Feldman Hybridity discussion

Anonymous
timer Asked: Feb 9th, 2019
account_balance_wallet $9.99

Question Description

Attached are questions and reading

Thanks

Unformatted Attachment Preview

N V W O l 3 I . ' H N' V l, U"' V I ' , W . :.. I.ti .t..,:i. : .....:.... . .. .. . . ...a :.. . :, ll.l,:. '.lsef leaN lualluv aql ul ]]fl oozr-oo7r J . - / U t . . Y l l . r ue Puesllv Atnxnl ,,al^lsleuolleulalul,, ..'',N. A. ereq \'Br{qer{g ruoH pue pres pre&\pg ot parqepu drustelogrs uJetleqns pue Ieruoiol -tsod w dlenadse 'satpnts Ierrulnl I4IpIlvr drua.rrnr paure8 seqthlp4qn4rurel oql '$lJo1!\ ?wo>l eqr uo patlqrlxa drpUq 'uoltezllepuas -dq pnsr,r Jo turoJ rgrrads aq1 eusap pue aururexa allr ltrp Sunrueruap -sa Stnp:e8eJ uJaJuof, prlel e esrer tdaruor drolergrsselJ E se drpuqdq Jo asn aID Jo 'a8y azuorg atB'I arll ol lJadsar qll t pu€ dlerrqde.r8ou sr.usrf,rlrJf, luef,ar taloeJo1/q -olslg qtoq'uoDBtrgISSEIf,pue ,{Solormruel rr ultls slqr Jo suorlerrldrur er{l rePrsuof,o1 'sef,rorlf, leuorleluasardar go sassaro.rdezrseqdrua reqr dn uado I€rfnJf, eJoJeJerpsr tI Srmronsanb Jo seuq alBeuJellB 'salard esaql s>lJerureqr drpuqdq FnsIA oql ot uoEuel -te Surryrqspue alClsurJel eqt qtrr'r Sursuadsrpdg 'no1 pepunog'e18urs urog tuaudo 1a,r.aprrlsqdls JEeurlgo suonsenb aloruoJd ot druepuet sll Jo asnef,aquonertsng dFe -loqls uoItef,gISsEIJ aqt ur e1,{rs3o tderuor aqt seg..a/rs puoneuJelul,, or petnqutuol 'saDBuoeteJf,slpdgernrlnc se pe.Lrer;ad reqr r,rardeqf, puB uorltrnportul aqr ur pan8re I are teHA Suorue ur8r.ro go srurod Suqaas suBlJotslg rre pa8ualpgtr seq ?ulo>l f,Ilslue 'uosBOJslql rod 'uonrperl prnrproe8 poorsJepun dlsnor,rard a18urs IeuoqeuJatu aqt due qrpr dlarusnpxa palerf,ossBeq louuef, leql uoItIpEJt f,Itslue uB urJoJ ot 'seDau8r,r oarleJJeuuou Jo suortrsoduol pepuerxa pue duoleue Jo uoltelnf,Iue Jeeu{ pue Jnol -uof uo srseqdruauE 'saueJs{f,eue agl ur sasod dole8 Surdg sEr{Jns 's8ur;apue.rrrteru -orpr pareqs r{ll^\ seurquro: drrprrq,{q F^Ilotu/lEnsIA sII{I 'uou pa8uur aqr pue 'uggr.r8 aqr 'xurqds aql 'auaruled pernlo,r aqt-slueruala palelf,ossBsrpdlecgdlr 3o saltsod -tuor 'sanllue puqdq,!p.rar11 eJE sJlloru dreurud aqt Jo dueu aregru.'1arra1 rrleuaql eql 1BsJntrf,ogulo>l f,lrsrue IeuorleuJalr[ aqt Surzualrprerlf eJrunurJalul IEJnlln] eq'1. J _ t q t u s A Hl v n s l n lo 310u 3Hl- z 6o the concept has promoted a new senseof agency and activism on the part of "minority'' cultures.l But its history is rooted in Enlightenment-period concern with classification and nineteenth- and early twentieth-century biological sciences.2In all these contexts, hybridiry assumesthe prior existence of distinct and hermetically sealed an'lrybridity tecedents or parents. The biological definition of carries a basically valueneutral connotation, being a natural result of the process of cross-breeding various traits. In colonial discourse, the nofion of originary sources extended to ideas of pu;' rity, such that the preexisting entities represented uncontaminated genetic sets. Mixing rwo or more pure and distinct entities could only be construed as impure or contaminated, leading to a solidly negative valence for the term. Even more destabilizing and threatening was the view that hybridization perverts and undermines established hierarchies of relational merit or status, a critical component under\ing colonial anx- iery about intermarriage and the consequent denigration of so-called mongrels. From the genetic underpinning, race entered the equation; from there, culfure as an inherent expression of racial makeup followed suit, with both racial and cultural separatenesstaken as permanent and unchanging.3 Art, as the expression of culture, also became bound up with race. Throughout this line of argumentation, hybridity represented the transgression of pure states through their intermixfure. In an art