GEOG3P34 Hong Kong's system of public transit essay

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Integrating and making sense of interdisciplinary information from various sources is a major objective of this course. Synthesis sessions are designed to allow interaction with your peers in a small group setting to discuss the implications and linkages of each topic in more detail.

Small discussion groups of 4 - 5 students will be formed for each synthesis session. Prior to each session, a handout of Synthesis Session discussion questions (see above) will be made available electronically. In small-group format, each group member will be responsible for answering one of the questions in detail and leading discussion within the group on this topic, integrating the material presented from all sources within the thematic framework of the course. Each group member will be allotted about 30 minutes for discussion and presentation within the first 2.5 hours of class. You will be asked to evaluate your peers on their participation and performance in the small-group discussion sessions.

A properly formatted written synthesis report must be submitted electronically on Sakai to all your peers in the course by midnight two days before each synthesis session. Each synthesis report will consist of a concise (maximum 1200 words) response to the question for which you are responsible.

Substantiate your response and conclusions with properly formatted, academically credible references from outside sources and from course readings. Aim for a minimum of 10 references, at least half of which should be from peer-reviewed academic journals or similar credible academic sources.

Prior to the synthesis session, prepare four brief questions for your peers, one for each of the other topics that you do not report on yourself. These questions do not have to be submitted with your synthesis report. You will prepare them to ensure that there will be plenty of relevant discussion in your group during the question periods, and to evaluate the way in which your peers respond.

Autonomous Vehicles - Synthesis Report 1 Janine Lagundzin 4046272 TOUR 3P34 Dr. David Brown Tuesday, February 12, 2018 A wide range of options are being developed in the world of autonomous vehicles since the concept’s first appearance in 1926 (Koul & Eydgahi, 2018). Some of these technologies are available in certain vehicles while others have been under rigorous testing on public roads for numerous years. The Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) provide a useful taxonomy of driving automation which is widely used across nations. There are 5 levels depending on the level of driver involvement which reflect the diversity of the technology. The classification begins at level 1, no driving automation, followed by driver assistance, partial automation, conditional automation, high automation, and finally, level 5 represents full automation. Features that seem basic in our modern world, like cruise control, lane detection and self parking, would be classified as a level 2, driver assistance. This synthesis report will examine full automation, where the vehicle’s full performance that could be performed by a human is completely automated under all roadway and environmental conditions. Current uses and implementations of driverless car technology will first be examined, followed by issues with the technology, advantages and obstacles to implementation, and finally future use of the technology will be considered. To begin, the technology is based on the use of radar and LIDAR (Light Detection and Ranging Technology) to create 3D maps of the area around the vehicle within seconds. Artificial Intelligence programs such as deep neural networks (DNNs) and convolutional neural networks (CNNs) use this data to learn how to drive based on different algorithms for meaning, interpretation and calculating probabilities (Cutean, 2017). More than 12 companies have been testing their autonomous vehicles in the well documented California market. The State of California requires annual reporting on human intervention during autonomous vehicle testing. Not as much data regarding driver intervention is available from other states with different reporting requirements (BBC, 2017). Pilot projects have begun in Texas where small companies like and Nuro offer ride sharing programs or delivery services (Brown, 2019). Ford has announced the launch of driverless cars as early as 2021. In an effort to expand beyond “an auto company to an auto and mobility company” they prioritize the use of ridesharing programs like Uber rather than focusing on individual retail (Lee, 2016). They have been working in cooperation with Chinese company Baidu to take the lead in the autonomous vehicle market. Waymo, a Google subsidiary, has reported significant progress in the development of their autonomous vehicle, citing a 50% decrease in human intervention during testing (BBC, 2017). They reported 636,000 miles of road testing in 2016. The autonomous vehicle development of General Motors, called