CHM2045L Inorganic Salts Present in Water Samples Project

Question Description

Lab report for project 1 : Inorganic contaminants present in water samples.

the unknown chemical was Ca(NO3)2.

minimum : 4 pages

Maximum: 10 pages

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General Chemistry I Lab Report Rubric – Project 1: Inorganic Salts Present in Water Samples Sections Sub-Sections / Descriptions Requirements Total Describe why it may be necessary to identify unknown chemicals in everyday life with specific examples. Background: A summary of a real-world example(s) and / or application(s) that affirm the importance / help introduce the chemistry of this lab. Note: Do not use the examples in the laboratory manual. If included in your laboratory report, no credit will be given. The example(s) and / or application(s) provided should demonstrate: - Research context for the problem(s) /2 and / or question(s) the experiment seeks to address. - Relate the problem to scientific theory, i.e. the qualitative/quantitative tests. - Explain how and why this research is important to conduct in the laboratory. Concepts that can be covered include, but are not limited to: Qualitative/Quantitative analysis -Solubility -Conductivity Introduction Theory: Provide an overview of the key scientific concepts / theories that explain how the experiment works. -pH -Flame test /2 -Gravimetric analysis -Volumetric analysis The overall goal of this section should be to help familiarize your readers (who may be non-scientists) with the topics you have introduced and the importance of your work. Hypothesis: A hypothesis should logically express what the researcher thinks the overall outcome of the lab should be. Objectives: The goal to be achieved at the end of each part of the experiment and a summary on how those goals will be attained. Hypothesis: From the physical properties of your unknown (texture, color, etc.), what chemical do you hypothesize your unknown to be. Remember to include your rationale for why you think your hypothesis is reasonable. Objectives: Explain the objective for each week of the experiment. - Provide a brief explanation of the investigational method you will execute for each objective. /2 The two main tasks of this section are to: Part 1 Methods: This section should contain all of the details recorded in your notebook on how the experiments were carried out. This includes numerical details such as mass, volume, temperature, reaction time, etc. Describe the exact laboratory apparatus and laboratory procedure a researcher utilized to collected empirical data. - i.e. exact masses, volumes, glassware (with sizes), chemicals, equipment, etc. Describe the process of how to analyze the collected empirical data. /2 Provide a step-by-step procedure for: -Solubility Note: Each experiment should have its own appropriate subheading. -Conductivity -pH test -Flame test -Analysis of ions The two main tasks of this section are to: Describe the exact laboratory apparatus and laboratory procedure a researcher utilized to collected empirical data. - i.e. exact masses, volumes, glassware (with sizes), chemicals, equipment, etc. Methods Part 2 Methods: See description above. /2 Describe the process of how to analyze the collected empirical data. Provide a step-by-step procedure for: -Gravimetric analysis, or -Volumetric analysis Use a table to organize the safety information for each chemical utilized during the course of the experiment. Safety: Should contain information on the chemicals used in this experiment and the necessary precautions taken when using them. There should also be information on any other physical hazards (i.e. fire, sharp objects, etc.) and the precautions you took. Please provide all the information stated below for each chemical utilized: - Chemical Name - Chemical Formula Molecular Weight Potential Hazards Safety Equipment Needed Please provide safety information on all laboratory equipment (excluding glassware) when applicable (ex. hot plate) - Equipment Name - Precautions Used /2 Part 1 Results: This section should contain all of the empirical data you obtained or calculated from the experiment you performed. Use a table to organize the empirical data you collected per trial for all the tests carried out. This includes but is not limited to: -Initial masses/volumes The data should be displayed appropriately, i.e. tabulated, graphed, etc. to make it easy for the reader to refer back to it in the corresponding discussion section. -Concentrations used/prepared /2 -Solubility -Conductivity -pH test Therefore, each table, graph, etc. should be numbered and titled appropriately. -Flame test -Analysis of ions Use a table to organize the empirical data you collected per trial for all the tests carried out. This includes but is not limited to: - Initial masses/volumes Results Part 2 Results: See description above. Calculations: Provide sample calculations for all equations used to analyze your results, even for nonobvious algebraic steps. For each type of calculation performed, this should include the mathematical formula and a sample calculation using that mathematical formula. Please number each sample calculation appropriately, to make it easier for the reader to refer to it in the corresponding discussion section. - Moles reacted Concentrations used/prepared /2 Gravimetric analysis Volumetric analysis Theoretical yield / concentrations Standard deviation Percent error Sample calculations to include are: - Dilution Formula, (M1 ∙ V1 = M2 ∙ V2) %wt. solution Preparing solutions Theoretical yield / concentrations Standard deviations Percent error /3 Discuss the results obtained in Results Part 1. Compare and contrast the theory you described in the introduction (this proves you understand the theory). Describe your data in detail, especially the vital information that will help bolster or refute your hypothesis. Part 1 Discussion: This portion of the paper should attempt to explain all of the results from the experiment in Part 1. You should also justify why certain decisions were made when carrying out the experiments (i.e. if there were options for techniques to be used, compounds to be tested, etc.). Compare the standards and your unknown so you can formulate a strong argument to prove the nature of your unknown. Does the data support your hypothesis or hypotheses, why or why not? /3 Does