historical context, the concept of authenticity also constituted a prime variable in the discussion. Something that was hybrid could not belong fully and absolutely to a single, pure artistic tradition, a view which is also bound up with the positive valuation of originality and the assumption of an inherent essenceof circumscribed identity. Pierre Demargne, for example, writing about the internationalizing trends of the LateBronze Age in 1964, operates within this set of assumptions.a He takes as his point of departure the "expansion of the Mycenaean world" and the "rise of composite civiiizations." He remarks that during the Late Bronze Age, civilizations not only exchanged their products but intermingled (by exacdy what means he does not explain), which led to the development of composite arts, best illustrated in ivories. While the "stong' traditions of Anatolii, Mesopotamia, and Egypt resisted exten"influences," sive Aegean according to Demargne, Cl4rrus and the Levant prorred to be ideal sites for the creation of what he calls a "colonial" arr, described as "Cypro'product Mycenaean" or "Levanto-Helladic," the of a mixed civilization." 5 Indeed, he claims both Cyprus (in particular Enkomi) and Ugarit in the Levant as acrual colonies of Mycenaean Greece, despite acknowledging the "Semitic" language base of Ugarit. With a colonialist conception underlying his thinking, it is hardly surprising rhar not only does he condude that "Phoenecia [that is, the Levant] and Cl4rrus thus developed a pre-eminendy hybrid art," but that he clearly glossesrhis hybridity as negative in contrast with, for example, Eglptian art, which was "ancient, original, and until then, inward-looking. " o Such viewpoints have been pervasive within the scholarship of Late Bronze Age interconnections and are too numerous to cover here, even though a notion of hybridity is not always articulated precisely as such. One example appears in a ry87 'uorlrnpo:d aqr Sunq8mr8ru 'uneop urd ol tFlgJIp sa lasureql ere eserp dpauruoy JBSrue Suro8uo pue snor,ra.rd nagt q8norqr peusap ere deqt sB 1sefl JeeN pu€ ueeueJ 'sarr -Jelrpatr{ uJelsee aqt go suor8al leJnrlnf, snolJea erp Jo suonrper} fosBr€ erp eq 01 'poolsraprm aq uer -nfueJ rltuaalJrw prre rpuaailnoJ erir Jo trun p;odurel eqt rn ..e8e -rua.red,, s1I 'grrro>lpuorleuJelur aql Jo &rouqdq pnsra arp ^\ara I IErD iq8{ eAnJBprre a,rplsod srut ur sr 1I 'uorsnltrxe 01 pEaI oqe dlruanbesuof uel grrqrrr 'uorttrEJeturJo ssaf, -ord aqr se go rq8nogr eq ueJ dippql1-1 'Stmrroraq go atels e ur sdeznle'xng ur sder"rle esu&a1{ eJe se rJap drppqdq qllqna tuoq} seJntlnf, aqr se tsn[-a8ueqrxa due ur stued -ppred snolrea aql dq peururrelep sdervrlepue 'tuelsuol Jelau 'are1d pue aurrl 01 aarl 'aroruraqilnC 'uonJeratrrr -BIaJsr plJqdq Sureq 3o e1elseqt Jo slauueql eletrllf,EJpue eltrtusuoJ ol dem e se dilelr,r pue ql8uens atouap uer lrpuqdq uaqr '(uoncnportu aql rr passmsrp) s.ra11a1 Suneer8 leuorleuJerr aqr dq paquJsap aser aql eq ot suraas qJlqnd 'uorsnpur ue,ra pue e8ueqrxa Jo satrs se dla,rnrsod peryetu eJe sarrepunoq arp J:l tarrazvroll 'snafqo ?qo>l leuopeuralur eqr Jo suorssnf,srpdueru aqrapun lualxe ressel .ro ralear8 01 leql drund lerf,eJJo sndararrr peqfuartue $ pue serntlnf, ..elrteu,, q]r^a tretuor Stnpre8ar dtarxue IEruoIoJ arp saqrrlsap srtlJ 'e nBJeua8ap.ro snore8uep pera -prsuof, aq flrr'r 31esrrpuqdq eql pue a,ussa.r8suerl sE pa \era aq IF^\ urrog prrqdq agr dg Surssoo Jrarp uaql 'alqeaurradun pue paxs dleapy se uees aJEsJaprog JI or'uorsnlf, 'uorsnllur 'lhund -xa pue 3o udaruor ol uorleler rr sanlel asoql serrnbf,EJaqlEJ lnq 'dla,rqrsodro dle,ute8eu papor dlruaragur tou sr drppqdq 'pelou ueeq seq se 'tatr 'suonepdod paugep dler -Turlte Jo dleneJ Jo eJnleu ssele8e pue Sur8ueqrrm arD Srmr:aluoc suortdurnsse ol peTrll uos e Jo uorssar8suerl setrLlrlsuof, Suq8ururelur