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Question Description

For this milestone, you will select two of the provided sources related to the problem you described in Milestone One and summarize and evaluate each. The summary will identify fundamental underlying concepts of psychology present in the source. Additionally, you will evaluate the source according to the ethical guidelines of psychology. For each source, you will write two to three paragraphs and follow APA style with a reference page.


I dropped an example about APA and how you organize the assignment.

Important thing : Please do not bring anything from the internet everything must be from your thought and the book

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PSY 108 Milestone Two Guidelines and Rubric Credible Evidence Evaluation Overview: As the final project for PSY 108, you will choose a problem from a provided list to which you can apply the concepts or theories learned in this class. You will then develop an action plan for how you will use psychological ideas and principles in addressing the problem. This assessment will help you recognize the value of psychology, the value of supporting your claims with established views and research, and how psychology can be applied to personal situations. Prompt: For this milestone, you will select two of the provided sources related to the problem you described in Milestone One and summarize and evaluate each. The summary will identify fundamental underlying concepts of psychology present in the source. Additionally, you will evaluate the source according to the ethical guidelines of psychology. For each source, you will write two to three paragraphs and follow APA style with a reference page. Specifically, the following critical elements must be addressed: I. Getting Started: In this part of the assessment, you will explore the research you have encountered in this course and that you have selected to determine the credibility of the research and how the research aligns with the ethical guidelines of psychology. Your exploration of the research in this section of the assessment will help inform the decisions you make about your action plan and help you consider the value of credibility and following ethical guidelines in research. A. Select research from the provided resources that will support your plan and explain how the research is credible. B. Explain how you discerned the credibility of the research provided. C. Discuss how using credible evidence will support your action plan. D. Explain how the research aligns with fundamental theories discussed in the course. E. Describe how the research aligns with the ethical guidelines of psychology. Rubric Guidelines for Submission: You will upload the polished version of the document you downloaded from Soomo to the Attachments link for instructor grading and feedback. Your submission for Milestone Two should be 4 to 6 paragraphs in length (2 to 3 paragraphs for each source), with 12-point Times New Roman font and double spacing. The research you have chosen should be appropriately cited using APA style and include a reference page. Critical Elements Getting Started: Credible Proficient (100%) Selects research that will support plan and explains how the research is credible Getting Started: Discerned Explains how the credibility of the research presented in the course was discerned Getting Started: Credible Evidence Discusses how using credible evidence will support the action plan Getting Started: Fundamental Theories Explains how the research connects with fundamental psychological theories Getting Started: Ethical Guidelines Describes how the research aligns with the ethical guidelines of psychology Articulation of Response Submission has no major errors related to citations, grammar, spelling, syntax, or organization Needs Improvement (75%) Selects research that will support plan and explains how the research is credible, but research selected is misaligned with plan or explanation is cursory or inaccurate Explains how the credibility of the research presented in the course was discerned, but explanation is cursory or contains inaccuracies Discusses how using credible evidence will support the action plan, but discussion is cursory or illogical Explains how the research connects with fundamental psychological theories, but explanation is cursory or contains inaccuracies Describes how the research aligns with the ethical guidelines of psychology, but description is cursory or contains inaccuracies Submission has major errors related to citations, grammar, spelling, syntax, or organization that negatively impact readability and articulation of main ideas Not Evident (0%) Does not select research that will support plan Value 20 Does not explain how the credibility of the research presented in the course was discerned Does not discuss how using credible evidence will support the action plan Does not explain how the research connects with fundamental psychological theories Does not describe how the research aligns with the ethical guidelines of psychology 20 Submission has critical errors related to