University of Rochester Disaster Management Research Hypothesis Statement

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University of Rochester


My topic: Emergency Preparedness for Children. I will focus on preparedness for Children to identify their needs as normal children or children with special needs. How are their parents are prepared? Are they trained and supported to develop a family emergency plan?

The assignment:

Place your most current, refined Research Hypothesis (or specific Research Question) for your final proposal here.

Include your current, developing annotated bibliography (and copies of the pdf's if available as a pdf package) with the references in the APA format. You MAY include a brief statement of the literature foundation (background) to support the rationale for your choice and stated question AFTER the Hypothesis/Question statement.

Expect to have ten to fifteen references accumulated and annotated by this point in your process. (You can add from the old Annotated bibliography if they are good)

All articles Must be accessible online. Peer-reviewed academic or scientific papers of recent publication (five to ten years old).

See this website and use it as a guideline for how to make the Annotated Bibliography:

And this is an example of the annotated bibliography:

I attached my old annotated bibliography of five (5) papers with my adviser comments in the last page. It was not that good, but you can take a look.

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EMERGENCY PREPAREDNESS FOR CHILDREN 1 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). (2018). Safety and Children with Disabilities: Keeping Children with Disabilities Safe in Emergencies. This article focus on what families could do to ensure they are well prepared for emergencies, starting from homes. It includes basic necessities and additional preparation that may be needed while planning for emergencies for children with disabilities. For example, make a plan, get a kit and most important is being informed so as to make conversant decisions. Chang, A., Hsu, E., & Donmez, A. M. (2017). Using Mind Mapping Technology for Personal Preparedness Planning. Prehospital and Disaster Medicine, 32(S1), S17S17. In this research, Chang and Donmez (2017) attempt to explain how technology can be used in emergency preparedness using the concept of mind-mapping. In this technique, a visual spatial perspective is designed that is aimed at aiding those involved in the entire exercise on how to appropriately plan their activities in the emergency shelters. The software used in such scenario would then point out loopholes in the planning exercise and therefore provide the involved personnel with a better chance of improving their preparation plans. This study has been found to be effective since it provides an explanation on how technology can be appropriately used in the overall presence of ensuring the well-being of minors during emergency situations. EMERGENCY PREPAREDNESS FOR CHILDREN 2 Peek, L. (2008). Children and disasters: Understanding vulnerability, developing capacities, and promoting resilience—An introduction. Children Youth and Environments, 18(1), 1-29. In her publication, Peek discusses the role played by children in the overall preparedness exercise. This discussion is based on the fact that as much as the parents play a crucial role in the overall process, involving their children also adds to the efficiency of the preparedness. The article encourages the caregivers to provide more resources to children on the various threats that they may face, encouraging them to take part in the exercise and to offer all rounded support among many others. Such involvement would then imply that the students will have sufficient prior mental and physical power on how to conduct themselves in the emergency shelters. The article is therefore significant because it explains the active roles that children play in the overall emergency preparedness process. Peek, L., & Stough, L. M. (2010). Children with disabilities in the context of disaster: A social vulnerability perspective. Child development, 81(4), 1260-1270. Peek and Stough attempt to explain how children with various forms of disabilities tend to be exposed to various threats following or even during disasters. In their article, they undertake a comparison between children without disabilities and those with disabilities in terms of how they carry on with their lives following various disasters. Their studies prove that those living with disabilities are at a higher risk of being affected mentally or physically following a given disaster as compared to those living without disabilities. At the end of their study, Peek EMERGENCY PREPAREDNESS FOR CHILDREN 3 and Stough propose that special attention should be provided to children with disabilities in such shelters during periods of emergency to ensure that they are under minimal risks of being faced by psychological or physical challenges in the future. This study is significant in the sense that it provides an insight on how psychology plays an important role in the emergency preparedness of children in a shelter. Wolf-Fordham, S., Curtin, C., Maslin, M., Bandini, L., & Hamad, C. D. (2015). Emergency preparedness of families of children with developmental disabilities: what public health and safety emergency planners need to know. Journal of emergency management (Weston, Mass.), 13(1), 7. In this research, Wolf-Fordham et al conducts a survey aimed at understanding how wellprepared various families are in terms of the safety of children with disabilities during emergencies. The research was based on eleven recommended steps which a parent or guardian had to conduct to ensure that they are well prepared for a disaster. Through the only survey conducted, a total of 314 parents were asked to categorize themselves in terms of their preparedness in assuring the safety of their dependents. The study however revealed that more than half of the stipulated measurements had not been taken into account by a large portion of parents, including those that had categorized themselves as well prepared. The study also identified that most parents and guardians agreed on the significance of training in improving their preparedness. This article is significant in providing statistical data on the status of emergency preparedness among parents in the society. EMERGENCY PREPAREDNESS FOR CHILDREN 4 Instructor comments: Your formatting and notations appear to be reasonable for this first exercise, though perhaps a little brief, and lacking evidence or rich critical analysis. More of a descriptive annotation is demonstrated. Your first source is a governmental mass communication message, rather than a truly academic article; it provided recommendations based on theory and experience derived from other scholarly works. Chang, Hsu, & Donmez (2017) is an intriguing annotation, though I am a tad confused. Ming Mapping can provide the visual-spatial perspective you cite, but unless there is a linked artificial intelligence (AI) or expert system, it is still the humans that need to perceive the gaps. I fail to see the evidence of effectiveness from multiple planning/practice/testing evolutions demonstrated in your notes. Peek (2008) appears to be a stab at an expert opinion or recommendation. It may be reasonable, but again your notation gives me nothing to base my faith on its effectiveness. Peek & Stough (2010) may be a stronger document for your use, though the minimal details of the study component are not present. Many questions remain about the methods of their theoretical foundation, observations, and conclusions. Wolf-Fordham, Curtin, Maslin, Bandini, & Hamad (2015) appears to me to be your best find from a research analysis perspective, to spark your proposal.
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Explanation & Answer



