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i was not allowed to use examples listed this is my what my professor sent me ".Did you read the announcement or listen to seminar week 7? It was clearly discussed to NOT choose UTI and osteoporosis together as I asked students to think of a topic on their own, not the example. I would like you to modify your paper and re submit it. You can choose one of the examples (UTI, osteoporoais) but then choose a different topic of interest to you with it. Resubmit by Tuesday please and will still only be 10% late deduction."

Thanks,

Beth

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Running head: HEALTH PROMOTION, CHRONIC AND ACUTE ILLNESS Health Promotion, Chronic and Acute Illness Institution Affiliation Name 1 HEALTH PROMOTION, CHRONIC AND ACUTE ILLNESS 2 Introduction Healthy bodies are an essential aspect of human life, and all care and caution must be taken to ensure that this is not compromised. Promoting a healthy lifestyle is not an easy task as it requires the coordination of all sectors ranging from protective and curative. The complexity of an illness or disorder inspires the approach to be used in most cases, and this becomes the foundation of wellbeing for a majority of human beings. The complex nature of the human body has over the years prompted specialists to be birthed all with the sole aim of focusing on the bodies of women. According to the American Medical Association, most infections, and ailments affect women as a result of their engagement in reproductive activities. Promotion of healthy lifestyles for women is one approach that can be used to reduce the impact of most of these infections either acute or chronic. Screening, diagnosis, and management is the prerequisite in achieving the goal of healthy women globally, better enough, combining traditional approaches and modern approaches could work the magic in reducing the numbers of women in pain with a considerable margin. Women Health Issues Understanding the cause and situations leading to the women issues is the closest way to finding the cure and its management. Many problems are affecting modern women, and thus in-depth analysis is required to differentiate them. The symptoms and the effects could be used to distinguish them however this is not the most elegant approach since two or more issues could present the same symptoms and effects on the patients. Urinary Tract Infection (UTI) is prevalent among women with one out of possible two being at the risk of having the HEALTH PROMOTION, CHRONIC AND ACUTE ILLNESS 3 infection. Worse enough most women tend to have it at repeat times and thus showing the need for attention (Flores-Mireles et al., 2015). Osteoporosis, on the other hand, is a chronic issue that tends to affect the elderly population especially when their bone structures are weak and not able to support even light pressure like sneezing or light bumps. Biologically women tend to have smaller and thinner bones, and this becomes a weakness when they reach menopause as the body produces little or no estrogen (Khadilkar, & Mandlik, 2015). Outline of the Issues Osteoporosis is caused by the inefficiencies caused by the female body especially in the production of the hormone estrogen. The onset of menopause in women reduces the production of estrogen which in return leads to reduced protection and strengthening of the bones. The diminished production of the hormone slowly leads to deterioration of the quality of the bones and thus leading them to become brittle and fragile (Khadilkar, & Mandlik, 2015). Osteoporosis leads to the affected individuals growing weak especially at their joints and could lead to fractures from simple exercises. According to recent research by the American Medical Association close to 10 million Americans are affected by while close to 50 million have a low bone density (Tandogdu & Wagenlehner, 2016). Three-quarters of those with low bone density develop osteoporosis in the later stages, and the majority of these are women. In every two women, one is believed to have the condition while 1 in every four men is affected by the issue. 60% of the patients are above the age of 50 years, and this is proof that it affects those approaching old age (Kanis et al., 2019). Depending on the nature of osteoporosis individuals might be affected by severe cases of kidney failure, anorexia nervosa and bulimia, extensive liver impairment and Cushing's disease. The greatest HEALTH PROMOTION, CHRONIC AND ACUTE ILLNESS 4 undoing is that the treatment process might be costly and complex and therefore it is always advisable to prevent it before it becomes imminent in the body (Thulkar, 2016). Urinary Tract Infection Urinary Tract Infection is caused by bacteria like E. coli especially in cases when women clean themselves after using the washroom in the wrong way, i.e., from back to the front. In most cases, bacteria from the anal section of a woman’s body can reach the urethra. The nature of the urethra allows the bacteria to get to the bladder and in some cases to the kidneys. In rare cases, the infection is passed on from one person to the other during sexual intercourse (Tandogdu & Wagenlehner, 2016). The infection is prevalent as studies reveal that four out of 10 women have the possibility of at least 1 episode of the infection roughly by the age of 25 years old. In the