citations, grammar, spelling, syntax, or organization that prevent understanding of ideas Total 10 20 20 10 100% Running head: VARYING DEFINITIONS OF ONLINE COMMUNICATION 1 Green text boxes contain explanations of APA style guidelines. The title should summarize the paper’s main idea and identify the variables under discussion and the relationship between them. Blue boxes contain directions for writing and citing in APA style. Varying Definitions of Online Communication and Their Effects on Relationship Research The title should be centered on the page, typed in 12point Times New Roman Font. It should not be bolded, underlined, or italicized. Elizabeth L. Angeli The author’s name and institution should be doublespaced and centered. State University Author Note Elizabeth L. Angeli, Department of Psychology, State University. Elizabeth Angeli is now at Department of English, Purdue University. This research was supported in part by a grant from the Sample Grant Program. Correspondence concerning this article should be addressed to Elizabeth Angeli, Department of English, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 55555. Contact: author@boiler.edu The author note should appear on printed articles and identifies each author’s department and institution affiliation and any changes in affiliation, contains acknowledgements and any financial support received, and provides contact information. For more information, see the APA manual, 2.03, page 24-25. Note: An author note is optional for students writing class papers, theses, and dissertations.. An author note should appear as follows: First paragraph: Complete departmental and institutional affiliation Second paragraph: Changes in affiliation (if any) Third paragraph: Acknowledgments, funding sources, special circumstances Fourth paragraph: Contact information (mailing address and e-mail) The running head is a shortened version of the paper’s full title, and it is used to help readers identify the titles for published articles (even if your paper is not intended for publication, your paper should still have a running head). The running head cannot exceed 50 characters, including spaces and punctuation. The running head’s title should be in capital letters. The running head should be flush left, and page numbers should be flush right. On the title page, the running head should include the words “Running head.” For pages following the title page, repeat the running head in all caps without “Running head.” VARYING DEFINITIONS OF ONLINE COMMUNICATION 2 Abstract The abstract is a brief summary of the paper, allowing readers to quickly review the main points and purpose of the paper. The abstract should be between 150-250 words. Abbreviations and acronyms used in the paper should be defined in the abstract. This paper explores four published articles that report on results from research conducted on online (Internet) and offline (non-Internet) relationships and their relationship to computer-mediated communication (CMC). The articles, however, vary in their definitions and uses of CMC. Butler and Kraut (2002) suggest that face-to-face (FtF) interactions are more effective than CMC, defined and used as “email,” in creating feelings of closeness or intimacy. Other articles define CMC differently and, therefore, offer different results. This paper examines Cummings, Butler, and Kraut’s (2002) research in relation to three other research articles to suggest that all forms of CMC should be studied in order to fully understand how CMC influences online and offline relationships. Keywords: computer-mediated communication, face-to-face communication The word “Abstract” should be centered and typed in 12 point Times New Roman. Do not indent the first line of the abstract paragraph. All other paragraphs in the paper should be indented. The title should be centered on the page, typed in 12point Times New Roman Font. It should not be bolded, underlined, or italicized. The introduction presents the problem that the paper addresses. See the OWL resources on introductions: https://owl.en glish.purdue.e du/owl/resou rce/724/01/ VARYING DEFINITIONS OF ONLINE COMMUNICATION 3 Varying Definitions of Online Communication and Their Effects on Relationship Research Numerous studies have been conducted on various facets of Internet relationships, focusing on the levels of intimacy, closeness, different communication modalities, and the frequency of use of computer-mediated communication (CMC). However, contradictory results are suggested within this research because only certain aspects of CMC are investigated, for example, email only. Cummings, Butler, and Kraut (2002) suggest that face-to-face (FtF) interactions are more effective than CMC (read: email) in creating feelings of closeness or intimacy, while other studies suggest the opposite. To understand how both online (Internet) and offline (non-Internet) relationships are affected by CMC, all forms of CMC should be studied. This paper examines Cummings et al.’s research against other CMC research to propose that additional research be conducted to In-text citations that are direct quotes should include the author’s/ authors’ name/s, the publication year, and page number/s. If you are paraphrasing a source, APA encourages you to include page numbers: (Smith, 2009, p. 76). The title of the paper is centered and not bolded. better understand how online communication affects relationships. If an article has three to five authors, write out all of the authors’ names the first time they appear. Then use the first author’s last name followed by “et al.” Literature Review In Cummings et al.’s (2002) summary article reviewing three empirical studies on online social relationships, it was found that CMC, especially email, was less effective than FtF contact in creating and maintaining close social relationships. Two of the three reviewed studies focusing on communication in non-Internet and Internet relationships mediated by FtF, phone, or email modalities found that the frequency of each modality’s use was significantly linked to the strength of the particular relationship (Cummings et al., 2002). The strength of the relationship was predicted best by FtF and phone APA requires you to include the publication year because APA users are concerned with the date of the article (the more current the better). VARYING DEFINITIONS OF ONLINE COMMUNICATION 4 communication, as participants rated email as an inferior means of maintaining personal Use an appendix to provide brief content that supplement s your paper but is not directly related to your text. relationships as compared to FtF and phone contacts (Cummings et al., 2002). If you are including an appendix, refer to it in the body of your paper. found that participants corresponded less frequently with their Internet partner (5.2 times Cummings et al. (2002) reviewed an additional study conducted in 1999 by the HomeNet project (see Appendix A for more information on the HomeNet project). In this project, Kraut, Mukhopadhyay, Szczypula, Kiesler, and Scherlis (1999) compared the value of using CMC and non-CMC to maintain relationships with partners. They per month) than with their non-Internet partner (7.2 times per month; Cummings et al., 2002). This difference does not seem significant, as it is only two times less per month. However, in additional self-report surveys, participants responded feeling more distant, or less intimate, towards their Internet partner than their non-Internet partner. This finding may be attributed to participants’ beliefs that email is an inferior mode of personal relationship communication. Intimacy is necessary in the creation and maintenance of relationships, as it is defined as the sharing of a person’s innermost being with another person, i.e., selfdisclosure (Hu, Wood, Smith, & Westbrook, 2004). Relationships are facilitated by the reciprocal self-disclosing between partners, regardless of non-CMC or CMC. Cummings et al.’s (2002) reviewed results contradict other studies that research the connection between intimacy and relationships through CMC. Hu et al. (2004) studied the relationship between the frequency of Instant Messenger (IM) use and the degree of perceived intimacy among friends. The use of IM instead of email as a CMC modality was studied because IM supports a non-professional VARYING DEFINITIONS OF ONLINE COMMUNICATION 5 environment favoring intimate exchanges (Hu et al., 2004). Their results suggest that a positive relationship exists between the frequency of IM use and intimacy, demonstrating that participants feel closer to their Internet partner as time progresses through this CMC modality. Similarly, Underwood and Findlay (2004) studied the effect of Internet relationships on primary, specifically non-Internet relationships and the perceived intimacy of both. In this study, self-disclosure, or intimacy, was measured in terms of shared secrets through the discussion of personal problems. Participants reported a significantly higher level of self-disclosure in their Internet relationship as compared to their primary relationship. In contrast, the participants’ primary relationships were reported as highly self-disclosed in the past, but the current level of disclosure was perceived to be lower (Underwood & Findlay, 2004). This result suggests participants turned to the Internet in order to fulfill the need for intimacy in their lives. In further support of this finding, Tidwell and Walther (2002) hypothesized CMC participants employ deeper self-disclosures than FtF participants in order to overcome the limitations of CMC, e.g., the reliance on nonverbal cues. It was found that CMC partners engaged in more frequent intimate questions and disclosures than FtF partners in order to overcome the barriers of CMC. In their 2002 study, Tidwell and Walther measured the perception of a relationship’s intimacy by the partner of each participant in both the CMC and FtF conditions. The researchers found that the participants’ partners stated their CMC partner was more effective in employing more intimate exchanges than their FtF VARYING DEFINITIONS OF ONLINE COMMUNICATION 6 partner, and both participants and their partners rated their CMC relationship as more intimate than their FtF relationship. Discussion In 2002, Cummings et al. stated that the