Cruise, made headway in San Francisco testing markets in 2016. Their test drive miles increased to almost 10,000 miles with four hundred and fourteen manual disengagements from the system (BBC, 2017). Apple released their patent for navigation system of self-driving car. It shows the user interface with potential routes and switching from manual to automation (Kovach, 2017). In Canada, the Blackberry QNX was the first company to launch a driverless car on Canadian roads in 2017 (Tchin, 2018). Driverless vehicle testing is permitted anywhere at any time in Ontario with heavy insurance requirements (Tchin, 2018). Google announced the beginning of driverless vehicle testing in British Columbia in 2016 while Alberta announced the creation of a remote testing area for the new technology (Cutean, 2017). Chinese companies, Changan, Baidu in collaboration with BMW, and Geely in collaboration with Volvo, are reportedly leading the market with their own innovations, forecasting official launches in the next decade. Over 2,300 kilometres of autonomous road navigation were reported displaying a wide range of manoeuvres and road conditions (Illmer, 2016). The Volvo autonomous car testing was also scheduled to begin in Sweden and the UK last year (BBC, 2017; Illmer, 2016). There have been legality issues in the United States, where Uber launched pilot testing in San Francisco without appropriate permits (Levin, 2016). The death of a driver in Florida was reported to have been caused by Tesla’s self-driving technology (Lee, 2016). Uber self-driving cars were blamed for traffic violations in California (Levin, 2016). Uber’s test driving was suspended after one of their vehicles caused the death of a pedestrian in Tempe, Arizona in March of 2018. Uber has published a Voluntary Safety Self-Assessment, changed the automatic braking system to be active permanently, and increased the number of back up drivers to two individuals to avoid any further tragedies (Moon, 2018a). They await review by the U.S. Department of Transportation. At the same time Uber also suspended its vehicles from Canadian roads (Tchir, 2018). A test vehicle of the company Waymo was involved in a collision in 2018, causing serious injuries to a motorcyclist. The vehicle was switched to manual control for the driver to avoid another vehicle encroaching upon their lane of traffic, but consequently collided with a motorcyclist while trying to avoid the incoming vehicle. The company states that the autonomous technology would have sensed the motorcycle and avoided the collision that resulted (Moon, 2018b). The primary advantage of autonomous cars is the improved safety of driving, as noted by the Information and Communication Technology Council of Canada. Of 1,800 road fatalities in Canada, 90% were due to human error (Cutean, 2017; Hussain et al., 2018). Due to the ridesharing potential, driverless cars can reduce traffic congestion and consequently increase productivity from reduced travel times. This could also decrease air pollution that results from vehicular travel as these vehicles are electric and don’t require the consumption of fossil fuels. Canadian policy views this technology as a sustainable alternative that can accommodate projected population growth (Cutean, 2017). It has the potential to reshape the labour market by increasing efficiency, creating new jobs, and lowering consumer costs. Driverless cars and the technology associated with them can be of great use for individuals with visual impairment (Martinez, et al., 2017). Individuals with limited mobility can significantly benefit from ridesharing programs and other services offered by autonomous vehicles, as evident in a retirement community in Florida where a pilot program has launched (Brown, 2019). The public hold many reservations towards autonomous vehicles in relation to safety and ethics (Yo & Ha, 2019). Surveys of Canadian regions revealed that residents in Quebec and Ontario have the highest levels of trust in autonomous vehicles. Chinese markets and governments are reported to have more favourable attitudes toward the technology and are therefore more likely to see large scale developments in comparison with North American transitions into the market, where there have been collisions and fatalities setting back consumer trust (Illmer, 2016; Moon, 2018a). With all the advancements in developing autonomous vehicle technology, consumer costs continue to decrease (Brown, 2019). One study has shown that in younger age groups, cost is a significant factor in adopting the technology, more than comfort (Ro &Ha, 2019). Lazanyi (2018) found that trust is a necessary psychological component to determine society’s readiness and acceptance of the technology. This research concluded that society is not prepared for driverless cars due to their lack of trust in the technology, though they are appreciative of the positive externalities that the technology offers, such as increased safety and decreased traffic congestion. It was found that “perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use” are