IUPUI Psychosocial Development Journal Article Review

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Question Description

I attached chapter 11 and click on the link with the other reference. no plagiarize, spell check, and check your grammar. I have attached all the reading material. Please only use what I have attached. 550 words.

Remember to cite your reference in-text

For this journal assignment, reflect on the substance and theoretical foundation of what you have learned this week about psychosexual, moral, emotional, and personality development. Then write a reflective essay that addresses the following:

  • Comment on how this week’s learning and materials compliment, oppose, and/or affect change in your positions and attitudes on the relevant subject matter.
  • From this reflection, formulate and articulate three pieces of advice you would offer to a young client or acquaintance who is having difficulties facing these challenging stages and transitions.
  • How will the recommendations you offered help to ensure successful development along these lines?

References

Smith-Osborne, A. (2007). Life span and resiliency theory: A critical review. Advances in Social Work, 8(1), 152-168. Retrieved from http://journals.iupui.edu/index.php/advancesinsoci...

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Personality, the Self, and Moral Development 11 iStock/Thinkstock Learning Objectives After completing this chapter, you should be able to: • Understand how kinds of temperament are associated with principles of reciprocal relationships and goodness of fit. • Outline Erikson’s stages of psychosocial development. • Articulate and evaluate the theoretical ideas of Marcia and Levinson. • Compare and contrast trait and type theories and how they each assess personality. • Outline the evidence for the emergence of self-awareness and summarize demographic differences in self-esteem. • Define ethnic identity and understand how it influences identity development. • Distinguish among behaviors that are indicative of different stages of moral development. 361 © 2016 Bridgepoint Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Not for resale or redistribution. mos82599_11_c11_361-394.indd 361 2/11/16 9:06 AM Prologue Chapter Outline Prologue 11.1 Early Personality Development: Temperament and the Emergent Self Categories of Infant Temperament Goodness of Fit 11.2 Psychosocial Foundations of Personality Development Erikson: Stages of Psychosocial Development Application of Erikson’s View and Empirical Findings 11.3 Other Perspectives of Personality Development Marcia: Identity Status Model Levinson: Life Transitions Evaluation of Levinson 11.4 Trait and Type Theories of Personality Measuring Traits: The Big Five Applications of the Big Five Measuring Personality Types: The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator 11.5 Development of the Self Self-Awareness Other Indicators of Self-Awareness Self-Concept and Self-Esteem 11.6 Ethnic Identity 11.7 Theory of Moral Development Kohlberg’s Levels and Stages of Moral Development An Alternative to Kohlberg: Carol Gilligan’s Approach Summary & Resources Prologue Try for a moment to describe a person without referring to physical characteristics. Words such as “shy,” “patient,” or “easygoing” may come to mind. These are personal and social traits, which are part of personality. Psychologists think of personality as descriptions that are both consistent and individually distinctive for each person. Even if a person’s thoughts, feelings, and behaviors consistently express turmoil and change, we may describe that person with words like “flighty,” “impulsive,” or “undependable.” Therefore, personality consists of stable or enduring patterns of thoughts, feelings, and, ultimately, behaviors. Furthermore, noticing that a person did a kind thing is different from noticing that a person is kind. The latter implies a sense of permanence. When a shy person acts in a more assertive manner, most people recognize the behavior as out of character—different from his or her typical personality. But if the “shy” person persists in being more assertive, we might ask whether the person is still inherently shy or whether that person’s personality has truly changed. The most famous American talk show host of the 1970s and 1980s, Johnny Carson, always described himself as shy. How can that be? 362 © 2016 Bridgepoint Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Not for resale or redistribution. mos82599_11_c11_361-394.indd 362 2/11/16 9:06 AM Early Personality Development: Temperament and the Emergent Self Section 11.1 This chapter will explore how psychologists view these differences and various theories that attempt to describe how our personalities develop. Traditional Freudian theory, introduced in Chapter 2, which focused on the id, ego, and superego, has given way to science-based trait theories, which suggest that personality remains fairly stable during adulthood. We will also look at the emergence of self, identity, moral development, and how we evaluate and become aware of ourselves. This focus on personality and identity development will serve as an introduction to how we define ourselves according to gender, relationships, and other social roles, which will be explored in the following chapters. 