Frog design Interview presentation

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Question Description

  • Chose one of the three case studies (serena & Lily, frogDesign, Special Forces); choose based on personal interest and professional benefit. It has to help you professionally to advance your career and/or help you learn something new regarding recruiting, career development and selection.
  • Who in your professional network can you interview to learn more about the industry and help analyze the case? Chose and identify 2-3 sources for your interviews. (The people you interview have to be from the industry in the case study you choose)
  • What is the central recruiting issue in the case study? -- what you believe it is and what you have to learn.
  • If you were an HR consultant hired to come in to diagnose and help fix the problems, what are 3-4 things (specifically) you would propose and help implement. Be specific – what is the how, what, where, why. Include tools, processes, frameworks and research that was in our course as well in your own HR tool-kit.
  • Look beyond the paper - Power point / newspaper / audio / video / storyboard / etc. (Do not submit a paper. Professor gave some examples like you can design a newspaper or display board. PowerPoints is fine but do not just list your opinion on each page. It’s more like a presentation instead of paper.)
  • No minimum of words, pages. BE CREATIVE!

rP os t CASE: E438 DATE: 04/10/12 op yo SERENA AND LILY tC After spending most of her career working in accounting and technology, Lily Kanter was ready for a change. She had recently spent six years at Microsoft, building out   the   software   giant’s   retail vertical and helping to launch its first flagship store in San Francisco in 1998 (see Exhibit 1 for  Lily’s  bio). Though she loved the work, she was exhausted by the travel and decided in 2000 to leave the company to forge her own path. She soon was pregnant with her first child, who was born in June 2001, and shortly thereafter she launched a small foundation focused on a variety of societal issues and community initiatives, including working with social entrepreneurs and introducing technology to inner city youth. While she loved nonprofit work, she had always been an entrepreneur at heart and was motivated to start a business of her own, particularly one that would accommodate her life with young children at home. In July 2002, Lily opened Mill Valley Baby and Kids, a small, specialty boutique in downtown Mill Valley that sold baby and children’s  apparel,  furnishings  and  accessories. No In October 2003, Serena Dugan, a textile designer and decorative painter, stopped by the shop to drop off her portfolio of work. Lily was at the hospital giving birth to her second child, so Serena left samples of her designs, not expecting a call back for another month or two. Lily swung by the store on the way home from the hospital to check   in   and   came   across   Serena’s   work. Excited by the  designer’s  aesthetic, Lily called Serena immediately. The two arranged for a meeting at the store later that week to review  Serena’s  designs and discuss potential projects on Sara  Rosenthal  (MBA  ’04)  and  H. Irving Grousbeck, MBA Class of 1980 Consulting Professor of Management, prepared this case as the basis for class discussion rather than to illustrate either effective or ineffective handling of an administrative situation. Certain names and events in this case have been fictionalized. Do This case was made possible by the generous support of Mr. R. Denny Alexander. Copyright © 2012 by the Board of Trustees of the Leland Stanford Junior University. Publically available cases are distributed through Harvard Business Publishing at hbsp.harvard.edu and European Case Clearing House at ecch.com, please contact them to order copies and request permission to reproduce materials. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, used in a spreadsheet, or transmitted in any form or by any means –– electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise –– without the permission of the Stanford Graduate School of Business. Every effort has been made to respect copyright and to contact copyright holders as appropriate. If you are a copyright holder and have concerns, please contact the Case Writing Office at cwo@gsb.stanford.edu or write to Case Writing Office, Stanford Graduate School of Business, Knight Management Center, 655 Knight Way, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305-5015. This document is authorized for use only by Nona Footz at Manhattanville College until June 2013. Copying or posting is an infringement of copyright. Permissions@hbsp.harvard.edu or 617.783.7860. Serena and Lily E438 p. 2 rP os t which they could collaborate. As   Lily   described   their   meeting,   “In   the   first   hour   I   had   commissioned Serena to do decorative painting in the store and let me help her sell her artwork for  children’s  rooms  to  retailers like me. In the second hour, we had identified the opportunity to design crib bedding that we would want in our own nurseries.”1 THE EARLY DAYS op yo At the   time   of   Serena   and   Lily’s   first   meeting, Wendy Bellissimo was among the few crib bedding designers in the market, having established a clear leadership position with representation in over 600 stores nationwide. However, neither Serena nor Lily was attracted to Bellissimo’s  products,  finding  them  somewhat  stale  and  “grandmotherly”.    