significant factors that affect individual choices to use driverless car technology (Koul & Eydgahi, 2018). As perception of usefulness and of ease of use increase, so does the likelihood of consuming driverless car technology. In regards to obstacles of implementing autonomous vehicles in society, there remain questions of ethical decision-making capabilities for autonomous vehicles (Yo & Ha, 2019; Brown, 2017). Projects such as “the Moral Machine” give examples of these ethical conundrums in which users must decide not if, but whose loss of life should occur in an extreme situation (Myers, 2016). Autonomous vehicles rendering taxi and ridesharing services could potentially replace or significantly affect a large sector of workers in the driver industry, auto mechanic industry and other auto-related industries. They could also reduce the role of police officers and EMTs in light of reduced traffic violations and collisions (Cutean, 2017). Due to the changing role of the driver in autonomous vehicles, “a new approach to legal framework in road traffic is necessary to redefine the legal responsibilities of the driver” (Gasser & Westhoff, 2012). There are currently questions of legal accountability regarding autonomous vehicle testing on public roads (Beale, 2018; Pearl 2018). Confusion over protocol and accountability was expressed by the San Francisco police department (Levin, 2016). These issues of legality are being addressed, for example, the United States Department of Transportation’s first release of their “Multi-Modal Guidance Document for On-Road Surface Transportation Automation” aims to address policy uncertainty and clarify roles (National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, 2018). In addition to California, Nevada, Michigan, and Florida also have state self-driving regulations (BBC, 2017). Regardless of the popularity of personal ownership of autonomous vehicles, there remains much potential for this technology in public and private transit systems. This is the vision shared by the Communication and Information Technology Council of Canada; the integration of autonomous vehicles as ride sharing services are meant to replace or decrease use of individually owned vehicles (Cutean, 2017). Ride sharing services are only one possibility of many for the application of this technology if the perception of safety continues to increase. American future goals intend to develop autonomous public transit (National Highway Traffic and Safety Administration, 2018). While it may take a significant amount of time for society to fully trust autonomous vehicles, they are already being integrated onto our streets and widening the potential for sustainable transportation in auto-dependent societies. References BBC. (2017, February 2). Googles driverless cars make progress. Retrieved from Beale, A.F. (2018). Who’s coffers spill when autonomous cars kill: a new tort theory for the computer code road. Widener Law Journal 27 (2), 215-248. Retrieved from =130238930&S=R&D=a9h&EbscoContent=dGJyMNHX8kSeprc4xNvgOLCmr1GeprVSs664 SLOWxWXS&ContentCustomer=dGJyMPGrs062qK9JuePfgeyx43zx49%2BB7AAA Brown, B. (2017, February). The social life of autonomous cars. Computer 50 (2), 92-96. doi: 10.1109/MC.2017.59 Brown, M. (2019, January 15). Tech trends 2019: driverless cars, artificial intelligence & augmented reality. Retrieved from %202019.Tech%20Trends%202019_%20Driverless%20Cars%2C%20Artificial%20Intellige nce%20_%20Augmented%20Reality.ENGINEERING_com.pdf Campbell, S. (2016, December 23). Reporting Disengagement of Autonomous Mode. Retrieved from Cutean, A. (2017). Autonomous Vehicles and the Future Work in Canada. Information and Communication Technology Council. Ottawa, Canada. Retrieved from Gasser, T.M., and Westhoff, D. (2012, July 25). BASt-study: Definitions of Automation and Legal Issues in Germany. Transportation Research Board, Road Vehicle Automation Workshop. Retrieved from sser.pdf Hussain, R., Lee, J., and Zeadally, S. (2018, November). Autonomous cars: social and economic implications. IT Professional 20 (6), 70-77. doi: 10.1109/MITP.2018.2876922 Illmer, A. (2016, April 28). China’s push for driverless cars accelerates. BBC. Retrieved from Koul, S., and Eydgahi, A. (2018, October 1). Utilizing technology acceptance model (TAM) for driverless car technology adoption. Journal of Technology Management & Innovation 13 (4), 37-46. Retrieved from Kovach, S. (2017, December 21). Apple just gave us the first hint at how it envisions the use interface in a self-driving car. Business Insider. Retrieved from Lazanyi, K. (2018, May). Are we ready for self-driving cars-a case of principal-agent theory. IEEE 12th International Symposium on Applied Computational Intelligence and Informatics. doi: 10.1109/SACI.2018.8441011 Lee, D. (2016, August 17). Ford’s self-driving car ‘coming in 2021’. BBC. Retrieved from Levin, S. (2016, December 15). Uber blames humans for self-driving car traffic offenses as California orders halt. The Guardian. Retrieved from Martinez, M., Roitberg, A., Koester, D., Stiefelhagen, R., and