explore the various methods

timer Asked: Feb 9th, 2019
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Question Description

This is an essay exam that asks you to explore the various methods and problems associated with pseudoscience and improperly checked scientific studies.

In recent years, studies have debunked a 1998 study by Andrew Wakefield (retracted article (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site.) that suggested vaccines cause autism. You are asked to read up on the original author of the fraudulent article (history (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site.) and to read and discuss articles that reevaluate the initial causation between vaccines and autism.

The following are a list of information and articles to help you.

Vaccines and Autism: A Tale of Shifting Hypothesis Link (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site.

Information from the CDC Link (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site.

A Population Study from the New Journal of Medicine Link (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site.

Your goal is to explore what went wrong. Use evidence from your readings to discuss problems in methodology and experimental design. Discuss the cultural implications of the studies and how the information from the CDC and population studies impacts current thought. Your essay should include quotes from all articles read during this unit as well as references to the articles given here. Your essay should have a standard thesis format in which a strong writing style will clearly indicate your point of view. Grammar and spelling does count. Approximately 8 -10 paragraphs (1500 words). You will submit a pdf document. It will be checked for plagiarism. Please cite your sources uses MLA format.

Tutor Answer

School: University of Maryland



Problems Associated with Pseudoscience
Institution Affiliation




The Wakefield case is not a new topic in the field of science. The case is an example of
how wrong unethical study can go. Lancet published an article that had been written by Wakefield
and his other colleagues claiming that the MMR vaccine caused autism. This publication brought
a lot of controversy in the medical field and also to the public. The publication also resulted in a
lot of lawsuits. The parents were so worried that most of them refrained from getting their children
vaccinated. This paper goes into details about the case and looks at the problems that were in the
methodology and the experimental design. It also looks at the cultural implications of the studies
that have been conducted.
Problems in Methodology and Experimental Design
According to Stanely et al, (2009) there a number of things that went wrong with the study.
To start with the study did not have control subjects, this precluded the authors from finding out if
the autism was causal or coincidental in regards to the MMR vaccine. The vaccine would have
been the cause of autism but there are also chances that it was just a coincidence. This is because
a lot of children receive their vaccinations between the age of 1 to 2 years which around the same
time that autism do present itself. This means that the disorder would have happened with or
without the vaccinations. Having control subjects would have allowed the authors to have
something to make a comparison with. But in this case, there was none, meaning the authors had
to go with the sample that had been used. The other problem with the way the research was
conducted was that the assessments were not blind. This means that it could have been open to any
manipulation. Blinded experim...

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