evidence from their research conflicted with other data examining the effectiveness of online social relationships. This statement is supported by the aforementioned discussion of other research. There may be a few possible theoretical explanations for these discrepancies. Limitations of These Studies A Level 2 heading should be flush with the left margin, bolded, and title case. The discrepancies identified may result from a number of limitations found in the materials reviewed by Cummings et al. These limitations can result from technological constraints, demographic factors, or issues of modality. Each of these limitations will be examined in further detail below. Technological limitations. First, one reviewed study by Cummings et al. (2002) A Level 3 heading should indented 0.5” from the left margin, bolded, and lower case (except for the first word). Text should follow immediately after. If you use more than three levels of headings, consult section 3.02 of the APA manual (6th ed.) or the OWL resource on APA headings: https://owl.en glish.purdue. edu/owl/reso urce/560/16 / examined only email correspondence for their CMC modality. Therefore, the study is limited to only one mode of communication among other alternatives, e.g., IM as studied by Hu et al. (2004). Because of its many personalized features, IM provides more personal CMC. For example, it is in real time without delay, voice-chat and video features are available for many IM programs, and text boxes can be personalized with the user’s picture, favorite colors and text, and a wide variety of emoticons, e.g., :). These options allow for both an increase in self-expression and the ability to overcompensate for the barriers of CMC through customizable features, as stated in Tidwell and Walther A Level 1 heading should be centered, bolded, and uppercase and lower case (also referred to as title case). Because all research has its limitations, it is important to discuss the limitations of articles under examination . VARYING DEFINITIONS OF ONLINE COMMUNICATION (2002). Self-disclosure and intimacy may result from IM’s individualized features, which are not as personalized in email correspondence. Demographic limitations. In addition to the limitations of email, Cummings et al. (2002) reviewed studies that focused on international bank employees and college students (see Appendix B for demographic information). It is possible the participants’ CMC through email was used primarily for business, professional, and school matters and not for relationship creation or maintenance. In this case, personal self-disclosure and intimacy levels are expected to be lower for non-relationship interactions, as this communication is primarily between boss and employee or student and professor. Intimacy is not required, or even desired, for these professional relationships. Modality limitations. Instead of professional correspondence, however, Cummings et al.’s (2002) review of the HomeNet project focused on already established relationships and CMC’s effect on relationship maintenance. The HomeNet researchers’ sole dependence on email communication as CMC may have contributed to the lower levels of intimacy and closeness among Internet relationships as compared to non-Internet relationships (as cited in Cummings et al., 2002). The barriers of nonpersonal communication in email could be a factor in this project, and this could lead to less intimacy among these Internet partners. If alternate modalities of CMC were studied in both already established and professional relationships, perhaps these results would have resembled those of the previously mentioned research. 7 VARYING DEFINITIONS OF ONLINE COMMUNICATION 8 Conclusions and Future Study In order to gain a complete understanding of CMC’s true effect on both online and offline relationships, it is necessary to conduct a study that examines all aspects of CMC. This includes, but is not limited to, email, IM, voice-chat, video-chat, online journals and diaries, online social groups with message boards, and chat rooms. The effects on relationships of each modality may be different, and this is demonstrated by the discrepancies in intimacy between email and IM correspondence. As each mode of communication becomes more prevalent in individuals’ lives, it is important to examine the impact of all modes of CMC on online and offline relationship formation, maintenance, and even termination. The conclusion restates the problem the paper addresses and can offer areas for further research. See the OWL resource on conclusions: https://owl. english.pur due.edu/ow l/resource/ 724/04/ VARYING DEFINITIONS OF ONLINE COMMUNICATION References Cummings, J. N., Butler, B., & Kraut, R. (2002). The quality of online social relationships. Communications of the ACM, 45(7), 103-108. Hu, Y., Wood, J. F., Smith, V., & Westbrook, N. (2004). Friendships through IM: Examining the relationship between instant messaging and intimacy. Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication, 10, ...
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Drval
School: UC Berkeley

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