabetes. Because of the diabetes, he developed kidney failure and requires regular hemodialysis. He also has retinopathy as a diabetic complicaiton. He is on multiple medications to control his blood sugar. Provide an option box for them to tick Yes, No, maybe After submit, then provide std answer Yes. Meet complexity criteria even though he only has one diseases. As the disease affect two body systems/ organs – the kidney and the eye If you are still unclear about what constitute the right case complexity, Click on the RESOURCE tab on the top left corner to read last year students’ Q&A about Sufficient Complexity 1.2 Finding the RIGHT subject : Able to provide reliable information • You should choose a subject who can provide accurate and detailed information such as investigation process, management plan and especially the specific medications they are on. • Avoid • Health conditions associated with cognitive dysfunctions. Will need indirect, care-giver’s input which may complicate your interview process • Subject who is hesitant when you approach he/she for an interview • Subject who is struggling or not coping with the disease process Finding the right subject Conducting the interview Writing up a case report Module 2: Conducting the Health Interview Health interview- A conversation where questions surrounding health and impact of diseases are asked and answers are given. 2.1 Health Interview vs. Subjective History • Similar to the subjective history taking performed by medical professional, but our purpose here is NOT to diagnose NOR develop management. • The GOAL is to learn how a particular diagnoses is being made, managed, and how it affects the interviewee’s health and function • Format of interview Face-to-face in person Telephone (audio only) Skype (w visual contact) Type questions and answers back and forth 2.1 Health Interview vs. Subjective History WARNING • Similar to the subjective history taking performed by medical professional, but This health interview is NOT formanagement. our purpose here is NOT to diagnose NOR develop diagnosis making or therapy • The GOAL is to learn how a particular diagnoses is being made, managed, and consultation how it affects the interviewee’s health session and function • Format of interview Face-to-face in person Telephone (audio only) Skype (w visual contact) Type questions and answers back and forth 2.2 Attributes of good interviewing skills • Use open-ended questions that encourage a more comprehensive response • Active listening is key- Listen more than talk • Let your subject tell you his/her journey. • Minimize interruption • Use all your senses to 'listen'. Listening does not just involve using your ears. Also use facial expression, body language and verbal fluency to help understand what is really troubling someone and to suggest other areas in which the history might need to proceed • Probe: “Ask, "Is there anything else?"’ 2.2 Attributes of good interviewing skills • Avoid using medical jargon • Exercise emotional maturity – free from bias. Avoid passing judgement & management recommendation. Free from undue emotions • Display empathetic attitude - ability to understand or share feelings or attitudes of others. Helps to relieve the applicant’s anxiety and nervousness. Good interviewers show empathy to the interviewee by means of friendly and warm tone. 2.3 Process of Semi-structured Interview Stages Descriptions 1 Preparation • 2 Introduction • • • 3 Opening questions • • • Find a setting with minimal disruption (phone on silent mode, quiet room, comfortable temperature etc) Thank your subject for the time & explain the purpose of interview Inform how long the session will last Check if you can use a voice recorder or takes note while doing the interview Age, Height, weight Life style: smoking, drinking and activity level Get an overall impression about the health & well-being using open ended question o “How would you describe your general health?” o “In general, what would you consider your main health problem?” o The aim is to identify significant past diseases/illnesses, surgery, including complications, trauma. 2.3 Process of Semi-structured Interview Stages 4 Health questioning Descriptions In a semi-structured manner, obtain information surrounding the main health problems, one at a time • What prompted the interviewee to seek medical attention? • What investigations were conducted & how was the diagnosis achieved? • What treatments were given? Which works & which doesn’t? Any side effects? Do you know what medications you were taking? Can I see the drug packaging? • How has the disease affected you? Consider the following • For disease with genetic predisposition, ask about family history • For chronic disease, ask about progression (worsened/ better/ fluctuating)? Asks discriminating, delineating questions about symptoms to get info about disease nature • Ask clarifying question on sequence of events & symptoms 2.3 Process of Semi-structured Interview Stages 5 Summarizing Descriptions • • • After taking the history, it is useful to give the subject a run-down of what they have told you as you understand it. o For example: 'So, XX, from what I understand, your health issues were asthma & diabetes. Specifically, on asthma, it was diagnosed since childhood and you are currently managing it well with xzy medications…Is the correct?..... And for diabetes, you are finding it more difficult to control your blood sugar, and you doctor is suggesting you to start insulin injection but you are still thinking about it, ….. Is that right?'