11.1 Early Personality Development: Temperament and the Emergent Self In Chapter 10 we discussed the emergence of emotions, which are generally regarded as temporary states or moods. In addition to transitory states, we exhibit a characteristic style of arousal, or pattern of experiencing the world. Psychologists use the term temperament to describe those characteristics that are relatively enduring and consistent during the early years of life. It previews personality and includes how easily we become emotionally aroused, how long the arousal persists, and how easily it fades. An “easy” baby can be fussy or unhappy at times but still generally handles distress well and is relatively predictable; an “active” baby does not always engage in prolonged activity but can still be described as mostly energetic and vigorous. Regardless of any transient emotions, “easy” and “active” describe more consistent traits—temperament. Differences in temperament can be observed in neonates—even during fetal development—and remain relatively stable across various situations (Casalin, Luyten, Vliegen, & Meurs, 2012). There is strong evidence that genetics and biology influence temperament, including in factors related to emotions, motor activity, selfregulation, and attention. Together, these characteristics interact with the environment and begin to define personality, the topic of the remainder of this chapter (Ivorra et al., 2010; Posner, Rothbart, & Sheese, 2007; Rothbart, Purestock/Thinkstock 2007). Temperament is the mostly bioTemperament describes characteristics that are logical foundation upon which experelatively consistent during the early years of riences with the environment build life. Neonates can demonstrate differences in personality. There is also evidence temperament. that culture and a parent’s personality affect temperament (Laxman et al., 2013). For instance, although cultural differences decline with age, infants born in the United States score relatively high in measures of surgency, a psychological measure that encompasses 363 © 2016 Bridgepoint Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Not for resale or redistribution. mos82599_11_c11_361-394.indd 363 2/11/16 9:06 AM Early Personality Development: Temperament and the Emergent Self Section 11.1 extraversion, confidence, and independence. These characteristics tend to be valued in more individualistic countries. U.S. infants are relatively better at managing feelings of frustration and other negative emotions, too (Slobodskaya, Garstein, Nakagawa, & Putnam, 2013). Categories of Infant Temperament In 1977, researchers Alexander Thomas and Stella Chess offered the first widely accepted conceptual model of temperament. They followed a group of 141 U.S. infants into adulthood. Each person was rated on several dimensions, including activity level, adaptability, attention span, and mood. Multiple interviews and observations with parents and children revealed that infant emotional reactivity could be classified according to one of three types of temperament (Thomas & Chess, 1977). • Infants with an easy temperament are generally happy. They find ways to selfsoothe and establish regular body rhythms of sleeping, eating, and elimination. They adapt relatively easily to change. About 40% of children fit this category. • Infants with a difficult temperament often display intensely negative reactions. They have difficulty establishing regular routines and do not adapt well to new experiences. About 10% of children fit this category. • About 15% of infants are slow to warm up. They are relatively less active with somewhat regular biological rhythms for activities like sleep and elimination. They have mild to moderate reactions to new experiences, but are notably more accepting than difficult children. • About 35% of children show a combination of characteristics and do not clearly fit any of the categories (Thomas & Chess, 1977; Thomas, Chess, & Birch, 1968). The differences observed during infancy are found to be moderately stable throughout childhood. Longitudinal research has found that children who are classified as easy during infancy have fewer adjustment problems in school than those who are identified as difficult. Difficult children are comparatively more likely to be aggressive and to withdraw from social interactions. Slow-to-warm-up infants exhibit relatively smooth developmental adjustment during infancy, but during elementary school they are found to have more problems than easy children. In general, children who have emotional and behavioral problems in later childhood have temperament profiles that include a lower degree of emotional stability and relatively poor self-regulatory skills (Althoff et al., 2012; Caspi & Silva, 1995; Chess & Thomas, 1984; De Pauw & Mervielde, 2011). Other models of temperament focus less on biological rhythms, but they still emphasize attention, activity, and Critical Thinking emotionality. Research by Rothbart and her colleagues If a parent has an active infant, but comes has been particularly instrumental in focusing on variahome exhausted from work, what advice tions in reactivity and self-regulation, including intenwould you offer? What about an exhausted sity of motor and emotional responses, self-soothing behaviors, and self-control. Accordingly, researchers parent and a quiet infant? often explore how easily they can elicit temper tantrums and whether children can be easily calmed (Gartstein & Rothbart, 2003; Rothbart, Ahadi, & Evans, 2000; Rothbart & Bates, 2006). 