global context, almost half of all women will experience at least 1 case of Urinary Tract Infection in their lifetime. Urinary Tract Infection has an impact on the kidneys, the bladder, the urethra and it could lead to permanent kidney damage, recurrent infections, and sepsis (Aydin et al., 2015). Health Promotion and Screening Screening for Urinary Tract infection should be done continually to reduce the chances of getting it. In the case of UTI, it is essential to understand that the symptoms could at times not be felt and this does not guarantee the absence of the causative agent (Aydin et al., 2015). Women are also advised to maintain hygiene and caution, especially when cleaning the area surrounding the genitals and the anus. The discovery of the infection in the body should be HEALTH PROMOTION, CHRONIC AND ACUTE ILLNESS 5 addressed with immediate effect to hinder it from spreading to the urethra and possibility of reinfection (Tandogdu & Wagenlehner, 2016). Osteoporosis, on the other hand, requires a more elaborate approach to screening and its reduction. Testing to understand the quality of bones and the bone cover is essential as women age. Based on the results of the screenings women should be provided with sufficient bone-building nutrients and weight-bearing exercises in a bid to make the bones and the cells stronger (Thulkar, 2016). Most practitioners advise women to focus on building strong bones in the first thirty years of their life. Maintaining healthy lifestyles is also a prerequisite for overcoming osteoporosis in a majority of women. Avoiding situations or behaviors that might compromise the quality and strengths of the bones or affect the ability of the body to produce enough estrogen in the early years is discouraged (Kanis et al., 2019). Diagnostic Tests and Laboratories Diagnostic testing for osteoporosis includes a Bone Mineral Density test (BMD), the testing process is done with the Dual-energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DXA) that provides figures and results for bone mass. Depending on the nature and stage of osteoporosis tests for hormone replacement therapy could be conducted on the patient (Kanis et al., 2019). The treatment aims to reduce bone loss, and therefore this might require individuals to have the right levels of hormones in their bodies to avoid pressurizing it. Nutritional supplementation and advice might also be offered on the patients depending on the extent of osteoporosis. The minimum set conditions for more in-depth diagnostic testing must be met to avoid the wrong results (Thulkar, 2016). HEALTH PROMOTION, CHRONIC AND ACUTE ILLNESS 6 In the regards of Urinary Tract Infection (UTI), practitioners will be required to share the nature of their lifestyles and how they focus on hygiene. Sexual partners might also be expected to be present in case it has been spread by way of sexual activity. The patients might be called upon to cooperate and be observative especially when they pass urine or engage in sexual activities (Aydin et al., 2015). Risk factors like certain types of birth control and menopause should also be checked into to ascertain what could be the source of infection correctly. Lastly, depending on the nature of the problem, urine tests might be conducted to verify the presence or absence of E. coli. Treatment and Management Modalities The treatment and management of UTI are simple and basic. The first step is to ensure that hygiene is checked to ensure that it does not reoccur again. Drinking large quantities of water leads to frequent urinating, and this discourages the bacteria from thriving (McLellan & Hunstad, 2016). Cleaning from front to back reduces the chances of the bacteria spreading to the vagina or the urethra. Developing the habit of emptying the bladder soon after intercourse helps in flushing away the bacteria. Women are encouraged to change their birth control methods especially those that could promote bacterial growth. Management of UTI is more behavioral and lifestyle change while the treatment can be done by using antibiotics (FloresMireles et al., 2015). Osteoporosis is a chronic issue emanating from the inability of the body to consistently produce strong bones can be managed by ensuring that physical exercises are part of a woman's lifestyle. Medical practitioners can prescribe Estrogen Therapy (ET) or Estrogen with Progesterone Hormone Therapy (EPHT) with the aim of countering the deficits and imbalances HEALTH PROMOTION, CHRONIC AND ACUTE ILLNESS in estrogen production (Thulkar, 2016). Eating disorders like bulimia should be controlled as they could lead to weaker and thinner bones as one age. Dual-energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DXA) tests should also be done to understand the extent to which corrective measures are required (Compston et al., 2016). The process is vital in helping manage the issue before it becomes unmanageable. Lastly, adopting good lifestyles can help protect one’s bones from weakening and thus reduce the chances of getting osteoporosis (Kanis et al., 2019). Patient Education and Follow Up Patient follow up is essential as it ensures that the management of the issues is progressing in the right way. In the case of osteoporosis, follow up is only to provide that individuals have a good lifestyle that does not compromise the strength of the bones (Compston et al., 