GLY-1010 Assignment Chapter 8: Deformation and Metamorphism

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Assignment Chapter 8: Deformation and Metamorphism

OBJECTIVES

  • Understand the concepts of confining and differential stress (compression, tension, and shear).
  • Understand the difference between brittle and plastic deformation
  • Acquire criteria for identifying basic types of folds and faults
  • Understand the concept of metamorphism and their associated physical and chemical processes.
  • Understand the difference between contact and regional metamorphism, and contrast the different conditions of pressure and temperature at which they occur.
  • Understand and identify the geological context for different types of metamorphism.

Physical Geology, GLY-1010 Michael Hwanampe ___________________________ Assignment Chapter 8: Deformation and Metamorphism OBJECTIVES • • • • • • Understand the concepts of confining and differential stress (compression, tension, and shear). Understand the difference between brittle and plastic deformation Acquire criteria for identifying basic types of folds and faults Understand the concept of metamorphism and their associated physical and chemical processes. Understand the difference between contact and regional metamorphism, and contrast the different conditions of pressure and temperature at which they occur. Understand and identify the geological context for different types of metamorphism. INSTRUCTIONS Complete the following assignment and upload it to Canvas before the corresponding deadline. Watch the videos posted on Canvas and read chapter 8 of your textbook before completing the activities. The activities are based on materials by professors Katryn Wiese (City College of San Francisco) and Steven Earle (BC Open Textbook Project). Pre-Class Activity: Activity A, Deformation-Basic Concepts 1) What is yield point or elastic limit? What does it mean? 2) Read the following table and provide examples of solids that display each of the mentioned types of deformation at surface conditions: Elastic: Brittle: Plastic/Ductile: 3) According to the table and you textbook, which factors control the deformation style in solid materials? 4) Rank the following materials according to their mechanical strength on surface conditions. How do the rocks in the list behave if the temperature increases? How do they compare to the strength of the asthenosphere in the upper mantle? Salt, granite, gypsum, quartz sandstone, shale Pre-Class Activity B: Brittle Deformation. For each deformed block below: 1. 2. 3. Draw arrows parallel and on both sides of fault plane to indicate relative motion on the two sides If a dip-slip fault, label hanging wall and footwall; If a strike-slip fault, indicate if right or left lateral Indicate fault type (name). Indicated stress type and draw arrows on outside of block to indicate directions In-Class Activity C: Brittle deformation Which type of faults are shown on the following picture (Moab, Utah), draw arrows close to the main fault plains showing the relative movement of the blocks. Indicate stress type (compression, tension, shear). Outcrop at Moab, Utah. Picture: T.Gaona Post-Class Activity D: Ductile deformation Download, print, build and photograph the following models available on the following links: https://www.fault-analysis-group.ucd.ie/papermodels/models/syncline_anticline.html https://www.fault-analysis-group.ucd.ie/papermodels/models/plunging_syncline_anticline.html Before taking the photographs, label the anticline and syncline structures, and number the beds from oldest to youngest (use #1 for the oldest bed). Model 1 Model 2 Post-Class Activity E: Ductile Deformation Identify the types and style of folding shown on the following pictures. Draw and label the axes of anticlines and synclines: Folded Carbonates flysch in Basque Country, France. Photo credit: Thibault Cavailhes (http://www.geologyin.com/) “Pico Cilindro”, Spanish Pyrenees (Aragon), 3,328 meters above sea level. Hint: the beds in the center of the structure are the oldest. Pre-Class Activity F: Types of Metamorphism a) What is metamorphism? b) What are the boundaries of metamorphism? Compare the conditions of T, P, and depth for diagenesis, metamorphism and partial melting. c) What is a migmatite? d) The photo below shows a sample of garnet-mica schist from the island of Syros (Greece). The large reddish crystals are garnet, and the surrounding light colored rock is dominated by muscovite mica. The Euro coin is 23 mm in diameter. Assume that the diameters of the garnets increased at a rate of 1 mm per million years. Based on the approximate average diameter of the garnets visible, estimate how long this metamorphic process might have taken. e) Circle the correct P/T/Fluid conditions of these metamorphic environments: Pre-Class Activity G: Metamorphic textures Sketch and explain the difference between non-foliation, foliation and lineation in metamorphic rocks. Indicate the type of metamorphism in which they most likely occur (contact, regional). Lineation (sketch below) Foliation (sketch below) Non-foliation Pre-Class and In-Class Activity H: Classification of Metamorphic Rocks a) Match each description (1-8) to the correct rock type (a-h): b) Predict what is going to happen to mudstone or shale as the degree of regional metamorphism increases. Look for pictures of rocks on the internet displaying such evolution. c) Predict what happen to basalt as it goes through changes of pressure and temperature in a subduction zone. Look for pictures in the internet displaying such evolution. Look for pictures of rocks on the internet displaying such evolution. d) What is serpentine? What is its parent rock? In which conditions does it form? e) Which type of rock would result from regional metamorphism of coal, sandstone, and limestone? f) This diagram shows a pluton that has intruded into a series of sedimentary rocks. What type of metamorphic rock would you expect to see at each location: a, b, and c? Earth materials are the building blocks of our society. This assignment is intended to make you aware of that. A Pre-Class activity: Show the locations of metals, non-metals, and noble gases on the following sketch of the periodic table. Label the columns and rows. Explain the significance of the rows and columns depicted in the periodic table. What is the meaning of the atomic number of an element? How does the atomic number increases across the periodic table? B. Pre-Class activity: What are isotopes? provide examples. C.In-Class Activity: An atom has an atomic number of 19 and an atomic mass of 39. Based on this information, answer the following questions: how many protons does it have? how many neutrons does it have? how many valence electrons does it have? what is its symbol/name? D. Pre-Class activity:Sketch a water molecule and explain why it has polarity. How can a molecule of NaCl be dissolved in water? (sketch) E.In-Class Activity: Indicate for each of these substances whether or not it is a mineral. If not, indicate why not: Gold, Glass, Sugar, Salt, Ice, Plastic. F..After Class Activity: Explain and sketch how silicon-oxygen tetrahedra link in five different geometries to produce five silicate mineral groups. Provide examples of minerals belonging to each silicate group. G.After Class Activity: List the most important chemical elements and /or minerals used to build the following items. Which are the properties that make those materials/elements to be preferred for such uses?. Use the information provided in chapter 2 of your textbook, as well as the information provided on the following website: http://elements.wlonk.com/index.htm (Links to an external site.) Links to an external site. 1) Your cellphone and its touch-screen 2) Computer and electric car batteries 3) Microchips 4) Solar panels 5) The drywall and glass windows of an apartment 6) The stainless steel of your home appliances 7) The concrete, bricks and roof tiles in houses 8) Plastics 9) Jet engines 10) Fertilizers H) In-Class Activity: What is the chemical formula of quartz, calcite, hematite, pyrite, gold, and copper? Which group of minerals do they belong to? What are the most common tests to differentiate calcite from quartz? I) Pre-Class activity:Describe the primary difference between covalent and ionic bonds (be specific!). The following BBC documentary will provide you with further information on the use of minerals and rare metals in technology: Super Elements BBC Documentary 2017 Rare Earth Metals Documentary Super Materials