. Thank you for your time. Ask for permission to have subsequent followup, especially if you know very little about the diagnosis and need to read up on it a bit more o Would it be alright for me to approach you for further questions? Video of an Health Interview Section indication bottom. Subtitles at the Quiz Click the Quiz identify button to edit object3 areas that Activity #3: Can you atthisleast were done well in the interview session just now? Domain Clear introduction Example Identify self as SIT student Explain purpose of interview Timing 0:00:05 Open ended Q Could you tell me more about your migraine? Could you tell me about your back pain? 0:01:18 0:05:48 Clarifying Q Why CT scan was ordered? What do you mean by strong medication? 0:02:26 0:07:09 Making small IF I may summarize…..felt that your migraine is well controlled… 0:05:27 Provide a text box for them to type max word counts 100. After submit, then provide std answer summary along the way General attributes • Not interrupting the interviewee • Nodding head to acknowledge listening • Active listening Suggested answer NA 2.4 You–tube resources on interview Taking medication history Health history taking- focus on her body positive language & how she probe for more info Finding the right subject Conducting the interview Writing up a case report Module 3: Writing the case download the instructions on written assignment from xSITe or RESOURCE tab 3.1 Assignment Output Requirement • The assignment should have a clear lay-out and structure with: • A title page (stating date, Module name & module code, the primary & secondary diagnosis, name and matriculation number/ ID) • • • • • 1.5 line spacing Pages are numbered Clear paragraphs with relevant headings A list of references (in APA style) Appendices (if applicable) 3.2 Know the Marking Rubric You can download the marking rubric from xSITe or the RESOURCE tab in the top left corner Click on the RESOURCE tab on the top left corner to read last year students’ Q&A about Case Description Click on the RESOURCE tab to read last year students’ Q&A about defining the primary & secondary diagnosis 3.3 Deciding primary vs. secondary diagnosis • You may classify according to • Severity of disease impact on the subject • Sequence of occurrence • Duration that is required for the incidents to resolve • Disease with more information as primary diagnosis Quiz Click the Quiz button to edit this object How to write up your case • Describe in 3rd person • In chronological order • Pick your time frame Pop out Q&A on case description 3.4 Information required for primary diagnosis • • • • • Risk factor & Etiology Pathophysiology ( can use diagram PRN) Prognosis (if relevant) Relate pathophysiology to disease manifestations (S&S) Management of disease • Actual management • Discuss common standard management approach if your subject didn't’ receive any therapy Click on the RESOURCE tab to read last year students’ Q&A about medication 3.5 Writing on the Medication • Start with the medications that are prescribed for your primary/ secondary diagnosis • Avoid TCM, herbal remedies with unknown components • Info required : Drug class, indication, mechanism, common side effects • Can organize information in a table format • If too many medications, organize by drug group / mechanisms • Don’t forget potential drug-drug interactions Click on the RESOURCE tab to read last year students’ Q&A about medication 3.6 How to write professional relevance • Your professional involvement in the management of the conditions – from diagnosis to treatment to handling of potential complications ? WHEN are you introduced to the patient? WHERE is the setting WHAT are your roles? WHY are you referred? HOW do your perform your task? Any special precautions / contraindications? Sample writing of Mdm Kim’s case relevance to specific profession Physiotherapy Diagnostic Radiography Radiation Therapy Sample of PT professional relevance • Mdm Kim should be an easy case for physiotherapy as low back pain management has direct physiotherapy relevance • In case where the subject has no direct link, relate patient’s problem to the ICF model and see if physiotherapy can assist to enable better activity and social participation pathophysiology Sample of DR professional relevance • Link case with imaging need for the diagnosis, disease minoring or complication phase • Explain the imaging approach to low back pain (X ray is usually the primary investigation to look out for lumbar spondylosis, osteophytes, slipped disc, etc, may need MRI to further characterize disease severity or look at soft tissue problems i.e, spinal cord, disc …) • Possible radiographic manifestations of Mdm Kim (XRay, MRI) • Explain the care needed when performing X-ray &/or MRI for Mdm Kim (considering that she has migraine) • What are the possible complications , prognosis, and management plan for low back pain/ migraine Sample of RT professional relevance • If the subject does not have cancer, you may need to hypothesize the development of certain cancer and needs radiation therapy. Not much RT relevance based on actual case info. Suggest to hypothesize that should Mdm Kim develop cervical cancer and needing radiation therapy, the considerations that her RT need to take may include • Establishing her tolerance threshold for lying down still • Time the radiation session with her pain medication • Add a lumbar roll be into the positioning mold • Interaction of cervical cancer with low back pain Acknowledgement A/Prof Kwah Li Khim Students from ICT 3001 (AY 2018), for • Creating the interview video • Providing a prototype for this eLearning module Prasad Iyer, coLead ...
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Tutor Answer