Schauerte, B. (2017, October). Using technology developed for autonomous cars to help navigate blind people. IEEE International Conference on Computer Vision Workshop (ICCVW). doi: 10.1109/ICCVW.2017.169 Moon, M. (2018a, November 3). Uber applies for permission to test self-driving cars again. Engadget. Retrieved from Moon, M. (2018b, November 6). Waymo blames self-driving collision on pesky human. Engadget. Retrieved from Myers, J. (2016, August 15). How will self-driving cars make life or death decisions? World Economic Forum. Retrieved from campaign=buffer National Highway Traffic Safety Administration. (2018, October 4). U.S. Department of Transportation Releases 'Preparing for the Future of Transportation: Automated Vehicles 3.0'. United States Department of Transportation. Retrieved from Pearl, T. (2018). Hands on the wheel: a call for greater regulation of semi-autonomous cars. Indiana Law Journal 93 (3), 712-756. Retrieved from =134272375&S=R&D=a9h&EbscoContent=dGJyMNHX8kSeprc4xNvgOLCmr1GeprZSrqm 4SbeWxWXS&ContentCustomer=dGJyMPGrs062qK9JuePfgeyx43zx49%2BB7AAA Ro, Y., and Ha, Y. (2019). A factor analysis of consumer expectations for autonomous cars. Journal of Computer Information Systems 59 (1), 52-60. Retrieved from Tchir, J. (2018, May 7). Are driverless cars allowed on Canadian roads? The Globe and Mail. Retrieved from Tesla. (2017, January 9). Disengagement Report from its Autonomous Vehicle Test vehicle fleet for the Calendar Year 2016. Retrieved from The Society of Automotive Engineers. (2018, June 15). Taxonomy and Definitions for Terms Related to Driving Automation Systems for On-Road Motor Vehicles. Standards and Publications J3016_201806. Retrieved from Zimmerman, S. (2017, January 4). Annual report of autonomous mode disengagements. Retrieved from
2019/2/10 SESSION 1- QUESTIONS AND ASSIGNED RESPONDENTS TOUR / GEOG 3P34: Sustainable Transportation Synthesis Session I 12 February 2019 Synthesis report must be submitted in the SAKAI RESOURCES / WEEK 6 SYNTHESIS SESSION 1 REPORT FOLDER (not DropBox!!) by midnight on Sunday 10 February 2019 Online peer review forms must be completed by midnight on 19 February 2019. LINK TO ONLINE PEER EVALUATION FORM: The following questions are provided to allow you to integrate and synthesize the information you have been exposed to over the past several weeks. In all cases, you are expected to: a) refer specifically to pertinent readings, media, and lecture material; b) integrate the relevant perspectives of all lectures / course materials in your response, c) research additional material to substantiate your answers (don't forget the reading list on the course outline!), and d) be concise. Please don't simply regurgitate or summarize the contents of course readings or presentations. Your job is to synthesize a cogent response that goes beyond the resources of this course, and which considers sustainability dimensions and real-world policy implications of your ideas. 1. Google and other tech and automotive companies are working to introduce driverless cars which will be capable of transporting people safely and efficiently on 1/9 2019/2/10 SESSION 1- QUESTIONS AND ASSIGNED RESPONDENTS existing roads. Some forecasts state that such cars are slated to be widely available by the end of the current decade. Others point to trust issues affecting adoption of autonomous vehicles, cite concerns about safety, and wonder how driverless cars will react in 'life or death' decisions. What is the current 'state of the art' with regard to driverless cars? Given your understanding of the complex relationship humans have with personal transportation, do you think these cars are likely to be successful? In what context(s)? What advantages and obstacles can you envision with regard to their introduction? Support your perspectives with research from academic and credible non-academic sources. 2. Societies which embrace the automobile operate with a number of deep-seated (and sometimes unconscious) assumptions. One such assumption is the unquestioned right to personal mobility, even when it comes at the expense of other quality-of-life parameters. In The Ecology of the Automobile, Freund and Martin (1993) discussed the ideology and phenomenology of automobility, and identified more of these assumptions. What are they? Are these assumptions generally in the best interest of individuals, or the best collective interests of the citizenry? Can you think of any other such assumptions? Identify 2/9 2019/2/10 SESSION 1- QUESTIONS AND ASSIGNED RESPONDENTS and discuss as many of them as you can, using literature sources and "real-world" observations to support your arguments. Food for thought: a) The very act of driving implies nearcomplete trust in the safe behaviour of another individual, and in their ability to control a potentially lethal machine. By comparison - would you trust a complete stranger to take care of your wallet - or of your child? Would you be nervous if your teenaged neighbours owned powerful guns? b) In many parts of the world, your license to drive a car contains a permission form for organ donation. What would your reaction be if you purchased a new kitchen appliance and discovered that it came with an operator's permit which contained a card to sign for organ donorship in the event of a fatal accident? 