Disaster Management Research Hypothesis Statement
Student’s Name
Professor’s Name




Research Question: Physically able children, as well as children with special needs, have to
learn about emergency preparedness during disasters. The research question is how well are the
parents prepared to handle disasters? Are they trained and supported to develop a family
emergency plan?
Hypothesis: There is a significant gap of knowledge in both the children and families
concerning emergency preparedness. Teachers also lack relevant skills which they can share with
children about emergency preparedness.
If parents, teachers, and children fail to have adequate information about what they
should do during disasters, then, it is hypothesized that this might increase harm on children.
Children with special needs are more likely to suffer when compared to physically abled children
due to mobility issues, anxiety, and communication challenges. Overall, death rates of children
during disasters are alarming. Also, the severe injuries that children incur interfere with their
growth and development. A systematic review of previous studies provides adequate information
concerning emergency preparedness.
Back, E., Cameron, C., & Tanner, T. (2009). Children and Disaster Risk Reduction:
Taking stock and moving forward. Children in a Changing Climate Research,
UNICEF, p20.
The authors of this article emphasize that children should be safe in high-risk
areas that are prone to disasters such as Kansas, Bolivia, and Zimbabwe. The authors
point out that emergency preparedness can only be achieved with disaster risk reduction
programs that are child-led. In this study, the researchers used case studies to demonstrate
how the awareness of preparation in initiatives like educative forums and good hygiene
practices prevent disasters like disease epidemics from occurring. The use of real-life



illustrations in this research article enhances its credibility, and this might be an
encouragement to parents and communities that disaster reduction is manageable through
proper preparation.
Boon, H. J., Brown, L. H., Tsey, K., Speare, R., Pagliano, P., Usher, K., & Clark, B. (2011).
School Disaster Planning for Children with Disabilities: A Critical Review of the
Literature. International Journal of Special Education, 26(3), 223-237.
In this article, the researchers are addressing academic institutions and the
governments concerning emergency planning disasters. The researchers have established
that there is leniency in the development and implementation of emergency preparedness
on climate changes in schools. To test the readiness of schools in the scope of disaster
planning, the researchers performed a critical review of related literature. The findings
showed ...

This is great! Exactly what I wanted.


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