PSY250 UOPX Personality and the Psychoanalytic Perspective

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Complete the University of Phoenix Material: Personality and the Psychoanalytic Perspective Worksheet.

Personality and the Psychoanalytic Perspective Worksheet PSY/250 Version 9 University of Phoenix Material Personality and the Psychoanalytic Perspective Worksheet Answer the following questions using the text, the University Library, the Internet, and other appropriate resources. Your responses should be 175 to 260 words each. 1. How would you describe personality to a person who has no knowledge of the field of personality psychology? 2. What are some key personality features that define you? 3. Are your personality features consistent, or do they change according to the situation? 4. What are the main tenets of the psychoanalytic perspective of personality? What do all psychoanalytic theories have in common? Complete the following table: Theorist Main components of his theory (90 words minimum) Significant differences between the two (90 words minimum) Freud Jung Copyright © 2016 by University of Phoenix. All rights reserved. 1
Theories of Personality Freud & Jung © 2015 University of Phoenix, Inc. | All rights reserved Page 1 Psychoanalytic Personality Theories • Psychoanalytic Perspective on Personality • Sigmund Freud – Classical Psychoanalysis • Carl Jung – Analytical Psychology © 2015 University of Phoenix, Inc. | All rights reserved Page 2 Sigmund Freud – Classical Psychoanalysis • Sigmund Freud • The Unconscious • Structures of Personality • Intrapsychic Conflict • Personality Development • Psychoanalytic Treatment © 2015 University of Phoenix, Inc. | All rights reserved Page 3 Sigmund Freud • Born in 1856 in Freiberg, Moravia • Had 7 siblings • Graduated from the University of Vienna with a degree in medicine • Became a clinical neurologist • Developed the theory of psychoanalysis based on his experiences with clients who suffered from psychological disorders, mainly hysteria © 2015 University of Phoenix, Inc. | All rights reserved Page 4 Sigmund Freud Development of Psychoanalysis • Sought to understand the biological factors that contribute to mental dysfunction • Derived main background of theory from laws of physics • Newton’s proposition that matter is unchanging until it is acted upon by energy • Translated this view to the psyche and believed it needed energy in order to be properly explained • Mainly based on archaic ideas from physics, a limited comprehension of the nervous system, and an inability to see other possible factors that could contribute to the human experience © 2015 University of Phoenix, Inc. | All rights reserved Page 5 The Unconscious Levels of Consciousness • Conscious • Experiences that occur when a person is aware • Intentional behaviors • Preconscious • Information that is not being intentionally thought about or used at a specific time, but can be readily brought to conscious thought if necessary • Unconscious • Mental processes outside of conscious awareness • Can include events that have been repressed, motives for behavior, motives for dreams © 2015 University of Phoenix, Inc. | All rights reserved Page 6 The Unconscious Physical Symptoms • Conversion Hysteria • Happens when unconscious conflicts produce physical symptoms that are perceived to be physical illness or disease, but there are no medical physical causes Hypnosis • A state of consciousness that is dissociated from regular human experience • Can alter perceptual experiences © 2015 University of Phoenix, Inc. | All rights reserved Page 7 The Unconscious Psychosis • Severe mental disorder in which the patient has lost touch with reality and experiences the world based on the unconscious through hallucinations and delusions Dreams • “The royal road to the unconscious” • Sleep relaxes the restraints that the conscious has over the unconscious, allowing content from the unconscious to travel to awareness • Sleep disguises unconscious desires through creating symbolic dreams • Manifest content – the surface content of the dream • Latent content – the unconscious meaning of the dream (usually hidden) © 2015 University of Phoenix, Inc. | All rights reserved Page 8 The Unconscious The Unconscious in Everyday Life • Freudian Slips • An error in speech, hearing, or behavior that appears to be psychologically motivated by the unconscious • Humor • Thought to be a safe expression of repressed conflict • Tension is released through the joke, providing pleasure • Projective Tests • Tests that reveal unconscious material through the presentation of ambiguous stimuli – Rorschach inkblot test – Thematic Apperception Test (TAT) © 2015 University of Phoenix, Inc. | All rights reserved Page 9 Structures of Personality Id • Pleasure Principle: behaviors are motivated by seeking pleasure and avoiding pain • Libido • Sexual instinct that is the source of psychic energy • Eros • Life instinct that is responsible for behaviors that promote life and love • Thanatos • Death instinct that is destructive and leads us toward inevitable death • Most primitive structure of personality • Functions purely on instinctive processes © 2015 University of Phoenix, Inc. | All rights reserved Page 10 Structures of Personality Ego • Reality Principle: motivates behavior based on the external world • Secondary Process • Allows for delay of gratification • Characterized by logical thought • Defense Mechanisms • Used by a weak ego to adapt to reality • Strategies for coping with unconscious conflict • If the ego is not able to function, a psychotic episode will occur © 2015 University of Phoenix, Inc. | All rights reserved Page 11 Structures of Personality Superego • Representative of societal and familial rules and restrictions • Ego Ideal • The image of what we would like to be, which forms our internal standards for behavior • Sense of morality is immature and rigid © 2015 University of Phoenix, Inc. | All rights reserved Page 12 Intrapsychic Conflict Conflict between the structures of personality • Energy Hypothesis • Personality has a limited amount of energy • Energy that is being used for one purpose is unavailable for use in dealing with current reality • Anxiety • Neurotic – id impulses may become expressed • Moral – fear