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The Sand Creek massacre (also known as the Chivington massacre, the Battle of Sand Creek or the massacre of Cheyenne Indians) was an atrocity in the American Indian Wars that occurred on November 29, 1864, when a 700-man force of Colorado Territory Militia attacked and destroyed a peaceful village of Cheyenne and Arapaho in south-eastern Colorado Territory, killing and mutilating an estimated 70–163 Indians, about two-thirds of whom were women and children. The location has been designated the Sand Creek Massacre National Historic Site and is administered by the National Park Service.
The Battle of the Little Bighorn, known to Lakota as the Battle of the Greasy Grass and commonly referred to as Custer's Last Stand, was an armed engagement between combined forces of the Lakota, Northern Cheyenne and Arapaho tribes, against the seventh Cavalry Regiment of the United States Army. The battle, which occurred June 25–26, 1876, near the Little Bighorn River in eastern Montana Territory was the most prominent action of the Great Sioux War of 1876.
The Wounded Knee Massacre (officially Battle of Wounded Knee) occurred on December 29, 1890, near Wounded Knee Creek on the Lakota Pine Ridge Indian Reservation in the U.S. state of South Dakota. On the day before, a detachment of the U.S. 7th Cavalry Regiment accepted Spotted Elk’s band of Miniconjou Lakota and 38 Hunkpapa Lakota near Porcupine Butte and escorted them five miles westward (8 km) to Wounded Knee Creek, where they made camp.
The Fetterman Fight, also known as the Fetterman Massacre or Battle of the Hundred Slain, was a battle during Red Cloud’s War on December 21, 1866, between the Lakota, Cheyenne and Arapaho Indians and soldiers of the United States army. All 81 men were killed by the Indians. It was, at the time, the worst military disaster ever suffered by the U.S. on the Great Plains. The battle led to an Indian victory and the withdrawal of the United States from the war.
The Red River War was a military campaign launched by the United States Army in 1874 to remove the Comanche, Kiowa, Southern Cheyenne and Arapaho Native American tribes from the Southern Plains and forcibly relocate them to reservations in Indian territory. Lasting only a few months, the war saw several army columns crisscross the Texas Panhandle in an effort to locate, harass and capture highly mobile Indian bands. Most of the engagements were small skirmishes in which neither side suffered many casualties. The war wound down over the last few months of 1874 as fewer and fewer Indian bands had the strength and supplies to remain in the field. Though the last significantly sized group did not surrender until mid-1875, the war marked the end of free roaming Indian populations on the Southern Plains.
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