364 © 2016 Bridgepoint Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Not for resale or redistribution. mos82599_11_c11_361-394.indd 364 2/11/16 9:06 AM Section 11.2 Psychosocial Foundations of Personality Development Goodness of Fit The match between temperament and environmental demands is referred to as goodness of fit. For instance, the diagnosis of some attention disorders is often dependent on individual parenting style and culture. Some parents and educators may tolerate certain kinds of offtask behavior more than others. The amount of patience adults display affects how children respond. Fussy infants become more difficult toddlers when they are faced with parents who generally impose harsher restrictions. These parents become more easily stressed, more negative, and more hostile; they might engage in inconsistent discipline practices and aggravate the child’s behavior problems. In contrast, parents who show support and patience can have a significant positive effect on children’s behavior (Paulussen-Hoogeboom, Stams, Hermans, & Peetsma, 2007; Raikes, Robinson, Bradley, Raikes, & Ayoub, 2007). In other words, the temperament of some children may be a better or poorer fit than others for particular situations. Children’s adjustment may therefore be linked to biological temperament acting on fit. To counteract what might be poor goodness of fit, difficult children benefit from warm, sensitive parents who have consistent rules for behavior and make reasonable demands. Less active infants and toddlers benefit from parents who will engage them—asking questions, exploring, naming objects. Because active, outgoing children will naturally self-stimulate, for them, intrusive adult involvement may limit exploratory behavior and innate curiosity. Many parents fail to recognize when they are not responding according to their children’s temperament. In these instances, parenting programs that include directed interventions to identify emotions appear to be helpful. In one study that focused on these techniques, children were able to engage in a higher level of social behavior. Additionally, by learning how to better recognize emotional cues in their children, parents also became more aware of their own emotional regulation (Wilson, Havighurst, & Harley, 2012). Section Review What is the association between infant temperament and personality development? Describe three different types of infant temperament, including implications for parenting and goodness of fit. 11.2 Psychosocial Foundations of Personality Development Like issues that arise with goodness of fit, it is not always easy to find an appropriate balance between being patient and responsive, and imposing necessary restrictions on what appears to be normal developmental needs. How often should difficult babies be held? How much freedom should teenagers be given to express themselves? Erikson’s theory of psychosocial development outlines these issues. His theory of how social interactions affect personality development remains a historical benchmark from which contemporary theory has evolved. In many ways, Erik Erikson is to psychosocial development what Piaget is to cognitive development. And like Piaget, psychologists continue to find Erikson’s ideas practical and worthwhile. Part of Erikson’s theory concerns the development of the self, which is a 365 © 2016 Bridgepoint Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Not for resale or redistribution. mos82599_11_c11_361-394.indd 365 2/11/16 9:06 AM Section 11.2 Psychosocial Foundations of Personality Development conceptualization of how we evaluate our thoughts and attitudes about ourselves. Erikson stressed how the self develops as a function of the way we constantly interact with society. Erikson: Stages of Psychosocial Development Erikson was influenced by Sigmund Freud’s psychoanalytic theory. Both of these psychology pioneers emphasized the importance of early development on later personality and behavior. However, while Freud felt early development was largely a function of sexual conflict, Erikson’s stages of psychosocial development focused on social influences during the life­ span (Erikson, 1950/1993). According to Erikson, each developmental period is marked by a psychosocial challenge that can have either a favorable or an unfavorable outcome. The desired outcome provides opportunity for growth, whereas the alternative inhibits personality growth. The settlement of each stage does not have an all-or-none effect on personality development; there are degrees of resolution. Although Erikson proposed general age ranges for his stages, there is no firm consensus on when each stage begins and ends. Basic Trust Versus Mistrust (birth to 1 year old): Erikson proposed that the fundamental challenge of infancy concerns an infant’s dependency needs and parental responsiveness. Infants need to feel secure that they will be fed, changed, nurtured, and comforted. If parents are responsive and dependable, infants become confident that their needs will be met; they develop a sense of trust. In contrast, an insecure infant (perhaps one who has been neglected) will develop a sense of mistrust. Therefore, the first of Erikson’s stages is referred to as basic trust versus mistrust. Autonomy Versus Shame and Doubt (ages 1 to 3 years): If infants trust their parents, then as toddlers they can more confidently explore their environment. As toddlers begin to master skills like crawling, walking, talking, dressing, and feeding themselves, they discover a sense of autonomy that leads to self-esteem. Parents must guide the development of this independence so that children develop appropriate self-control without feeling shame that