Laurabrad
School: University of Maryland

Please find the document and its outline below. Let me know in case of any concern

Running head: PATHOPHYSIOLOGY AND PHARMACOLOGY

Pathophysiology and Pharmacology
Name:
Institutional Affiliation:

1

PATHOPHYSIOLOGY AND PHARMACOLOGY

2

Pathophysiology and Pharmacology
Case Description
The patient interviewed is 50-year-old Adrian Lim, living in Bedok, Singapore. Adrian is
an accountant and has been working for the past 25 years in Singapore. The interview was done
through Skype. Adrian was very open and willing to speak about his condition. His height is 5
foot 8 inches, and he currently weighs 71.6 kilograms. When asked about his lifestyle, Adrian
indicated that for a long time he had been obese. He, however, took up fitness and dieting about
five years ago and this helped him to drastically reduce weight. Previously he was eating
unhealthy and not exercising hence leading him to have numerous issues which had been brought
about by his weight.
Adrian feels that his general health and well-being has deteriorated greatly, especially in
the last ten years. However, he feels like there is generally an improvement in his life. Adrian
suffers from Eczema and coronary heart disease. These are conditions of the immune system and
the cardiovascular system. Adrian decided to seek treatment about three years ago when he
notices that his skin was very dry and he was scratching a lot and getting inflammation (Kantol
et al., 2016). He decided to visit the hospital, and that is he was diagnosed with Eczema. About
six years ago, Adrian was diagnosed with coronary heart disease. Adrian began getting dizzy,
feeling week and having a rapid heartbeat (Rosenson et al., 2015). When the symptoms
worsened, he decided to visit a doctor since it was now affecting his work. He could not stand for
long as he started getting frequent dizzy spells while at the same time experiencing tightness of
the chest. Adrian then visited the local hospital where some tests were run, and he was diagnosed
with coronary heart disease. This had been triggered by the fact that he had been obese for quite
a long time (Kachur et al., 2017). Adrian started seeing a specialist who has been managing his
disease since then.
Adrian has been using hydrocortisone cream for the management of Eczema. The main
aim is to control the itch and prevent any infections in the skin. Sometimes he is also put on
antibiotics. For coronary heart disease, Adrian was advised to change his lifestyle, which he did.
He also used Aspirin, Nitroglycerin, and cholesterol-modifying medications. Adrian has so far
not seen any side-effects with the medications he takes. He visits the hospital monthly.

PATHOPHYSIOLOGY AND PHARMACOLOGY

3

Two Medical Diagnosis and Pathophysiology
Pathophysiology of Coronary Heart Disease
The two medical diagnoses which have been ...

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Anonymous
Tutor went the extra mile to help me with this essay. Citations were a bit shaky but I appreciated how well he handled APA styles and how ok he was to change them even though I didnt specify. Got a B+ which is believable and acceptable.

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