the scientific theory behind the experiment assist you in providing an explanation for your results? Use the values from your results to support your arguments and compare them to theoretical values if possible. Tip: Use page 37 in your lab manual to obtain literature / theoretical values for each of your tests under Supplemental Information and Online Resources. Discussion Discuss the results obtained in Results Part 2. Does the data support your hypothesis or hypotheses, why or why not? Use the values from your results to support your arguments and compare them to theoretical values if possible. Part 2 Discussion: See description above. Does the scientific theory behind the experiment assist you in providing an explanation for your results? Utilizing your calculated standard deviation and percent error values, compare the efficiency of the experimental technique you developed. /3 Sources of Error: Include any systematic and random errors that could possibly influence your results. Are your results reliable? Simply stating human error was present is not valid nor beneficial when considering how to improve your experimental methodology. - As the researcher, you need to mention Sources of Error: Discuss any major sources of error in the experiment that may have altered the experiment’s outcome. Discussion (continued) Changes to the Experiment: Discuss any changes you would make to the experiment (to reduce errors, make the experiment more practical, etc.) and explain why. the specific type of error that occurred during the experiment. Examples of appropriate sources of error are listed below but are not limited to: - Measuring errors, (i.e. chemicals) /3 - Improperly maintained equipment used during the experiment - Improper cleaning / contamination - Discuss the uncertainty of your experimental data by providing statistical analysis when appropriate, i.e. standard deviation can be referenced. Changes to the Experiment: Identify how you would alter your experimental methodology to reduce or minimize errors and increase the reproducibility of your empirical data. What was the purpose of the experiment? A goal of this section is to include a restate the experiment’s hypothesis and objectives. Conclusion In addition, a summary should be provided on whether or not your hypothesis was affirmed or denied based on your empirical data. Finally, briefly outline any major sources of error that could have given unexpected results. Did you learn anything new when you executed the experiment? How did you investigate the problem and why investigate in that specific way? What evidence did you obtain that strongly supported or refuted your hypothesis? As the researcher, after completing the experiment do are you still have any unanswered questions, i.e. is further inquiry and investigation needed, why or why not? /3 Pick a concept or a technique related to the experiment and find a recent peerreviewed scientific article. - (i.e. must have been published within the last five (5) years) Utilize a scientific search engine such as: - Google Scholar - Science Direct - Web of Science - USF Library E-Journals This section should summarize an article (published in an accredited scientific journal) that is related to the experiment that you executed in the laboratory. Research Connection You should describe the technique(s) used in the article, the motivations for performing the experiment(s), the main findings, and how these factors relate to the experiment you performed. Tip: Within your Canvas course there is a resource entitled ‘Searching the Literature for Sources’ that provides additional information on how to search the literature for appropriate research articles. When summarizing the article these are the questions you should answer: /3 What question(s) did the article address? What was / were the objective(s) of the article? What procedure(s) did they utilize to answer their proposed question(s)? What results did they collect and how did they analyze them? What were the conclusions of the experiment? Did the researchers answer their question(s) or is further inquiry and investigation needed? Any idea, concept, application etc., that did not originate from you personally must be cited. References Please utilize ACS (American Chemical Society) format and have both an in-text citation, as well as the full citation under the references heading. As a reminder, directly quoting an external source is unacceptable. You are required to paraphrase, in your own words, all cited information that appears in your laboratory report. Use ACS (American Chemical Society) citation format. All in-text citations should be cited with a superscript number and should match the appropriate cited external reference in the references section. Superscript numbers are issued based on the order they appear in the document. They are not based on the alphabetical last name of the author of the external source your citing. /3 All sections/ subsections, tables, charts, images, etc. headed appropriately. Size 12 font with Times New Roman is appropriate. An example utilizing the illustrated guidelines from the box directly to the left is written below. Use a font/ text that is agreeable to the eye (12-pt font, Times New Roman is the standard). Using the materials provided from the stockroom, the unknown sample was analyzed using the pH test…etc. In addition, gravimetric/volumetric analysis was carried out to… etc. All sections (except the results section) should be written in paragraph form. Overall Format Also, all writing should be in past tense, passive voice. Present or future tense may be used only in the Introduction. /3 Tip: On pp 60-61 of your laboratory manual, you will find additional information on general laboratory guidelines you may utilize to develop your laboratory report. Remember that the only sections allowed to be similar to your group members are the methods and results sections. Additional Information Reminder: You must submit a completed initial laboratory report to Canvas by the submission deadline for your course in order to receive the five (5) points allocated to that assignment. Partial points will not be given for incomplete initial lab reports.  Reminder: Plagiarism is unacceptable, so any form of plagiarism will result in a “0”. 40 Total Score  / 40 ...
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Final Answer