due pue 'paurelrreru fpq8p eq lsntu srar€raro; Jarlto pue 'suerldd8g 'suee8ey Suneredes salreprmoq ar{J 'uone -nlrs lBf,uolsrt'I . anJ1,,eg1 salnf,sqo I rErp uI a,qteSau se drpuqdq Jo uorlEnlB^ JEaIf eqt aas a,u 'ue8y u..'Jalsr8alpuoJas arp trt [suoneluasarda.ren.nun 's terp] sppqdq aqr Jo esnetreqrsnf [..ann,, se uuetusrlf,Erq dq pa.raprsuor] auars sg{t Jo Jetsr8al dor aqr ur suea8ay erp Jo ,bne;e,r lef,rJo$Iq aql ete8au ol rrelm dlsnor,rqo osp sr tI 'anJl aql ruog puqdq aql ateredas ot alqrssodsr tI 'uoEnBJ Jo lrmorue JrBJB pue Ieueleu af,Jnos pelnlpun eql Jo suonetuaserdar ue,u8 'legl sr slql 11eruo{ pa rJap aq 01 uorsnlf,uoJ rrlerrr arl;., :sfuaurBuas 8urano1o3eql rpvy\ uorssntrsrp srq spue eq 'qauase.rradeqlua6l alqou eqt Jo quot ueqegJ aqt u1 spafqo snorJnxnl Surlrrer srau8rerog Jo auaf,s lgrf, -eds e le 8uqoo1 e..'senDueate;edas eJour ro o,&\t ot Sur8uolaq d1eu131roslueura -1aSrnrrun dq pasodurotr aJard.'sauels errlua uele ro 'snafqo 'sa;n8g ueunq daqr eq 'slrafqns qrlga dq r.re uendd8g ur uoueurouaqd aqr ot aJaq ua,u8 eureu eql $ rusr -puqdH,, :snqr ,$roFq,(q Srmruep dq su18aquueusqf,e ! 'anp Ierlrotsll ..enrl,, qra sa8euu urory pate.redeseq tsnu srau8reroJgo se8eun .Blrq,(q,, 'os op oJ 'lraford snl ro3 ..dr1gqeqar,,rrarp uretrerse 01 sldruene ssaleqteuou rruerusrlf,E7y\'s8ulrned eqt Jo arnteu (dreluarunrop ueql raqrer) IeuoRelueseJder eqr Sur8palnorr4ry 'uee8ay eqr pue rdd8g uee \leq suoneleJ Ieuorleuratu 01 eJueraJarqr \ s8uBured quror asarp Jo ..enlea IeJrrotsF{,,aqt aurruratap ot s{ees dpnrs aqa rlrseudq qruaarq8rg eqr 3o s8ur -turcd qurot ur 'suea3ey r(gecynads 'srau8rerog suoBetuasa.rdaruerrdd8g uo dpnls Jo r9 6z subjective and sffiing nature of classification. Moreover, culrural hybridity asprocess cannot be constant within the material and may not be marked as such in different temporal or social contexts. With time or in certain sifuations, what had been hybrid 'normative" could become a bounded classification. In this study I favor a definition of lrybridity as the acrive adoption and intermixing of particular elements derived from various culturally defined artistic traditions in a manner that blurs the distinctions among relatively distinguishable traditions. one might even, if one wanted to push a biological metaphor, suggesr that a notion of hybrid vigor, the phenomenon in which hybrid plants and animals grow stronger and faster than their parents, might be applied to the koin6 imagery.rl This extended metaphor grants agency and selection on the part of the patrons, producers, and consurners to the process of hybridization, just as breeders select desirable traits in their cross-breeding. Pushing the metaphor in the direction of hybrid vigor, however; reveals a major critique of the cuffent trend in using the tercnltybidity: thebiological analogy cannot describe accurately the multiplicity of processesand mechanisms involved in cultural interaction. Biologically speaking, there can only be fwo parents to produce an offspring, and the extent of hybi&zation is limited ro the finire range of their genetic material inscribed on their paired chromosomes. In my use of the term vkualhybridity, itis important to recall that neither this, nor any other, formal feature is ascribed as inherent to or characteristic of a particular group of people. In sum, hybridity as a concept is quintessentially bound up with identity and parentage. It presupposes delineated entities across which intermingling can take place. The value ascribed to something identified as a hybrid, whether positive or negative, is positioned in relation to purity and along axes of inclusion and exclusion. While cultural hybidtzatton can be seen as the transgression of boundaries separating dif ferent and incommensurate entities-and thereby valued negatively-it can also denote exchanges and the need to communicate acrossbarriers of differences, in some ways coming doser to its biological counterpart of hybrid vigor. In this second instance, hybridity becomes a locus of power. while any srudy thar relies on the concept raises issues concerning the elusiveness of boundaries, what hybridity offers as an analytical tool is an emphasis on interacfion and counteracfion. At its core it simultaneously connotes disruptions and a forgrng of samenessfrom difference; that is, it draws attention to difference while joining at the same time. 