They believed there was a huge opportunity to leverage  Serena’s  talents   and introduce a fresher design aesthetic to the baby décor market. Lily asked Serena to put together a set of idea boards to illustrate her vision for a line of baby bedding that would be compelling to the modern mother. Four weeks later, Serena returned with her boards and Lily was wowed. The duo decided to attend the Atlanta Gift Show—a huge showcase for home décor products—to assess the market and see whether their gut instinct was right. After scouring the show for three days and finding nothing remotely close to what Serena had designed, they were convinced they were on to something big. On the plane ride home, they resolved to start a new company, Serena and Lily, to bring their own personal style to the baby bedding market. tC Serena and Lily launched their venture in December 2003 with,  as  Lily  described,  “absolutely  no   idea  what  we  were  doing.” Despite their self-proclaimed inexperience, by Memorial Day 2004, the twosome had distributed their first catalog to 400 retail stores nationwide, offering a full array of wholesale baby bedding and accessories to retailers not unlike Mill Valley Baby and Kids. In  a  sheer  twist  of  fate,  the  very  same  weekend  Serena  and  Lily’s  catalog  arrived  in  stores, Bellissimo announced that after seven years in business, she was selling her brand to Babies “R” Us. The timing could not have been more serendipitous. Serena  and  Lily’s  fledgling company received 100 orders within two weeks of sending out its catalog. No The cofounders immediately set to work hiring vendors to produce the goods they had showcased so beautifully in their catalog (all of which had been made by a local seamstress in a quantity of one), using money contributed by the cofounders themselves. For the next two and a half years, Serena and Lily ran the company almost single-handedly, with Lily managing all the business-related functions and Serena overseeing creative. They received occasional help from their husbands, along with a small cadre of recent college graduates they had brought on at entrylevel salaries to assist with everything from customer service to order processing. Do At the end of 2005, their first full year of business, Serena and Lily recorded $750,000 in sales, a number which would double to $1.5 million the following year. They also began to receive celebrity endorsements from the likes of Jennifer Garner, Katie Holmes, Jessica Alba and Monique Lhullier, helping create their reputation as   the   “go-to crib bedding company in 1 Interview with Lily Kanter, February 23, 2012. All subsequent quotations are from this interview unless otherwise noted. This document is authorized for use only by Nona Footz at Manhattanville College until June 2013. Copying or posting is an infringement of copyright. Permissions@hbsp.harvard.edu or 617.783.7860. Serena and Lily E438 p. 3 rP os t Hollywood”.     Taking   advantage   of this momentum, they raised $1.5 million from friends and family in 2007 and launched their second catalog, which introduced children’s   twin, full and queen bedding. Bolstered by their expanded product line, they anticipated another 100 percent increase in revenue for 2007, an exciting prospect but one which made both cofounders feel that the company’s  pace  of  growth  would soon outrun their capabilities. With outside funding now in place, Lily set out to hire more experienced, professional individuals to help support the organization in its next phase of growth MARTA CALFEE op yo By the end of 2007, Serena and Lily had reached almost $4 million in revenue, with Lily continuing to oversee the business operations and Serena managing creative. Up to this point, Lily, in particular, had been reluctant to hire any accounting or finance staff, reasoning that with her accounting background, she could do it all herself. However, with the business taking off at warp speed, she finally relented and in early 2008, hired Marta Calfee to the position of assistant controller to help manage the  company’s accounting function. tC Marta was an experienced assistant controller who had worked for various companies prior to joining Serena and Lily, including a small technology startup and a retail fly fishing chain in Northern California. Marta jumped in with both feet and fairly quickly took Serena  and  Lily’s   accounting function “from   kindergarten to   high   school”.     She was an incredibly hard worker, always exuded a bright attitude, and by Lily’s account, was  “scrappy  and  flexible,  in  all  the  best   ways”. In addition to her accounting role, Marta soon became the de facto head of human resources due largely to her responsibility for managing payroll and because Lily had not yet hired an HR manager. This kind of “roll  up  your  sleeves,  let  nothing  hit  the  floor”  attitude  made Marta the perfect fit for the young startup. No Shortly after Marta arrived, Lily hired Hanna Fordiss to manage Serena   and   Lily’s catalog production and circulation, a critical role which   would   facilitate   the   company’s   move   towards selling directly to the consumer. Hanna was a long-time,   dear   friend   of   Serena’s   who had worked in catalog circulation for over a decade, experience which made her seemingly wellqualified for the role. Hanna reported directly to Lily, who soon ran up against her new employee’s  difficult  personality.    