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Link to the BBC program website (Links to an external site.) Links to an external site. J) After Class Activity: Match the description to the name of the correct mineral Answer Description to match to correct mineral 1 3-D framework silicate. H=7; often clear or white; conchoida 2 Family of sheet silicates that display 1 direction of platy clea 3 Fe and Mg-rich, dark chain silicates with 2 cleavage directio 4 Fe and Mg-rich, green silicate, single silicon-oxygen tetrahe 5 Light-colored salty m ineral found in sedimentary evaporate 6 Light-colored carbonate that efferveces in hydrochloric acid 7 Metallic and nonmetallic luster. Dark red-brown streak 8 Metallic luster. Brassy yellow color. Cubic form. Often mista 9 Metallic luster. High density mineral (8). Silver with cubic fo 10 Metallic luster. No cleavage. Attracted to a magnet 11 Greasy luster. Soft: fingernail scratches. Leaves streak on m 12 Multi-colored mineral with four cleavage directios and trian 13 Opaque, hardeness of 1, metamorphic silicate, soapy feelin 14 Red dodecahedron-shaped silicate (G=7), usually in high gra 15 Three-dimensional framework silicate. Twinning of exsoluti 16 Transparent/translucent sulfate (hardness=2), evaporite. Fo Objectives: • Understand the basic principles of the theory of plate tectonics. • Describe and provide examples of the types of plate boundaries. • Understand how plate tectonics controls the distribution of oceans and continents, Earth’s topography and bathymetry, areas of deformation, and areas of vulcanism and magma production. Complete before Thursday class: 1. Sketch, label, and explain an oceanic divergent boundary (mid-ocean ridge). Provide examples of this kind of plate boundary. 2. Sketch, label, and explain how the three types of convergent boundaries operate (ocean-ocean, ocean-continent, continent-continent). Provide examples of this kind of plate boundary. 3. Sketch, label, and explain the motion of transform faults. Provide examples of this kind of plate boundary. Complete after Thursday class: 1. List your dream vacation destination and explain its tectonic setting: ◦ In which tectonic plate is your dream vacation spot located? ◦ If your vacation spot is located in the middle of a tectonic plate? identify the plate's boundaries. What is the origin of the volcanoes if they are present? ◦ Is your vacation spot close to a plate boundary? which tectonic plates are involved in such boundary? what type of plate boundary is interpreted? which features do you find that allows you to determine the type of tectonic boundary?

