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Transgenic Organisms- Moving genes from one organism to another
According to Lombardo and Zelasco (p.497), transgenic refers to the transfer of
genes into an organism that in a normal case do not have a copy of that gene through a
genetic technique known as recombinant DNA technology. This, according to Kyndt,
et.al (p. 112:5844) can be natural or induced. According to Kyndt, et.al, some of the
scientists have used this mechanism to transfer some of the bacterial genes into sweet
potatoes in order to realize some transgenic crops available in the market. Additionally,
organisms possess the ability to develop new genes by combining older ones. However,
the term does not encompass those organisms whose genetic makeup has been
altered by conventional cross-breeding techniques (Conko, Kershen, and Miller, 495).
Therefore, this paper will mainly focus on the transgenic organisms, the past
contributions, present findings, and future gaps as well as the scientific and ethical
benefits of the transgenic practice.
The advent of transgenic organisms was realized in 1973 when Stanley N.
Cohen and Herbert Boyer combined and replicated genetic information from different
species to create a functional organism. Later, it was resolved that the recombinant
DNA technique would proceed under strict regulation and guidelines under the National
Institute of Health of the United States. The following year saw the first transgenic
animal, the mice, as created by Rudolf Jaenisch. Rudolf had inserted DNA into an earlystage mouse embryo whereby the mice later carried the modified gene in all its tissues
and eventually was integrated into their progeny (Conko, Kershen, and Miller, p. 493).
The year 1990 saw the first transgenic bull which was induced with human protein
lactoferrin which was later observed to have been transferred to its 55 offspring.
Present (Current findings)
In the recent past, there have been various developments in transgenic organisms. For
example, in 2009 some South Korean scientists led by Byeong-Chun Lee created
‘Ruppy’, the first ever ...