3. Automobile use has significant economic, social and environmental costs. The workshop exercise on "The Costs of the Car" (accessible here) attempts to estimate the annual economic costs of owning and operating a private automobile. Review the categories. Are they comprehensive? Realistic? Using this exercise as a starting point, construct a case study which contrast the annual expenses of a car owner with those of a transit user who occasionally rents a car for special travel occasions. Refine the categories, improve the accuracy of the cost estimates, and substantiate the figures. Be specific in your scenarios and your cost estimates. In addition to economic impacts, what environmental and social 3/9 2019/2/10 SESSION 1- QUESTIONS AND ASSIGNED RESPONDENTS costs and benefits might also be affected for the individual? What are the policy implications of your findings? 4. Cars are sold with the promise of everything from speed to power to sexuality, and evoke responses in consumers that range from mere image awareness through to pathological obsession. Identify the dominant themes in automotive advertising, today and in the past. What characteristics or attributes do automobile advertisers emphasize? What promises do they make? How are model names and styling of automobiles used to evoke responses in the carbuying public? Are the sexual themes identified in several readings (e.g., Ch. 4 of Zuckermann, the Autoeroticism issue of Design Quarterly, the films Design for Dreaming and My Car is my Lover) overstated, or an accurate reflection of deep 4/9 2019/2/10 SESSION 1- QUESTIONS AND ASSIGNED RESPONDENTS seated human urges? We may laugh (or cringe) at the crude or naive imagery used in ads from the 1950s and 60s... but what about the themes used in the present day? Find and cite additional readings, advertisements, and online resources which substantiate the central role of advertising in fuelling our desire for automobiles, and comment about whether very much has actually changed since the days of Dagmars and tailfins. One source of auto advertising literature (vintage and modern) is The Automotive Chronicles (see also the archives section). Internet sales sites and regular print media are rich sources of additional information. 5. Hong Kong's system of public transit is arguably one of the best-integrated multimodal transit systems in the world. What are the reasons for its success? What are some of the drawbacks to the system? Though undoubtedly effective at moving people around, is it truly a sustainable system, by all of the sustainability criteria that we are aware of? What lessons (positive and negative) can we learn from the Hong Kong transportation model that can be Hong Kong LRT System applied to Canada? What policy changes would be required, and at what levels? Would it make sense to adopt any Hong Kong - style transportation solutions in western cities - or should we consider other international transit alternatives to retrofit our cities (e.g., a design like the China TBS Land Airbus (a.k.a. 'straddling bus', which is now discredited, but still an 5/9 2019/2/10 SESSION 1- QUESTIONS AND ASSIGNED RESPONDENTS interesting design concept)? Explore the international options, and make a case for your choices. Use additional literature sources to support your arguments. China TBS Land Airbus ('straddling bus') A. YOUR WRITTEN WORK Synthesis Report - A properly formatted written synthesis report must be submitted electronically in PDF FORMAT in the SAKAI RESOURCES / WEEK 6 SYNTHESIS SESSION 1 REPORT FOLDER (not DropBox!!) by midnight on Sunday 10 February 2019. Each report will consist of a concise (maximum 1500 words) response to the question for which you are responsible. Substantiate your response and conclusions with properly formatted references from course readings and from outside sources. Aim for providing at least 10 references, with at least half of these from academic journals or other credible peer-reviewed sources. To help everyone find your work, give your synthesis report PDF file a descriptive filename in the following format when you post it on Sakai: LASTNAME_FIRSTNAME_IDNUMBER_Synth1_Question_X-Group_X.pdf Note that once your paper is posted on Sakai, it will be visible to everyone in the class. You may wish to time your submission accordingly. Your groups and assigned questions are as follows: 6/9 2019/2/10 SESSION 1- QUESTIONS AND ASSIGNED RESPONDENTS GROUP 1 Lagundzin, Janine Li, Mingxin Kocsis, Jordan Situ, Shuyi Cakir, Huseyin Question 1 2 3 4 5 GROUP 7 Kelly, Nolan Faris, Abbey Yang, Menglin Ramisa, Mehjabeen Ma, Quan Question 1 2 3 4 5 GROUP 2 Harvey, Jon Milliere, Matt Saraan, Ishwinder Leitch, Kirsten Helgerman, Emily Question 1 2 3 4 5 GROUP 8 Wang, Yichen Crocco-Montagano, Anthony Fiorillo, Emily Flack, Jessica Visheau, Chloe Question 1 2 3 4 5 GROUP 3 