4 short answer questions

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Question 1

This paper presents a studious overview of key project success factors in the implementation of information system to business systems. Review this paper, then in your ePortfolio summarize the top two risk factors impacting the success of information systems implementation. State how you will address these potential risks in your organization. Share your workplace-based examples in Discussions.

Risk Management in Information System Projects

Question 2

This field study analyzes the challenges of managing culturally diverse and globally dispersed project teams within technology-intensive product developments. The authors discuss some significant variables managers and business leaders are faced with in establishing organizational unity. Review this paper, then in your ePortfoliosummarize the challenges in managing culturally diverse and globally dispersed project teams.

Critical Success Factors for Managing Technology Intensive Teams in the Global Enterprise

Question 3

In this paper, the authors discuss the strategic role of information technology in enhancing organizational performance with respect to both iterative adjustments and one-time overhauls. Review this paper, then in your ePortfolio summarize the factors that influence IT capabilities. Identify and describe two actions that can be taken to enhance IT capabilities in your organization. Share the two actions you identified to increase IT capabilities in Discussions.

IT Capabilities, Process-Oriented Dynamic Capabilities, and Firm Financial Performance

Question 4

In this article, Kant discusses the factors IT leaders in India should consider before transitioning their organizations from on premise data storage to cloud computing. Review this paper, then in your ePortfolio summarize the factors companies must consider before making a cloud based data resource and storage decision. Do these factors apply to your business environment? Share your workplace-based examples in Discussions.