Hanna  was  reluctant to collaborate or openly share information about the work she was doing, a trait Lily ultimately attributed to Hanna’s discomfort with her new role—as it turned out, Hanna had never before managed a marketing budget or worked for a direct-to-consumer business. Though Lily tried multiple tactics to forge a cooperative relationship, Hanna only became increasingly difficult and closed off with each attempt. Finally at the end of her rope, Lily asked Marta if she would be willing to manage Hanna since the two seemed to get along quite well. Do Marta readily agreed to the switch. However, despite a previously amicable relationship, she soon also found herself clashing with Hanna. Finally, a major blow-up at the office led Marta and Serena to conclude that Hanna must be   let   go.     To   Lily’s   relief,   Marta managed the termination, allowing Lily to stay out of the middle of the messy situation involving one of Serena’s  closest  friends.   This document is authorized for use only by Nona Footz at Manhattanville College until June 2013. Copying or posting is an infringement of copyright. Permissions@hbsp.harvard.edu or 617.783.7860. Serena and Lily E438 p. 4 op yo rP os t With   Hanna’s   departure,   there   was   a   void   in   the catalog circulation function and no one internally with the appropriate experience to fill her shoes. Typical of her style, Marta volunteered to take on Hanna’s  responsibilities, and assured Lily she would fill the spot when the right person came along. As Marta’s   responsibilities   grew,   so   did   her   title   and   compensation. By 2009, she held the position of senior vice president and her salary had grown from $90,000 to almost $175,000.    She  continued  to  be  “amazing  at  holding  a  lot  of  balls  in  the  air  and  she  was  an   incredible   generalist.”     However,   she   did   not   have   the   skills necessary to manage the diverse array of functions underneath her—accounting, human resources and catalog circulation—and she had yet to fill Hanna’s role, a source of immense concern for Lily. At the most basic level, Lily had also come to realize that while Marta was a good accountant, she was not skillful at forecasting the cash demands of a complex catalog business, an issue which posed a growing challenge as  the  company’s  working  capital  needs  intensified. With 2009 revenues approaching $13 million, Lily began to feel the situation slipping out of control and remembered thinking,  “I   just can’t  do  this  anymore.” tC After a brief discussion with Serena, Lily immediately resolved to hire the people she knew she should have hired long ago: a CFO, an experienced HR manager and someone who could lead the   company’s direct-to-consumer marketing efforts, including the web and catalog portions. However, to do so, Lily calculated she would need at least a quarter of Marta’s   salary to help cover the compensation for the new employees. Additionally, Lily wanted to scale back Marta’s   inflated responsibilities and title, both to reduce the top-heaviness of the organization and to more appropriately align Marta’s skills with her job function. She knew these changes would be difficult for Marta to swallow, but they were critical to establishing a more functional organization going forward. As Lily thought through how to discuss her plan with one of her most trusted employees, she struggled to find a solution that would meet   the  company’s needs while respecting Marta’s  invaluable hard work, loyalty, and commitment over the past few years. MALCOLM HENSHAW No By 2008, Serena and Lily was growing by leaps and bounds, and the cofounders set out to raise venture capital financing to allow them to expand the business into its next phase of growth. At the time, the country was suffering the effects of the subprime mortgage crisis which would soon ignite a nationwide recession. Capital was therefore difficult to come by, and potential investment partners were few. When it looked like they had found two firms who were willing to invest, Lily was understandably thrilled, despite the feeling that one of the firms was perhaps not exactly the right fit. Given the tight economic environment, she pushed these worries aside and hoped for the best, grateful for the funding and the opportunities it would enable. Do In spring 2009, Serena and Lily closed its second institutional round of $5 million in venture capital financing in return for a 16 percent interest in the company. Its first board of directors, with Serena and Lily representing two seats, was comprised of six total members. Lily had elected her board chair, Bill Stanton, early on, having identified him as the most seasoned and trusted of her board members. Bill had worked in venture capital for years, and though he had retired five years earlier, remained active on several boards and continued to make personal investments in pet projects and various startup companies. Lily had met Bill through one of her previous colleagues in the tech world, and he had immediately taken an interest in