2016). Follow up should also be done on what they eat and the exercises they engage in. Patients with hormone therapy should be kept under watch to ensure that it does not negatively affect other processes in the bodies. Follow up for UTI patients should be done to ensure that they adhere to a healthful lifestyle and at the same time to ensure that patients avoid causative factors and agents that could lead to reinfection. Completing the antibacterial doses is also important as it helps facilitate the management of the infection (Aydin et al., 2015, Flores-Mireles et al., 2015). Health screening and promotion should become a way of life to reduce the cases and spread awareness to the rest of the women. Women should, therefore, be informed of facilities near them that can be used as screening and information centers. Traditional and Non-Traditional Treatment Options 7 HEALTH PROMOTION, CHRONIC AND ACUTE ILLNESS 8 Traditional treatment options for Urinary Tract Infections include getting more sensitive to personal hygiene especially for the areas that could harbor the bacteria. Lifestyle change like drinking large quantities of water can discourage growth of the bacteria. Taking cranberry juice is also believed to be a solution to overcoming UTI (Aydin et al., 2015). Traditional methods are cheap, effective and easy to implement. Most patients prefer traditional methods as they are effective in reducing future scenarios. Non-traditional methods of treating Urinary tract Infections include antibiotics like Trimethoprim, Ceftriaxone and Macrodantin and Vaginal Estrogen Therapy (VET) for postmenopausal women. However non-traditional ways are useful, it should be noted that they should be used after the bacteria has been flushed out entirely from the body (Aydin et al., 2015). Non-traditional treatment methods for osteoporosis include hormones therapy and the use of bisphosphonates like Fosamax and Actonel. The traditional methods include adopting good lifestyles, healthy eating and physical exercises (Thulkar, 2016). The traditional methods are slow in bringing change and should be chosen from the start as they are for the long-term results. Traditional methods are preferred as they do not have any adverse effects on a patient’s body. The non-traditional ways are useful for the short term. However, their continual use may negatively affect the performance and behavior of the body. Collaborating for Best Practices Working with other members would create a support structure for all patients to be able to recover and live a free, painless and happy life again. Creating groups and creating a peer to peer support could be critical in overcoming the issues (McLellan & Hunstad, 2016). Encouraging individuals to would be a significant step in creating standards for best practice HEALTH PROMOTION, CHRONIC AND ACUTE ILLNESS and self-awareness. The most vital step in overcoming any form of illness or sickness is by allowing individuals to accept the situation they are in but work to find a lasting solution (Compston et al., 2016). Conclusion Defeating diseases and ailments cannot be achieved by a single individual or groups of people. The situation calls for concerted efforts and goodwill surpassing individuals. Overcoming the issues affecting women will require our input from the stages of information sharing, supporting each other and encouraging each other. I believe that it is high time that governments provided enough resources to research facilities so that they can help create an almost disease-free zone for us. The truth of the matter is; nothing can be compared to a healthy body, mind, and spirit. 9 HEALTH PROMOTION, CHRONIC AND ACUTE ILLNESS 10 References Aydin, A., Ahmed, K., Zaman, I., Khan, M. S., & Dasgupta, P. (2015). Recurrent urinary tract infections in women. International urogynecology journal, 26(6), 795-804. Compston, J. E., Wyman, A., FitzGerald, G., Adachi, J. D., Chapurlat, R. D., Cooper, C., ... & LaCroix, A. Z. (2016). Increase in fracture risk following unintentional weight loss in postmenopausal women: the global longitudinal study of osteoporosis in women. Journal of Bone and Mineral Research, 31(7), 14661472. Flores-Mireles, A. L., Walker, J. N., Caparon, M., & Hultgren, S. J. (2015). Urinary tract infections: epidemiology, mechanisms of infection and treatment options. Nature reviews microbiology, 13(5), 269. Kanis, J. A., Cooper, C., Rizzoli, R., & Reginster, J. Y. (2019). European guidance for the diagnosis and management of osteoporosis in postmenopausal women. Osteoporosis International, 30(1), 3-44. Khadilkar, A. V., & Mandlik, R. M. (2015). Epidemiology and treatment of osteoporosis in women: an Indian perspective. International journal of women's health, 7, 841. McLellan, L. K., & Hunstad, D. A. (2016). Urinary tract infection: pathogenesis and outlook. Trends in molecular medicine, 22(11), 946-957. Tandogdu, Z., & Wagenlehner, F. M. (2016). Global epidemiology of urinary tract infections. Current opinion in infectious diseases, 29(1), 73-79. HEALTH PROMOTION, CHRONIC AND ACUTE ILLNESS Thulkar, J., Singh, S., Sharma, S., & Thulkar, T. (2016). Preventable risk factors for osteoporosis in postmenopausal women: Systematic review and metaanalysis. Journal of mid-life health, 7(3), 108. 11
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Running head: HEALTH PROMOTION, CHRONIC AND ACUTE ILLNESS

