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Physical Geology, GLY-1010
Assignment Chapter 8: Deformation and Metamorphism
Understand the concepts of confining and differential stress (compression, tension, and
Understand the difference between brittle and plastic deformation
Acquire criteria for identifying basic types of folds and faults
Understand the concept of metamorphism and their associated physical and chemical
Understand the difference between contact and regional metamorphism, and contrast the
different conditions of pressure and temperature at which they occur.
Understand and identify the geological context for different types of metamorphism.
Complete the following assignment and upload it to Canvas before the corresponding deadline.
Watch the videos posted on Canvas and read chapter 8 of your textbook before completing the
activities. The activities are based on materials by professors Katryn Wiese (City College of San
Francisco) and Steven Earle (BC Open Textbook Project).
Pre-Class Activity: Activity A, Deformation-Basic Concepts
1) What is yield point or elastic limit? What does it mean?
A yield point or elastic limit refers to the property of a material known as stress whereby that
material start deforming in plastic form.
2) Read the following table and provide examples of solids that display each of the mentioned
types of deformation at surface conditions:
Elastic: Rubber band
Brittle: Titanium alloys, hardened steel
Plastic/Ductile: Silly Putty,
3) According to the table and you textbook, which factors control the deformation style in
Temperature, rock type, the confining pressure, and time.
4) Rank the following materials according to their mechanical strength on surface
conditions. How do the rocks in the list behave if the temperature increases? How do they
compare to the strength of the asthenosphere in the upper mantle?
gypsum, quartz sandstone, shale
Answer: granite, quartz sandstone, gypsum, shale, salt.
Increasing the temperature compromises the strength of the rocks. Concerning the comparison
between the strength of the rocks in asthenosphere in the upper mantle, the strength of the rocks
will reduce considering high temperatures.
Pre-Class Activity B: Brittle Deformation. For each deformed block below:
1. Draw arrows parallel and on both sides of fault plane to indicate relative motion on the
2. If a dip-slip fault, label han...