Putting Your Enterprise Data in the Cloud? Top Considerations

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N. Denić i dr. Upravljanja rizicima projekta informacijskih sustava ISSN 1330-3651 (Print), ISSN 1848-6339 (Online) UDC/UDK 658.51.001.3:004.451 RISK MANAGEMENT IN INFORMATION SYSTEM PROJECTS Nebojša Denić, Vidoje Moračanin, Momir Milić, Zoran Nešić Original scientific paper This paper presents a studious overview of key project success factors in the implementation of information system to business systems. The paper presents the results of theoretical and practical studies, which have shown that the process of managing development of information system projects holds many problems and uncertainties in practice, which despite many improvements in the area of development methods, techniques and tools are still facing some problems and difficulties in the process of implementation of integrated information systems. Managing ERP implementation projects is associated with different specific problems, which are essentially different from the traditional information system developments, because they contain the strategic, tactical, organizational and business environment factors. Keywords: ERP, information system, project management Upravljanja rizicima projekta informacijskih sustava Izvorni znanstveni članak Ovaj članak predstavlja studiozan pregled ključnih čimbenika uspjeha projekta u provedbi informacijskog sustava u poslovnim sustavima. Članak prikazuje rezultate teorijskih i praktičnih istraživanja, koja pokazuju da proces upravljanja razvojnim projektima informacijskih sustava ima mnogo problema i neizvjesnosti u praksi, koji se unatoč brojnim poboljšanjima u području razvoja metoda, tehnika i alata još uvijek suočavaju s nekim problemima i teškoćama u procesu implementacije integriranih informacijskih sustava. Upravljanje projektima implementacije ERP (planiranja resursa poduzeća) je povezano s različitim specifičnim problemima, koji su bitno različiti od onih tradicionalnih informacijskog sustava razvoja, jer sadrže strateške, taktičke, organizacijske čimbenike te čimbenike poslovnog okruženja. Ključne riječi: ERP, informacijski sustav, upravljanje projektima 1 Introduction There are many factors and changes that occur in an increasingly competitive global business environment. The process of managing project of implementation ERP solutions to companies and business systems is a fundamental activity which in the time of global economic crisis sometimes can lead to deterioration of those systems and companies, due to the implementation failure. Some researches in the companies have shown that in the world in about 90 % of implementation projects of ERP solution the project consumes more resources than originally planned. In more than 20 % of project implementations, the same one was considered as unsuccessful. Only 30 % of companies estimated that ERP implementation was successfully completed [1]. Considering the capital investments of information system implementations to companies and the fact that many of these projects were unsuccessful, it was necessary to identify analytical tools that will determine the success of the implementation of information systems. As analytical tools critical success factors were investigated already in the seventies and eighties. At that time, the "information revolutions" were global information systems which provided the appropriate information to business managers, which were seeking appropriate solutions to easier make business decisions. Based on provided information, managers were enabled to easily perform the analysis of available information, to identify the most relevant data and based on them to make critical business decisions [2]. IT development and new software solutions are integrating information technology with a new, process-oriented business model. The technical aspects of implementation are no longer the most important elements, however, it is important to find the balance between business process design and software configuration on one hand, and corporate strategy and organizational strategy on the other hand [3]. Table 1 Critical success factors model [4] Organizational level Strategic level Support of top management Management of changes Management scope Project team Business Process Reengineering Project manager Managing projects Participation of end-users Trust between partners Appropriate strategy for implementing entire solution Tactical level Commitment to employees and consultants Good internal and external communication between project members Formalized project plan Adequate training program Elimination of systematic errors The proper function of partners Appropriate delegation of duties for project team members Proper software configuration Technological level Avoiding technically demanding adjustments Supervision and monitoring performance The choice of appropriate ERP solution and version Data transfer from old ERP solution Tehnički vjesnik 21, 6(2014), 1239-1242 1239 Risk management in information system projects N. Denić et al. In the literature there are numerous studies of eminent experts in the field of critical success factors, which play an important role in highlighting some of the most important aspects in the implementation of comprehensive integrated solutions [5÷15]. One of the studies about critical success factors is classifying them into four levels: 1) strategic, 2) tactical, 3) organization and 4) technological. Experiences show that it is very important to follow the unwritten rule that a man should learn from the mistakes of others because all experiences are important. In order to successfully complete implementation project, we need to satisfy the success of all factors within certain limits. The success, failure of some implementation project or of information system update depends on a relationship between strategic and tactical levels, how each affects the other within the area of key success factors. As proof of this theoretical study model, appropriate measurements were conducted in companies, and they show the customer satisfaction with new user interface. Feedbacks were taken from forty company users. Work mode or performance measurement mode is derived from conversations with users (approximately thirty minutes with targeted customers), filing out surveys and observation. Although the graphical user interface of the new program is quite variable, we can easily conclude that users have adapted well to its use. In fact, we can see that users were not satisfied with the use of user interface in the old ERP solution. The reason of that is that user was using the old application, only a few months before implementation of the new application. Answers and results of key users of mySAP Business Suite project are given below. Table 2 The rating of the user interface Measurement and formula X = {1, 2, 3} 1 - full knowledge, 2 - partial knowledge, 3 - user does not have knowledge Interpretation of measurement X = 1 and X = 2 Acceptable answer Type of metric scale ordinal scale Measurement type X = mark Measurement Observation