'we can, moreover, posarlate a Late Bronze Age positive valuation for the hybridiry of the international koin6 according to the positive valuation of the marerials and crafting, and the association with palatial contexts. In any assessmentof ascribed value, it is impossible to divorce the imagery from the objects, their material composition, or their form. The hybrid imagery appears, that is, it was adopted for use, on some of the most desired materials of the period: gold, silver, ivory alabaster, and faience. These materials, discussed at length in chapter 6, not only were prized for their rarity, but also carried in their physical makeup properties considered higtly auspicious, such as luminosity and brilliance. In many caseswhere we have evidence, their acquisition and production were controlled by the palaces, indicating that the plJqdq B patrnpord erarp prre 'e3nueJdde Sunod e se dlqrssod 'lseg ar{r ot pater8nu ueeeuardl4l e reqr drgqrssod agt isadrtrorord urelselA 3unro11o3JnEISVue dq pa,r.rer ueeq sABrI$rru) uo.tz't7lplulodsrqt teql lur€ll 01 qser eq plno r 1I,,Furdes 'ur8rlo s.dtonr ar{l Jo luaussesse elewnln Jar{uI salerorrmbe'alntse lsoul eql Jo euo se 'uorurdo ,{u ur's>[ue.lgns ererd arp Jo srsdpue FurJoJ l75r esoqryrtolue) eualaH 'suorlrsodord;o 'uonua]le dpeloqrs aqt tas asralrp fq8w[zzp e ur Suqnsa: Jo tsoru pardnrro seq eIEf, -oI uoBJnpord str rog rsenb aqa ,r:eldurexe agt se dn plaq ua$o q 1I qf,rg.4.3o 'ursrle -uorteuJetur f,pqt.re a8y ezuorg etE'I Jo uorssnf,srpdrerrelsorup rn alor IEJlual e sdeld arard srqa or'([rr areld] eppg-Ie raqytr,(ep-ruasard) rue8n go drp uod aqr te qwor dp -ruEJ E uI punoJ pl srxdd d.roar ue sr aldruexa Neq er{J 'pairgapar ueeq ser{ l1 se gqo>l aqt Jo aJueraqol aqr dpeap arour slg8rgBrg eslJraxa aanserluor sr-qJ '?qo{ eq1 Jo lBIp uros dleur.rog sa8ranrp1I'peugap dlaspard eJouJ sI ..Itppqdq,, rraql ual{^\ esnef, 'grro>l f,rl -aq 'dnor8 srqt tuo{I palrafa; l teqt sarerd aqt go euros aururexa ol InJesn sr lr -snJB leuoneuJelul aql I[eJ I qJrqn'sluaurela Ie^rlour Pue FruJoJ rgrrads 3o aruasard peJ€rISaql 01 Surprorre dno:8 d;otergrssep E pattrnJlsuor r raldeqr ut Surrepl 'sdno;8 Jeqlo 01 Dadsar qlu& eloq l. e se dno.r8 eq1 ef,uaJeg:lpeqr uo dpo Jo Sule.rtuaruotr alrq,l\ $lro r ueealeq uoIlEIrE eJnf,sqo sartruapual lsruortf,npar qlns 'a1,{rspuoueurelul eW tred se ;eqraSor padno;8 pue puqdq pereplsuof, ueaq seq Jo auo ot peu8rssedlarnres aq lou ppor reqt rraf erp suonrpeJl ..3ur.rsrxaerd,, Jo leJrulnf, 'a1drs -qo duy 'pe{o ur serw,blpuqdq go tderuor aqt rerpeq^r IEuoReu 3o ssalpre8a; -Jatrfi eqt uo drqsreloq]s ur uelqoJd paloopa,ro dpuatsrsuor e't)vJ rrl 'uaeq seq srql 'porred slqr 8u.unp uonf,BJetur lern{nc 3o suorssardxapnsrl rarpo uro{ sregrp selel dlppqdq sryl rerll urog rgnads aq1 1a 'ptmorF uoururol pug plnor sralnr luereJrp eqt dqaraqm d:epqero,r pereqs E {ddns ol s.readdedilppqdq pnsr,r 'a8y ezLrotgete-I erp uI 'uoBentrs lBrf,osua,u8 e 01 elnqr4uor uer (uroJ due 14) drprrqdq reqzw8ur8pe -IrtroDIJe ot uonTppe q &lppqdq.+o uorldursap prre uoneraurnue rno ur uorsnard rog earrls ot sn se8ualpqr anbpFr ar{J. 