Running head: SUMMARY
Virginia Valain is the author of the book Why so Low? The Advancement of Women. In
this book, she addresses matters that affect women in their endeavor to achieve equal treatment,
equal opportunities as their fellow male counterparts. In this society, men are given a higher
rating in jobs assignments, career choices, and job opportunities while the woman is underrated.
The author describes the discrimination through sociology, biology, psychology, and economics.
The term a glass ceiling has been used to illustrate the situation where women are not allowed to
the top by some invisible factors which are not being eliminated any time in the future.
Chapter 1: Gender Schemas at Work
Gender schemas result in biases that give men an advantage while disadvantaging
women. Gender schemas are prototypes that provide a specific way of handling matters. They
influence people’s perception that men are better in their professions than females. This results in
a silent female species which in the event of a meeting prefers to be silent rather than be hurt
when her comments are ignored.
An example is given of a laboratory experiment given to some college students. They
were given photographs containing various people and asked to guess their height concerning a
quantifiable item like a door or a desk. The photos had a match of one male and a female of the
same height. However due to the perception of male superiority the students gave the women
lesser estimates than they were.
Gender Schemas exceptions and fairness
Gender schemas are first taught to young children in their early development, in the toys
they possess, the duties they are given. They influence the division of labor where men are seen
fit for great courses like engineering while women are better at home taking care of their
families. A woman is expected to focus on competence and ignore femininity to qualify for a job
yet a man is not treated in the same way.
Chapter 2: Gender begins and continues at home
Turning babies into boys and girls
A child’s gender is used as a judging measure and a pacesetter for them. Adults define a
child based on their sex and derive a conclusion of their behavior and physical features. Parents
have a way of determining a boy from a girl starting with their clothes, colors, hair length, and
verbal descriptions. They judge the infants from the way they cry, their alertness and even define
their future careers and behavior.
Not just a baby
Parents take care of their kids according to their gender when they administer more
physical punishment on boys than girls, treat girls with independency more than boys, guide
boys to masculine activities while girls to less physical feminine activities.
Cognition of Gender
Parents are unaware of their gender-based treatment. They encourage gender-appropriate
behavior in their actions and the manner they handle the children. The reasons for this include;
themselves are not aware of the level of gender discrimination they have been subjected to in
their lives; they believe they are responding to each child’s behavior personalities.
Inequity at home
Sexual division of labor at home is explained by the following reasons; equity is seen
applicable in the workplace but not at home, both men and women have gone through that type
of work system since their childhood, and thus they live with it. Also, men tend to compare
themselves with other male counterparts and women their fellow l...
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