of the user experience or questionnaire/survey Table 3 The significance and comparison of KFU ERP projects in the region and worldwide [4, 16] Clear objectives of strategy and of scope of introducing solution Involvement and support of top management The organization of the project team and its competences Involvement and participation of users Communication between the project team and with others in the organization Communication within the project team Training of end users Business Process Reengineering Hiring external consultants The active role of the project sponsor Transferring data from old solutions to ERP As little as possible customization of ERP to organization specifics Using the principles of project management Clear goals, strategy and scope for the implementation of solution Selection of ERP technology architecture Technical literature 2 1 3 9 7÷8 7÷8 4 5 11 13 10 15 12 6 14 Survey 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 Figure 2 User interface evaluation of a new ERP solution (1 - not mastered: 6; 2 - partially mastered: 14; 3 - fully mastered: 20) Figure 1 The rating of user-interface -myNIS We can conclude that support of the management is required through all stages of project implementation. 1240 The project must be approved by the top management in the early stages of its implementation and it needs to be in accordance with the business objectives of that company. If the top management is not directly involved Technical Gazette 21, 6(2014), 1239-1242 N. Denić i dr. in implementation of ERP solution, positive effects of the project are impossible to be expected. Company management needs to formally and publicly explain that the project has the highest priority and that they are committed to put all available company resources to that project. We have an interesting research in Computerwoche magazine [17] about difficulties in area of implementing ERP systems, which was noticed by managers (Tab. 4). Upravljanja rizicima projekta informacijskih sustava methods or they will require from the implementation / maintains team to modify the system to support their methods. That is the key moment when the ERP system may fail. It is not necessary to mention why it is not recommended to create some bigger change in ERP software. Besides the risks of software bugs and inability of standard performance software upgrade, the complete functionality of the ERP system may be compromised. Studies show that if your company has a resistance to change, the more it is likely that the process of implementation of ERP systems will fail. 3 Figure 3 Key success factors considering the conducted research in practice Table 4 What would the management change for re-introduction of the ERP system? 80 % More attention to the optimization of the process Implementation which is in accordance with 65 % monitoring company goals 60 % More attention to cooperation of business segments Introduction of the project leaders from relevant 55 % factors 50 % The simultaneous implementation of MIS 45 % Intensive education 35 % Stronger involvement of the company representatives 35 % More courageous approach to changes 30 % A better proof of effectiveness 20 % Avoiding the big-bang implementation From the above mentioned survey, we can see that the most prominent problem is the lack of attention in the optimization process. The reason is very simple, and yet many times overlooked: no matter how much the technology alone is effective, it cannot help the company in achieving their business goals if business processes are not carefully defined previously. Therefore, business processes need to be improved, decisions (about which processes should be changed or thrown away) need to be made and after that implementation of modern information technology tools can start. 2 Conclusion From the above mentioned analysis we could say that the most important key factor in the successfully managing implementation project of new ERP solution or updating existing information system is active support of the company’s top management. Also, failure to comply with established methodology has a negative impact on the efficiency and effectiveness of the investment processes as well as on economy and profitability of the business system. ERP consists of a series of best practical means of performing standard business processes. To get the most out of this software, you have to convince people in the company to accept the ways of performing business processes in a manner as described in the software. If people from different sectors-departments do not agree with the described methods, and they think their current / old methods are better, they will refuse to use the new Tehnički vjesnik 21, 6(2014), 1239-1242 References [1] Ho, C. F.; Wu W. H.; Tai, Y. M. Strategies for the adaptation of ERP systems. // Industrial management & data systems. 104, 3(2004), pp. 234-251. [2] Caralli, R. A. The Critical Success Factor Method: Establishing a Foundation for Enterprise Security Management. Pittsburgh (PA): Carnegie Mellon Software Engineering Institute, 2004. [3] Gibson, N.; Holland, C. P.; Light, B. Enterprise Resource Planning: A Business Approach to Systems Development. // 32. Annual Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences. Washington (DC): IEEE Computer Society, 1999, pp. 1-9. [4] Esteves-Sousa, J.; Pastor-Collado, J. Towards unification of critical success factors for ERP implementations. UniversitatPolitecnica de Catalunya. URL: http://www.army.mil/ArmyBTKC/docs/BIT2000.pdf. [5] Nah, F. F. H.; Lau, J. L. S.; Kuang, J. Critical factors for successful implementation of enterprise system. // Business Process Management Journal. 7, 3(2001), pp. 285-290. [6] Gunson, J.; de Basis J. P. The Place and Key Success Factors of Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) in the New Paradigms of Business Management. CRM Today. http://www.crm2day.com/library/EpFlAAAkElDCUAUBZ U.php. [7] Al-Mudimigh, A.; Zairi, M.; Al-Mashari, M. ERP software implementation: an integrative framework. // European Journal of Information Systems. 10, 4(2001), pp. 216-226. [8] Aladwani, A. M. Change management strategies for successful ERP implementation. // Business Process Management Journal. 7, 5(2001), pp. 266-278. [9] Chen, I. J. Planning for ERP systems: analysis and future trends. // Business Process Management Journal. 7, 5(2001), pp. 374-386. [10] Markus, M. L.; Axline, S.; Petrie, D.; Tanis, C. Learning from Experience with ERP: Problems Encountered and Success Achieved. Second-Wave Enterprise Resource Planning: Implementing for Effectiveness. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2003, pp. 23-55. [11] Denić, N. Menadžment informacioni sistemi, Beograd, 2010. [12] Denic, N.; Dasic, B.; Maslovara, J. Profitability of the investment project of introducing modern business information systems. // TTEM - Technics Technologies Education Management. 8, 1(2013), pp. 367-372. [13] Simunovic, K.; Simunovic, G.; Havrlisan, S.; Pezer, D.; Svalina, I. The role of ERP system in business process and education. // Tehnicki Vjesnik-Technical Gazette. 