'luale^rnba ere suorleronb pue 's8uzrroJJoq 'saJnl -xturJelrr IIe lou drrouqdq 3o urroJ e se urs{euortEuretur ldarte arrr 3r dFeprurs laures eql eJBspuqdq IIE lou teqt IIEler ol peeu ar'r ..'a1dls,,se r{f,ns lsJo '?qo{ luaurels er.ll '3nle^ e,rprsod Perrelrol sa lesureql rrr suoDf,euuor pdor qlns '.eJoJ Ieuorteurattn arp Jo uoBnf,axe eqt orul ruarn lg8rs.re,ro pdor go aar8ap rrEJe teqt -aJeql 's1v\ol[ojr1 'paprn3 os uaeg eaBr{osF lsnur asn pue SunwJr Jreql Jo Jeuueur €9 64 carving cannot be disregarded." 16The initial publication of the find by Claude Schaeffer and Ren6 Dussaud in r93o attributed it to a Mycenaean workshop, although nine years later, the excavatoq Schaeffer, qualified this assessment,calling the lid "SyroMycenaean" and attributing it to Mycenaean colonies at Ugarit.l?Jean-Claude Poursat has proposed a third possible location, C14rrus, a locale often considered almost, but not quite, Aegean in its "ethos" and geographically "in-berween" East and West.18 Marie-Henrieffe Gates, after contrasting the ivory carving to other ivories from the Levant, pronounces it a "true import," a Mycenaean product for a Levantine market, although she considers Cyprus part of the Aegean and the lid's likely production site.le Coming, in some ways, full circle to Kantor's conclusions, yet without the ethno-national assumptions, Rehak and Younger have recently'argued that "the pyxis lid would seem exotic anywhere in the Aegean or eastern Mediterranean, and that the mixing of sryles and iconography may have been a deliberate choice, in order to enhance its appeal in any market."zo The imagery carved in relief on this piece is highly idiosyncratic rather than part of a coherent tradition found among a corpus of works, a point brought up by several scholars. The bare-breasted female figure, wearing a split skirt, balances precariously on an Aegean type of incurved altar while two rampant goats flank her outstretched offerings of grain. Despite inconsistencies of what Kantor called "syntax" and regardless of the individual identity of the person who physically carved the lid, the visual elements relate most specifically to the Aegean. Its best formal and stylistic companion is an ivory plaque featuring the same imagery and carving sryle found in a wealthy but nonpalatial tomb at Mycenae.2' Though less closely related, an ivory relief plaque excavated in a tomb atIrus,which depicts a seated woman holding a mirror ('1a Dame au Miroir"), shares a fullness in carving of the torso and certain details of the hairsryle, expanding the number of comparable pieces to three-each from a different geocultural locale.zz Although made of highly pnzed elephant ivory, the Minet el-Beida lid was not found in a palatial context, but rather in a private tomb. This tomb, moreover, belonged to a residential building not in the capital city located at the present-day tell of Ras Shamra, but at the nearby site of the port cicy, modern-day Minet el-Beida, probably ancient Ma'hadu referred to in the texts. A maritime association for the tomb builder may further be postulated based on the presence of a stone anchor built into the tomb as part of a deposit. Private archives at Ugarit indicate that while often serving as agents of the palace, merchants amassedsubstantial personal wealth and rank.'3 They acted with a degree of independence, displaying versatiliry and opportunism. The archaeological finds from the port at Minet el-Beida, however inadequately excavated, have a strongly mercantile flavor, including industrial production, storage, and shipping.2a The maritime element of the area, being on the Mediterranean, accounts for the preponderance of items, both mundane and luxurious, from Egypt, Clprus, and the Aegean across the sea to the west and southwest. Taken all together, the ivory pyxis lid in its portside context and idiosyncratic imagery seems associated with an individualistic -ureluof, loueql e luo+ lunq E sprdeP pueq Jalno JaSJeIaI{J ,r'(g areld) J ...
Purchase answer to see full attachment