the company, signing on as an investor during the friends and family round. He had proven to be fair-minded This document is authorized for use only by Nona Footz at Manhattanville College until June 2013. Copying or posting is an infringement of copyright. Permissions@hbsp.harvard.edu or 617.783.7860. Serena and Lily E438 p. 5 rP os t and insightful, and always strove to weigh the opinions of  the  two  cofounders  against  the  board’s   often strong and sometimes opposing views. Irene Redd and Malcolm Henshaw, investors from the venture capital firms that had invested in the recent round of financing, represented two additional board seats. Irene and Malcolm had started their careers at the same private equity firm and had a long professional history working together, often on the same deal. Christine Graf, an executive director from one of the nonprofits Lily had worked closely with after leaving Microsoft, held the last board seat. Graf had no prior experience working in retail but Lily had always found her to be incredibly bright and able to provide a reasoned and astute perspective on many issues. op yo In less than a year, Lily encountered both the benefits and challenges of having a board. One board member in particular, Malcolm Henshaw, had become a problem. His firm had historically invested only in companies in which it could hold the majority share. However, that had not been an option when investing in Serena and Lily—a stipulation about which Lily felt very strongly—but Malcolm’s  firm  chose  to  invest  anyway,  with  the  understanding  that  it would hold a minority interest with equivalent ownership to the other venture capital firm that was also investing. tC Much  to  Lily’s  dismay,  Malcolm’s  behavior  was adversarial from the very first board meeting. He consistently used an aggressive, almost bullying, tone when stating his position and often posited ideas related to strategy, marketing or pricing that were conveyed as statements of fact rather than suggestions as to how the company should move forward. In one such instance, he asserted that it was time for Serena and Lily to raise the pricing of their twin bedding and to increase shipping charges to capture more dollars from the back end. Lily knew that most webbased retailers were heading to a free shipping model, and she was also concerned about raising prices any further on a product that was already at the upper end of the market. However, she relented, largely to avoid an all-out battle over a topic on which Malcolm had so strongly expressed his opinions. No Lily not only found herself struggling with Malcolm’s  personality, she saw the toll it was taking on the board. Though Irene was  used  to  his  abrasive  style  after  years  working  with  him,  Graf’s   reaction was often to take a step out of the fray to avoid adding her opinions to an already stressful situation. Bill, on the other hand, was not one to be pushed out of the way and as board chair, he did a good job managing the various personalities. However, Lily often felt that he had to spend more time navigating the interpersonal dynamics between board members than helping the group come to resolution about the important decisions they were facing. This was particularly frustrating to Lily given her feeling that they simply had no time to waste on posturing and egos. Do The tension came to a head at the October 2010 board meeting when Lily found herself in a standoff with Malcolm over an issue on which she was not willing to budge. She had seen the negative implications of giving in (e.g. twin bedding sales dropped 20 percent soon after Malcolm’s   suggested price increase), and did not want to face similar consequences here. Malcolm had long argued that the company should slow its growth to focus on becoming profitable, largely to minimize its cash needs going forward. Serena and Lily, along with the This document is authorized for use only by Nona Footz at Manhattanville College until June 2013. Copying or posting is an infringement of copyright. Permissions@hbsp.harvard.edu or 617.783.7860. Serena and Lily E438 p. 6 rP os t three other board members, strongly disagreed, believing that now was the time for the company to invest in its growth and take advantage of the traction it had gained in the marketplace, particularly in the direct-to-consumer space. In fact, Lily believed that the company should completely dissolve the wholesale channel to focus solely on direct-to-consumer sales, a position with which Malcolm disagreed vehemently. op yo The covenants associated with Malcolm’s   firm’s   investor   agreement   with   Serena   and   Lily   dictated that a target percentage of revenues be met by sales from the wholesale channel (i.e. the retail stores who sold to individual consumers), and he relentlessly referred back to these covenants during the course of their discussion about the strategic direction of the company. In Lily’s  mind,  Malcolm was so focused on the details that he had completely lost sight of what was best for the company and its shareholders. Though Bill had done his best to moderate, he was clearly torn between trying to be objective while needing to respect the contractual obligations set forth by the investor agreement. After arguing back and forth to no avail, Lily finally threw up her hands and asked to table the topic until both she and Malcolm could cool down. tC After the board meeting, Serena and Lily went out to dinner to blow off some steam and discuss the events of the day. The tension with Malcolm had started as a small flame in 2008 and had grown to a forest fire over the last two years that threatened to completely take down the small company.    