Disorder of Diabetes Mellitus
History of Diabetes Mellitus
The discovery and development of diabetes mellitus knowledge have undergone a series
of studies to the current knowledge base. The term insulin originates from a Latin word insula
that implies an island. Insulin was first discovered in 1910 by English physiologist Sir Edward
Albert Sharpey-Schafer in his study of the pancreas (American Diabetes Association). Then, in
the year 1921, a laboratory test in the University of Toronto conducted by Frederick Banting and
Charles Best led to the discovery of insulin as a substance that lowers blood sugar levels when
injected into a dog’s body. Eli Lilly and Company in 1961 discovered glucagon hormone in the
treatment for severe hypoglycemia. Due to the increasing incidence of diabetes and its
complications, scholars in the field of medicine founded the American Diabetes Association to
address the situation. In 1950, the American Dietetic Association and the US Public Health
Service designed a diet plan that classifies food based on protein, carbohydrate, fat, and calories.
In 1955, researchers find an oral medication for stimulating insulin production in the pancreas. In
1959, Solomon Berson and Rosalyn Yalow discover a method for determining insulin level in
blood. The two discovered that in some patients insulin production is not possible in their bodies
and they referred those patients as “Insulin-dependent” which is today classified as Diabetes
Type 1 and for those patients whose pancreas can produce their own insulin, they referred to
them as “Non-insulin-dependent – this is the group whose diabetes is referred to as Type 2
(American Diabetes Association).
Diabetes Mellitus Prevalence
According to the American Diabetes Association, in 2015, diabetes prevalence in the
United States was 9.4% of the population translating to 30.3 million people. Type-2 diabetes is
more common in the U.S. as compared to Type 1 in...