Tutor Answer

Microtutor_Burchu
School: University of Virginia

Attached.

Running head: FELDMAN-HYBRIDITY

Feldman-Hybridity
Name of Student
Name of Institution

1

FELDMAN-HYBRIDITY

2

What were the subjects; and how is motivation of the trend of production of the international
regions different from origin area?
The subjects, in this case, are the rise of composite civilization and Mycenaean world
expansion. The two subjects operate within a set of assumptions. During the Late Bronze Age,
civilization exchanged their products and also intermingled leading to development of comp...

flag Report DMCA
Review

Anonymous
Top quality work from this guy! I'll be back!

Similar Questions
Related Tags

Brown University





1271 Tutors

California Institute of Technology




2131 Tutors

Carnegie Mellon University




982 Tutors

Columbia University





1256 Tutors

Dartmouth University





2113 Tutors

Emory University





2279 Tutors

Harvard University





599 Tutors

Massachusetts Institute of Technology



2319 Tutors

New York University





1645 Tutors

Notre Dam University





1911 Tutors

Oklahoma University





2122 Tutors

Pennsylvania State University





932 Tutors

Princeton University





1211 Tutors

Stanford University





983 Tutors

University of California





1282 Tutors

Oxford University





123 Tutors

Yale University





2325 Tutors