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Running head: BREAST CANCER RESEARCH
Breast Cancer Research
BREAST CANCER RESEARCH
Cancer is referred to the abnormal growth of body tissues that may occur rapidly and in
an uncontrolled manner in which they growth extends top other organs of the body. Cancer has
become the top-most source of death in the world as the numbers of people suffering from cancer
increases. While the largest reason for the cause of cancer being genetic mutations, other reasons
that have contributed to cancer are overuse of alcohol, poor diet, lack of physical exercise,
obesity among other reasons. Among many types of cancer such as cervical cancer, prostate
cancer, lung cancer, breast cancer has become a chief source of death among women. Breast
cancer develops within the breast tissue, and a lump develops in the breast. The purpose of this
paper is to discuss in depth the issue of breast cancer, the diagnosis, staging, its treatment, its
cause and what can be done to fight it among other facts surrounding cancer (Anjum, Dr.
Fakhsheena & Razvi, Nighat, Masood, Dr. Muhammad, 2017).
Breast cancer is tumor that develops within the cells and tissues of a breast and is the
most prevalent cancer after skin cancer that has affected many women across the world. Breast
cancer is detected through a mammogram. However, recent research shows that mammogram
could be causing more damage. Breast cancer is discovered after a lump is felt and located in the
breast. This makes one breast to become larger than the other. Breast cancer can take two forms;
ductal carcinoma which in most cases starts in the milk duct of an individual and the lobular
carcinoma which originates at the lobules. The nipple may also change its shape and position
while the skin may get puckered as well. Another symptom of the cancer is redness of the skin
which may also peal and have a different pigmentation from the normal color of the skin.
BREAST CANCER RESEARCH
Symptoms, Diagnosis, Staging, and Prognosis
Apart from mammograms, breast cancer can also be diagnosed by a breast ultrasound
where images of the ultrasound show whether the lump is a hard mass or a fluid-filled cyst. It
can also be diagnosed by the removal of some breast cells that undergo testing in the form of
biopsy. An MRI (Breast Magnetic Resonance Imaging) can be performed to create inner images
of the breast, and it is preferred because it does not use radiation. There exist five chief stages of
this type of cancer. The initial stage, stage zero, is a phase where cancer has not been detected.
The second stage is Stage IA and IB where the tumor is small and has not spread while in IB it
slowly spreads to the lymph nodes. The third stage is stage II where the tumor is not yet evident,
but the tumors have spread rapidly to the axillary lymph nodes. The fourth phase is when the
lump has extended to the chest ...