LeGree, Deonna Gomez, Gabriela Stephanie Blancato, Kristen Szczucki, Tyler Yu, Evan Question 1 2 3 4 5 GROUP 9 Dunford, Delaney Khan, Wahid Falcao, Jake Germano, Eric Guild, Kevin Question 1 2 3 4 5 GROUP 4 Story, Claire Adams Theriault, Katie Leidl, Matthew Barnach, Paulina Ubhi, Navpreet Kaur Question 1 2 3 4 5 GROUP 10 Alberico, Mark Disperse to different groups Moder, Cole Koller, Rachel Hunt, Ryan Kevin Question 1 2 3 4 5 GROUP 5 Foster, John Bosetti, Olivia Giancola, Kathryn Hull, Chloe Thapendran, Annissa Question 1 2 3 4 5 GROUP 11 Chapman, Jonathon Choporis, Larissa Nicol, Ryan Victor Disperse to different groups Hoang, Hynha Question 1 2 3 4 5 7/9 2019/2/10 SESSION 1- QUESTIONS AND ASSIGNED RESPONDENTS GROUP 6 Sayers, Mitchell Foss, Tyler Facto, Montana Marie Martin, Gregory Hassan, Salman Question 1 2 3 4 5 GROUP 12 Zhao, Nating De Forest, Shannon Disperse to different groups Charlston, Luke Cheng, Joel Question 1 2 3 4 5 B. YOUR ORAL WORK IN CLASS Synthesis Sessions Small discussion groups of 4-5 students will be formed for each synthesis session. Each group member will be responsible for leading discussion within the group based on one of the questions, integrating the material presented from all sources within the thematic framework of the course. Each group member will be allotted 20 minutes for presentation and 10 minutes for group discussion, for a total of 30 minutes per question in small-group format. The balance of the last hour of class on synthesis weeks will consist of a plenary discussion of the questions. Schedule: Question 1 Question 2 Question 3 Question 4 Question 5 Plenary 09:00 09:30 10:00 10:30 11:00 11:30 - 09:30 10:00 10:30 11:00 11:30 11:50 For groups with fewer than 5 members, please distribute yourselves AS EVENLY AS POSSIBLE amongst the other groups as directed above to discuss those questions where you 8/9 2019/2/10 SESSION 1- QUESTIONS AND ASSIGNED RESPONDENTS have no group representative. Re-convene in your original group for the remaining questions. C. YOUR PEER EVALUATIONS AFTER THE SYNTHESIS SESSION (Online Peer Evaluation Survey tool) You will evaluate your peers on their participation and performance in the small-group discussion sessions using an online peer evaluation survey. You will complete the online forms no later than by midnight on 19 February 2019. Fill in the peer evaluation surveys for the people who presented in your synthesis group. If there were fewer than 5 members in your group and you temporarily went to another group, fill in the peer evaluation form for the individual who answered the question in the group that you joined. Reconvene with your original group members for the remaining questions. Peer evaluation surveys will have the names of the evaluators removed and will be returned to the presenters to provide anonymous feedback. You may elect to add your name to the comments you provide if you want the person being evaluated to know who provided the comments. LINK TO ONLINE PEER EVALUATION FORM: 9/9
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School: Duke University

Hello, review the attached document and contact me in case you need any changes. Otherwise, good luck in your study and if you need any further help in your assignments, please let me know. Always invite me to answer your questions.


Hong Kong's system of public transit
Student’s Name
University Affiliation



Hong Kong's system of public transit
The public transit system is the mass movement of the people by the public means
through specific systems that are managed on schedules to operate on specific routes and charge
a specified fee per trip. These systems are dominantly applied in the large cities where there are
huge movements of the people to prevent traffic congestions. Cities across the world have been
competing on those with superior transit systems by considering different factors touching on the
welfare of the people and the environment (Neirotti, 2014). One of the most efficient public
transit systems is arguably found in Hong Kong, China.
Hong Kong has the best integrated multimodal transit systems in the world for different
reasons. Firstly, the government partnered with the private entities in providing the most
efficient, safe and effective system of mass transportation of people and good in the city
(Cullinane, 2018). The transit systems created supports the mass movement of people and good
under four major types of transport; Light Rail Transit systems, Subways systems, Rapid Bus
Transit and the normal bus systems of transport (Blooming, 2010). Each of these types has its
advantages in reducing the congestion of the vehicles on the road that comes with the risks of
decrease in passengers’’ safety, time inconveniences and hiked fares.
When compared against other cities of the world such as Singapore, Hong Kong scored
the highest overall in affordability of public transport, rail infrastructure, convenience,
efficiency, and safety. A study published by an American firm on the best public transit systems...

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