Serena  and  Lily  knew  that  something  had  to  change,  but  they  weren’t  sure  how best to proceed. The most obvious choice, but one which neither of them wanted to face, was the option to sell the company and wash their hands of the whole situation. Alternatively, they could eliminate the source of the problem by buying out Malcolm’s   firm’s ownership stake in the company, removing him from the board all together. While this was attractive on a number of levels, the cofounders knew this would be complicated, time-consuming, and inevitably involve significant legal fees. Finally, they discussed the option of dealing with the situation directly. No Though Lily had tried in the past to have a one-on-one discussion with Malcolm to resolve the friction between them, this latest interaction felt like a new low. She considered going to Irene for advice, but Lily was concerned that because of Irene’s allegiance towards Malcolm, their conversation would not remain confidential. She also thought about talking with Bill—he had always proven to be a straight shooter, and she knew that with his years of experience, he had likely seen a situation like this before. However, she feared that his own energies around this topic might be exhausted; additionally, he might have conflicting interests that would make it difficult for him to give her objective guidance. As she considered her options, she wondered whether it made the most sense to go directly to Malcolm herself. Though it felt as if they had reached a monumental impasse, perhaps she was the only person who could right the ship. ROBIN RICE Do In the spring of 2011, Lily hired Robin Rice as an outside consultant to help develop the company’s merchandising strategy. Up to that point, Serena and Lily had never established a separate merchandising function within the organization, choosing instead to trust their gut and introduce what they felt the marketplace was lacking. Robin had a long track record of holding senior management positions at a variety of high-profile, well-established brands, including The Gap, The Body Shop, and West Elm (a division of Williams-Sonoma). (See Exhibit 2 for Robin’s  resume) After years in the corporate world, Rice started her own retail consulting firm This document is authorized for use only by Nona Footz at Manhattanville College until June 2013. Copying or posting is an infringement of copyright. Permissions@hbsp.harvard.edu or 617.783.7860. Serena and Lily E438 p. 7 rP os t in 2008, a move designed to give her the independence, flexibility and creativity to work on projects during a timeframe of her choosing. In the three years managing her own practice, she had seen a dramatic improvement in her lifestyle, work hours, and happiness, and was thoroughly enjoying the projects with which she was engaged. Robin’s   work   for   Serena   and   Lily was as exceptional as her background would imply, and Lily was thrilled to have someone with such strong functional expertise working as part of the team. op yo About six weeks after Robin started, she casually mentioned to Lily over lunch a job opportunity she was considering. Robin had been in discussion with an $8 billion, global, multi-brand organization for the last seven months, and had just been offered the position of general manager overseeing   the   retail   portion   of   the   company’s   entire   portfolio   of   international   brands. Robin explained that while her consulting practice was incredibly fulfilling, this position offered her a clear upward step in her professional career. Not only would she serve as a senior executive of a highly prestigious corporation, she was excited about the opportunity to manage a major strategic shift for such a large global suite of products. In addition to her title and responsibilities, the position came with a healthy six-figure salary and an extremely attractive stock option package. Lily’s  first  response   upon hearing the news was   panic.     In  Robin’s  very   short  time working at Serena and Lily, she had provided invaluable guidance and wisdom from years in the business, helping Lily make several critically important strategic decisions. Lily was not sure what she could do to compel Robin to turn down the offer, but she asked to have until the end of the day to talk with her board and Serena to come up with a plan. She promised to call Robin that evening with a proposal that would hopefully change her mind. tC Lily left the lunch stunned, but resolved to take action immediately. She knew they would never be able to compete with the package or prestige offered by Robin’s  new  position,  and  there  was   no sense even trying. In evaluating her options, Lily realized she was also competing against Robin’s  current  situation—Robin had reiterated numerous times that while she was not making huge dollars from her own practice, the income was good and the intangible benefits were outstanding. Do No After consulting with Bill and Serena and  