Health Promotion, Chronic and Acute Illness
Institution Affiliation
Name

1

HEALTH PROMOTION, CHRONIC AND ACUTE ILLNESS

2

Introduction
The complexities of human bodies require individuals to do regular check-ups on their
bodies with the aim of understanding what could be wrong with their bodies. Women are the
most affected by acute and chronic illnesses, and this calls for a more dedicated effort to help
them manage the issues affecting them. According to the World Health Organization,
empowering women means even enabling them to be able to overcome problems affecting their
bodies. Developing a framework by which to promote women's health is essential as it not only
creates a healthy generation of women but also helps them contribute positively to progress.
Assisting women to overcome acute and chronic illnesses is not only the way forward to a
healthy society, but it is also a way to help alleviate human suffering to most individuals in the
world.

Women Health Issues

Understanding the health challenges faced by women is not only the way to creating a
healthy generation, but it is also a way of promoting resilience. Management of the different
issues and finding the cure could be the only way to encouraging women to speak about issues
affecting them. The nature of women bodies requires an in-depth understanding of the diseases
and the causative agents leading to the problems. Endometriosis is described as a scenario where
the woman's uterine lining is found in her body or other body organs. In most cases,
endometriosis is usually prevalent in the lower abdomen or the pelvis but can technically appear
almost everywhere in the body (Geoffron, Legendre, Darai, & Chabbert-Buffet, 2017).
Endometriosis in women might lead to them to experience pain during sexual intercourse or their
periods and such women are usually reported to have issues with pregnancy. Acute illness for

HEALTH PROMOTION, CHRONIC AND ACUTE ILLNESS

3

women includes vaginitis which is the inflammation of the vagina that in most cases results to
discharge, itching and pain. The condition is usually caused by a change in the balance of vaginal
bacteria or infections. In some women, the reduction of estrogen levels especially after
menopause and the prevalence of some skin disorders can also lead to vaginitis. The most
common types of vaginitis include bacterial vaginosis, trichomoniasis and in other cases yeast
infections.

Outline of the Issues

Endometriosis

According to the American Medical Association, women are mostly affected by
endometriosis as a result of non-biological reasons. In the recently concluded research,
endometriosis is believed to affect between 3.5% and 9% of all women in the reproductive age
bracket. Diagnosing endometriosis requires the doctor to conduct a series of laparoscopies. In
several scenarios, women can have endom...


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