Project 1 Lab Report
Inorganic Contaminants Present in Water Samples




a) Materials
b) Procedures
c) Safety








Research Connection

Running head: PROJECT 1 LAB REPORT


Project 1 Lab Report
Inorganic Contaminants Present in Water Samples
Your First and Last Name
Your Institution



Inorganic Contaminants Present in Water Samples
The identification of poisonous and toxic substances is the subject of toxicological
chemistry, which envelops interdisciplinary science into attempting to develop a new
methodology for identifying and distinguishing poisonous and toxic substances in numerous
items. Toxins and contaminants that are found in the water, food, air and almost all around us are
mainly found through toxicology. Nevertheless, toxicology is the science that is likewise utilized
in approximating drug lethality, in recognizing poisons in crime scene investigation, and in postmortems analyses. Finding hints of synthetic substances and chemicals in the laboratory setting
from a crime scene is a true utilization of this research, as well as identifying which substance is
and the amount necessary for trying to settle a homicide. Legal medicine researchers utilize a
test, like our own used in this project, to find the unknown sample. Identifying the composition,
quality, identity and impurities of substances in question can be done by the scientist by utilizing
a chemical composition analysis test. We were given for this project a sample from a chemical
for which we directed a set of tests to distinguish the contaminant. Each test led by our research
team had a role in determining the characteristics of the unknown solid chemical that we got.
New and old concepts for the research team were used in this project. Stoichiometry,
precipitation reactions, systematic error finding were some of them. It was also decided for this
study to encompass the concepts of several tests, such as the flame test, conductivity test, ions
analysis, gravimetric analysis, titration and calculating volumes at various accuracy levels.
Another decision taken was to perform the tests on a soluble substance rather than on a solid one,
so the scientists changed the aggregation state into a solution to be able to test all the methods
listed above. The main target of this study was to distinguish the obscure substance given



utilizing a subjective investigation and to figure out which test is best to use to recognize the
unknown substance. After doing small research over photos of substances that were probably to
be involved in this study, as well as comparing it with other solids, the scientists' prediction was
that the unknown chemical given was Ca(NO3)2. From the learned and used concepts listed
above, three of them were initially performed to quickly eliminate the non-plausible hypothesis.
The flame, the pH test, and the conductivity test were the initial main focus of the research team.
The pH test measured the acidity and basicity of a given solution, the flame test was performed
to identify some of the compounds of the given chemical because each chemical has specific
colours. Finally, the substance was converted from solid state to a solution, for the conductivity
test to be properly performed, which was used to find out if the chemical is an electric conductor
or not.
Part 1
The materials used for this research project were the following: 1) conductivity meter, 2)
Bunsen burner, 3) basic laboratory glassware, including test tubes, beakers and Erlenmeyer
flasks, 4) pH meter, 5) chemicals, and 6) wire loop. The study sample was determined by the
research team based on the chemical and physical characteristics of the unknown substance. As
mentioned, four main tests were performed to narrow down which substance the unknown could
For the fire test, a metal wire circle was dunked into hydrochloric acid and flushed with
refined water, at that point secured with the unknown chemical. The colour of the fire was
observed and noted, but also as of whether the unknown liquefied (melted). The fire colours of
every one of the synthetic concoctions being contrasted with the unknown were recorded. Also,



the liquefying means of every one of the substances were likewise recorded. The softening point
could be contrasted with the temperature of the fire, for which a higher temperature would show
that the chemical will not melt.
The second test performed was the pH-metry, to identify the chemical as a neutral, acidic
or base. For that, a small measure of the unknown chemical was dissolved in refined (distilled)
water, after which a pH strip was put in the obtained arrangement. The colour it transformed was
noted and the classified into either a base, neutral or acid. The pH of every one of alternate
synthetics was inquired about, recorded, and contrasted with the unspecified substance.
Testing for solubility was the third test, where small amounts of the unspecified chemical
were place...

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