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Fleming51
School: Duke University

Hello, please check the final paper uploaded. Looking forward to working with you again.

Physical Geology, GLY-1010

Michael Hwanampe

___________________________
Assignment Chapter 8: Deformation and Metamorphism
OBJECTIVES


Understand the concepts of confining and differential stress (compression, tension, and
shear).



Understand the difference between brittle and plastic deformation



Acquire criteria for identifying basic types of folds and faults



Understand the concept of metamorphism and their associated physical and chemical
processes.



Understand the difference between contact and regional metamorphism, and contrast the
different conditions of pressure and temperature at which they occur.



Understand and identify the geological context for different types of metamorphism.

INSTRUCTIONS
Complete the following assignment and upload it to Canvas before the corresponding deadline.
Watch the videos posted on Canvas and read chapter 8 of your textbook before completing the
activities. The activities are based on materials by professors Katryn Wiese (City College of San
Francisco) and Steven Earle (BC Open Textbook Project).
Pre-Class Activity: Activity A, Deformation-Basic Concepts
1) What is yield point or elastic limit? What does it mean?
A yield point or elastic limit refers to the property of a material known as stress whereby that
material start deforming in plastic form.

2) Read the following table and provide examples of solids that display each of the mentioned
types of deformation at surface conditions:

Examples
Elastic: Rubber band
Brittle: Titanium alloys, hardened steel
Plastic/Ductile: Silly Putty,
3) According to the table and you textbook, which factors control the deformation style in
solid materials?
Temperature, rock type, the confining pressure, and time.
4) Rank the following materials according to their mechanical strength on surface
conditions. How do the rocks in the list behave if the temperature increases? How do they
compare to the strength of the asthenosphere in the upper mantle?
gypsum, quartz sandstone, shale
Answer: granite, quartz sandstone, gypsum, shale, salt.

Salt, granite,

Increasing the temperature compromises the strength of the rocks. Concerning the comparison
between the strength of the rocks in asthenosphere in the upper mantle, the strength of the rocks
will reduce considering high temperatures.
Pre-Class Activity B: Brittle Deformation. For each deformed block below:
1. Draw arrows parallel and on both sides of fault plane to indicate relative motion on the
two sides
2. If a dip-slip fault, label han...

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