of guilt • Reality – current reality threatens potential danger © 2015 University of Phoenix, Inc. | All rights reserved Page 13 Intrapsychic Conflict Defense Mechanisms • Denial: individual refuses to acknowledge a painful reality • Reaction Formation: the unconscious desire is unacceptable in reality so it is repressed, and the opposite behavior is presented in an exaggerated form • Projection: the unacceptable desire of the individual is thought to belong to another person • Displacement: transfers the focus of energy from one object to another • Identification: adopting another person’s identity by merging with one’s own • Isolation: unpleasant thoughts are dissociated from other thinking • Rationalization: disguising true motives by giving rational reasons for behavior instead • Intellectualization: focusing on thinking instead of feeling; ignores recognition of an impulse by excessive explanation • Sublimation: considered to be the most healthy strategy © 2015 University of Phoenix, Inc. | All rights reserved Page 14 Personality Development Psychosexual Stages of Personality Development • Oral (birth to 12 months) • Conflict: weaning • Anal (1 to 3 years) • Conflict: toilet training • Phallic (3 to 5 years) • Conflict: masturbation and Oedipus/Electra conflicts • Latency (5 years to puberty) • Genital (puberty to adulthood) © 2015 University of Phoenix, Inc. | All rights reserved Page 15 Personality Development Oral Stage • Erogenous zone centers on the mouth • First phase involves swallowing what is good and spitting up what is bad • Second phase involves biting what enters the mouth • Fixation results in optimism, passivity, and dependency • Conflict with fixation can lead to the opposite results © 2015 University of Phoenix, Inc. | All rights reserved Page 16 Personality Development Anal Stage • Feelings of pleasure surround the anus • Pleasure is first experienced by the ability to retain feces (anal retentive) • Pleasure is then experienced by defecation (anal expulsive) • Fixation may be expressed through issues with money • Anal character: characterized by orderliness, parsimony, and obstinacy © 2015 University of Phoenix, Inc. | All rights reserved Page 17 Personality Development Phallic Stage • Erogenous zone centers around the genitals • Oedipus Conflict • A young boy’s feelings of sexual desire toward his mother and aggression toward his father • Castration Anxiety • Fear that the penis will be cut off • Motivates behavior for young boys at this stage • Effects of Fixation • Can lead to difficulty in forming the superego, gender-role identity, and sexuality © 2015 University of Phoenix, Inc. | All rights reserved Page 18 Personality Development Latency Stage • Sexual instincts are calm Genital Stage • Last of the psychosexual stages • Child develops the ability to experience sexual satisfaction with another person © 2015 University of Phoenix, Inc. | All rights reserved Page 19 Psychoanalytic Treatment Therapeutic Techniques • Free Association: the patient will recall whatever may come to mind at a specific moment in therapy • Insight: recognizing one’s motivation and unconscious conflicts • Catharsis: release of emotion when previously unconscious information is brought into conscious awareness • Transference: a patient’s displacement of feelings onto the therapist in a therapy session • Countertransference: projective reactions from the therapist to the patient, usually based on unresolved conflicts © 2015 University of Phoenix, Inc. | All rights reserved Page 20 Carl Jung – Individual Psychology • Carl Jung • The Structure of Personality • Symbolism and the Collective Unconscious • Therapy • Synchronicity • Psychological Types © 2015 University of Phoenix, Inc. | All rights reserved Page 21 Carl Jung • Born in Kesswil, in the Swiss canton of Thurgan • Was a psychiatrist and psychotherapist, and founded analytic psychology • Worked with Freud but separated to build upon his own ideas • Best known concepts by Jung include the archetype, collective unconscious, the complex, and extraversion and introversion © 2015 University of Phoenix, Inc. | All rights reserved Page 22 The Structure of Personality The Personality as a Whole • Self: the fully integrated personality of an individual • Compensation: describes the relationship between the unconscious and conscious; the unconscious will provide what is missing from consciousness to form a complete personality • Individuation: the process of becoming a completely developed person • Transcendent Function: integrates all aspects of personality to be unified © 2015 University of Phoenix, Inc. | All rights reserved Page 23 The Structure of Personality • Ego • Persona • Shadow • Anima and Animus • Collective Unconscious © 2015 University of Phoenix, Inc. | All rights reserved Page 24 Symbolism and the Collective Unconscious • Anima or animus and the shadow constitute the personal unconscious; developed from unique experiences • Collective unconscious in an inherited unconscious made up of many archetypes • Believed that the unconscious manifests in symbols • Symbols form where conscious and unconscious meet © 2015 University of Phoenix, Inc. | All rights reserved Page 25 Therapy • Jung’s therapy focused on dreams and symbolic representations, similar to Freud • Did not emphasize the past as the cause for psychological difficulties • Regarded the unconscious as an ally, not an enemy • Personal growth in therapy is toward greater wholeness; parts of the psyche that have been separated must be rejoined © 2015 University of Phoenix, Inc. | All rights reserved Page 26 Synchronicity • Jung believed the collective unconscious forms the basis for paranormal activity • Jung studied spiritualism and was fascinated with ESP and mental telepathy • Synchronicity is a principle where events are determined by transpersonal forces rather than causes generally understood by science © 2015 University of Phoenix, Inc. | All rights reserved Page 27 Psychological Types • Jung believed personality was based on the individual’s orientation toward one side of a psychological type • Psychological types represent a person’s pattern toward: • Introversion/extroversion • Thinking/feeling • Sensation/intuition © 2015 University of Phoenix, Inc. | All rights reserved Page 28