20, 4(2013), pp. 711-719. [14] Rigelhof, R. ERP Implementation Best Practices, 2003. http://educase.edu/ir/library/powerpoit/EDU03146.pps. [15] Wallace, T. F.; Kremzar, M. H. ERP: Making It Happen: The Implementers' Guide to Success with Enterprise Resource Planning. New York: John Wiley & Sons, 2001. 1241 Risk management in information system projects N. Denić et al. [16] Akkermans, H.; van Helden, K. Vicious and virtuous cycles in ERP implementation: A case study of interrelations between critical success factors. // European Journal of Information Systems. 11, 1(2002), pp. 35-46. [17] http://www.computerwoche.de/software/erp/ Authors’ addresses Nebojša Denić, PhD Faculty of Information Technology, Alfa University, Palmira Toljatija 3, 11000 Belgrade, Serbia denicnebojsa@gmail.com Vidoje Moračanin, PhD Faculty of Information Technology, Alfa University, Palmira Toljatija 3, 11000 Belgrade, Serbia vidoje.moracanin@alfa.edu.rs Momir Milić, PhD Faculty of Information Technology, Alfa University, Palmira Toljatija 3, 11000 Belgrade, Serbia Zoran Nešić, PhD Faculty of Technical Sciences Čačak University of Kragujevac 65, Svetog Save St., 32000 Čačak, Serbia E-mail: zornes2002@yahoo.com 1242 Technical Gazette 21, 6(2014), 1239-1242 Engineering Management Journal ISSN: 1042-9247 (Print) 2377-0643 (Online) Journal homepage: https://www.tandfonline.com/loi/uemj20 Critical Success Factors for Managing TechnologyIntensive Teams in the Global Enterprise Hans J. Thamhain To cite this article: Hans J. Thamhain (2011) Critical Success Factors for Managing TechnologyIntensive Teams in the Global Enterprise, Engineering Management Journal, 23:3, 30-36, DOI: 10.1080/10429247.2011.11431906 To link to this article: https://doi.org/10.1080/10429247.2011.11431906 Published online: 20 Apr 2015. Submit your article to this journal Article views: 236 Citing articles: 18 View citing articles Full Terms & Conditions of access and use can be found at https://www.tandfonline.com/action/journalInformation?journalCode=uemj20 Critical Success Factors for Managing TechnologyIntensive Teams in the Global Enterprise Hans J.Thamhain, Bentley University Abstract: The challenges of managing culturally diverse and globally dispersed project teams are examined in a field study of technology-intensive product developments. The article aims to improve the understanding of team performance in multinational project environments with implications for leadership assessment and organizational development. The results suggest that multinational team performance involves a complex set of variables related to the organizational ambience, business process, managerial tools, and most importantly, to the people in the organization. Team leaders must effectively manage relations across the entire work process, including support functions, suppliers, sponsors, and partners. Emphasis on common values and goals helps in bridging cultural and organizational differences, and in unifying the multinational team. Personal interest, pride and satisfaction with the work, professional work challenge, accomplishments, recognition, and the skill sets of the team members were identified as the strongest drivers toward unifying culturally diverse project teams and their work processes, and building a true partnership among all the contributing organizations. Keywords: Global Project Management, Team Leadership, Technology, Product Development EMJ Focus Areas: Program & Project Management, Building Engineering Management Actionable Knowledge, New Product Development T he role of project teams is expanding with accelerating globalization of our enterprises, leading to increased pressures for effective management of these multi-national teams (Snow et al., 1996; Smith and Blanck, 2002). As companies leverage their operations across national borders to take advantage of the best talent, most favorable cost, timing, and marketing position, new challenges require sophisticated skill sets from project leaders. Whether or not Yahoo! creates a new search engine, Sony develops a new laptop computer, or the World Health Organization rolls out a new information system—from medical research to computer systems, companies try to leverage their budgets and accelerate their schedules by forming alliances, consortia, and partnerships with other firms, universities, and government agencies. Furthermore, multinational teamwork is being driven by business strategy. Enterprises such as IBM, Boeing, or Microsoft have many of their product developments spread across international borders in order to optimize access to talents and markets (Armstrong, 2000; Kruglianskas and Thamhain, 2000; Manning et al., 2008; Shenhar et al., 2007). While this offers great economic benefits, it also requires sophisticated managerial skills, new work processes, and business models to achieve collaboration and integration among geographically dispersed and culturally diverse work groups (Ferrante, Green, and Forster, 2006; Groysberg and Abrahams, 2006; Martinez, 1995; Mehra et al., 2006). As a result we have gained sophisticated knowledge and substantial insight into the effects and organizational dynamics of managing project teams (Anconda and Bresman, 2007; Hackman, 2006; Keller, 2001; Thamhain, 2008). Yet companies still struggle to run projects well in a global enterprise setting (Salomo et al., 2010). Why Focus on Leadership and Team Environment? Obviously, the spectrum of influences to overall team performance and project success is very broad (Barczak, 1995; Gemunden, 2011; Kleinschmidt, 2011; Salomo et al., 2010); however, many prior studies that have examined project team performance in a broad organizational context s ...
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Information Technology Short Answers
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INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY SHORT ANSWERS

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Information Technology Short Answers
Introduction
To understand the role of technology in organizations today, there is a need to analyze the
risk factors impacting implementation of information systems, challenges of managing culturally
diverse project teams, actions that can be used to enhance IT capabilities, factors to consider
before implementing a cloud-based database.
Discussion
Question 1: Risk Factors Impacting Implementation of Information Systems
There are two major risk factors that affect the implementation of information systems:
(a) active support of the management; (b) and complying with the established methodology
(Denic, et al., 2014). To begin with, the management has to actively support the implementation
of the Enterprise Resource Planning project through all the steps since the management has to
ensure that it meets the business objectives and that it is explained as a high priority to the
personnel in order to ensure maximum commitment. The methodology of implementation has to
be followed as an ERP has some specific processes that have to be followed in order to ensure
maximum effic...

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