they have done something bad and consequently doubt their own abilities. Initiative Versus Guilt (ages 3 to 6 years): When children gain autonomy, they begin to master the world around them. They become more independent but sometimes suffer negative consequences as a result. Early “experiments” with food flying off of a highchair, which first occur randomly, are now done with more purpose. Children might cut their own hair. Parents again need to juggle reactions. If a 4-year-old attempts to bring a dish to the sink but ends up breaking it, how should the parent react? Children can either be reinforced for taking the initiative or feel guilt for having done something wrong. The key to helping children overcome this initiative versus guilt challenge is to set balanced limits—not always an intuitive, easy task. Industry Versus Inferiority (ages 5 to 12 years): Play becomes more purposeful or goaloriented as children learn more about the ways of the world. If they take the initiative, they can become accomplished and feel a sense of industry. If they feel inadequate, perhaps because of the guilt from the earlier stage, children become discouraged in their attempts to acquire knowledge or complete tasks. In that case, they may feel incompetent and unproductive, which can lead to feelings of inferiority. By becoming industrious through the acquisition of a number of competencies, children begin to build a sense of identity. 366 © 2016 Bridgepoint Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Not for resale or redistribution. mos82599_11_c11_361-394.indd 366 2/11/16 9:06 AM Section 11.2 Psychosocial Foundations of Personality Development Identity Versus Role Confusion (adolescence): Erikson believed that the stage of identity development that coincides with adolescence was pivotal. Early stages lead up to it, and later stages are dependent on it. In this stage, teenagers try to discover who they really are, including their sexual identity and what they want to do in life. Beginning in early adolescence, physical, sexual, and cognitive changes, as well as more complex social demands, contribute to confusion about identity. Erikson called this time of potential upheaval the adolescent identity crisis. During this period, adolescents will often try out different behaviors before finding a clear path. The process of reconciling these challenges results in an individual’s achieving a sense of identity. On the other hand, when children are not allowed to explore, create, and accomplish, they do not develop the competence necessary to define goals and forge a unique sense of self. Current and future roles remain undefined, or confused. This role confusion may lead to difficulty forming close adult relationships. After all, if a person does not have a strong sense of identity, then there are few intimacies that he or she can share with another person. This outcome is sometimes referred to as identity diffusion since the self, or personality, lacks a unified core. Erikson proposed that identity versus role confusion was the key to developing into an adult. Intimacy Versus Isolation (early adulthood): The adult personality rests firmly on the successful resolution of the challenges of earlier developmental stages. Although close relationships may have formed prior to this stage, the task here is to form successful relationships and create intimacy. If a young adult has not successfully resolved the crisis of identity, then it becomes more difficult to form deep emotional connections. Expressing hopes, dreams, and fears to an intimate partner also iStock/Thinkstock helps solidify and integrate self- If young adults have had trouble forming an identity, image. In the absence of intimacy, they can also have trouble forming deep emotional relationships are more superficial; connections and develop a sense of isolation. without the risk of vulnerability, a sense of isolation develops. Erikson does not limit these intimate relationships to sexual intimacy but extends them to relationships with special friends also. Generativity Versus Stagnation (middle adulthood): Adults seek to accomplish goals that make them feel as if they have made a difference in the world. Personality is integrated to achieve occupational, social, and personal goals. People gain a sense of fulfillment from these accomplishments, but they also seek additional satisfaction by “leaving a mark.” Generativity refers to providing for the next generation, by engaging in activities like teaching values, coaching sports, raising children, and volunteering. ...
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School: Duke University

Attached.

Running Head: PSYCHOSOCIAL DEVELOPMENT

Psychosocial Development
Students name
Institutional affiliation

1

PSYCHOSOCIAL DEVELOPMENT

2

Psychosocial Development
Various factors influence the development of a person from infancy to adulthood which
plays a significant role in defining their character, personality, and temperament. These factors
determine the psychosocial development of an individual. Psychosocial development begins
during infancy where emotional arousal, how long the arousal lasts, and how it fades can be
observed in children. These conditions are referred to as temperament and remain stable and
non-expressive during this stage of growth(Smith-Osborne, 2007). Research has proven that
biology and genetics play a significant role in defining character, emotions, and attention.
According to Er...

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