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Personality and Psychoanalytic Perspectives
Student’s Name



Question One

Personality is the unique characteristics that make one who he truly is and influences his
relationships with other people as well as how one lives his life. Personality psychology is one of
the largest branches of psychology as it has broader definitions and different perceptions of what
people think it means. Psychologists always work to gain a better understanding of how
personality affects the way individuals think and act. This branch of psychology also seeks to
know how personality differs from one individual to the other given the different thinking of
individuals. The psychologists also check, diagnose and help individuals recover from
personality disorders that may end up ruining and individual's day to day living.
Factors such as genetics, upbringing, life experience and level of education have major
impacts on the personality of people. Personality according to researchers is something that is
inborn in an individual then arises within the person and becomes consistent in the whole of his
life. These entail his thoughts, social interactions and patterns of behavior that have a great
impact on one's view of life, how he thinks about those who surround him and his general
perception about the world. A better understanding of personality helps psychologists make more
informed predictions of people's reactions to certain situations and the thing that those people
prefer and treasure more.
For a better understanding of personality, there's the need to learn about the various
influential theories on a personality that were coined by various psychologists and researchers.
There are various theories coined to define various personality aspects. Some focus on the
development of personality as others check into the differences that exist in the personality of



Question Two
An individual is defined by various personality features that have been categorized into
types of traits by psychologists. The key features that define the personality of an individual are
openness, conscientiousness, extraversion, agreeableness, and neuroticism. These are the main
ingredients that makeup one's personality.
People who are mostly open normally enjoy various adventures. They are normally
curious, appreciate arts by others and love creating imaginations about new possibilities. They
believe in the concept of variety being the spice to life. Less open people, on the other hand,
prefer ...

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