considering  the  company’s financial capabilities, Lily sat at her desk to jot down the details of the package she would present. Her offer to Robin would be a part-time position at the equivalent of $80,000 per year until October. In October, the company expected to obtain another round of financing, allowing   Lily   to   increase   Robin’s   salary to $200,000 for a full-time position, which would also entitle her to a full stock option package. Lily knew that compensation was among her weakest negotiation points given  Robin’s   other offer on the table, and she would need to come up with a compelling argument as to why Robin should choose to join Serena and Lily, a relatively tiny retail startup, over continuing to build her own business or signing on for a role that perhaps could be the opportunity of a lifetime. Just before calling Robin, however, Lily began to wonder whether she was about to commit a strategic  gaffe.    There  was  so  much  she  did  not  know  about  Robin’s  existing  offer, not only in terms of the financial aspects but qualitative elements as well. How much time did Robin have This document is authorized for use only by Nona Footz at Manhattanville College until June 2013. Copying or posting is an infringement of copyright. Permissions@hbsp.harvard.edu or 617.783.7860. Serena and Lily E438 p. 8 rP os t to make a decision, and did she really want the position? Did Lily even have a chance of winning? And finally, was a telephone call the right mode of communication? Exhibit 1 Co-Founders Bios op yo Lily Kanter Co-founder Lily Kanter brings 18 years of experience in business and technology to Serena & Lily. She has held management positions at Microsoft, Deloitte & Touche and IBM. Career highlights include creating the first Microsoft flagship store in downtown San Francisco—a move  which  earned  her  the  Chairman’s  Award  from  Bill  Gates.  Philanthropy  is  a  driving  force   for Lily, and in July 2000 she was featured on the cover of Time magazine as part of the story “The  New  Philanthropists.”  Her  philanthropic  projects  include  founding Social Venture Partners in the Bay Area and the Serena & Lily Foundation, the latter devoted to inspiring kids to change the world. She also co-founded the Sarosi-Kanter Charitable Foundation with her husband Marc. Lily attended the Executive MBA program at Pepperdine and the Pepperdine Asia Business Program in Hong Kong. She is a Wexner Fellow and a Henry Crown Fellow and holds a BA in Accounting from Arizona State University. Lily lives in Mill Valley and has three boys ages 6, 8 and 10. tC Serena Dugan Serena Dugan, co-founder of Serena & Lily, has 11 years of experience designing and painting as a freelance decorative painter, textile designer, and commissioned artist. Under her design collective  “Serena  Dugan  Design  Studio,”  she  designed  for  corporate  clients, interior designers and private clients nationwide, and developed her signature line of hand block-printed fabrics and accessories sold through Interior Designers and high-design boutiques in San Francisco and Los Angeles. Do No Serena worked for over 4 years with Pottery Barn Kids on their Creative Team, where she served as their lead on-set decorative painter and artist, as well as their Product Development Team, where she created original artwork and accessories replicated and sold in their catalogs. Additional corporate clients included Restoration Hardware and Pottery Barn. Serena was trained in Fine Art and Design at the Lorenzo de’  Medici Art Institute in Florence, Italy. She holds  a  bachelor’s  degree  in  Psychology  from  Wake  Forest  University.    Serena, her husband, and their two dogs live in Sausalito, California. This document is authorized for use only by Nona Footz at Manhattanville College until June 2013. Copying or posting is an infringement of copyright. Permissions@hbsp.harvard.edu or 617.783.7860. p. 9 rP os t Serena and Lily E438 Exhibit 2 Excerpts from Robin  Rice’s  Curriculum  Vitae Do No tC op yo jcr3: a consultancy, LLC August 2008 to present Founder Projects include:  Complete financial and strategic planning for an overseas retail company working to create a US-based division  Created a product extension strategy for a UK-based spa  Re-branded and created a communication plan for retail focused analytics company  Tactical/strategic planning and execution of a retail store in Malibu, California west elm (division of Williams-Sonoma, Inc.) August 2005 to April 2008 Executive Vice President  Full P+L responsibility for emerging brand at WSI  Directed merchandising, design, sourcing, planning and distribution functions for all channels of distribution (stores, catalog and e-commerce)  Grew brand from catalog-only to 32 store chain  Total volume: $240 million The William Carter Company July 2003 to July 2005 Executive Vice President, Marketing  Full P+L responsibility for the leading young childrenswear brand in the US  Directed  marketing,  merchandising,  design  and  licensing  for  Carter’s  brand  as  well  as  the   Child of Mine brand for Wal-Mart and the Just One Year brand for Target  Led the re-branding project for this  150  year  old  wholesale  and  retail  children’s  brand   which addressed the voice of the brand and its interaction with the consumer  Total volume: $900 million The Body Shop, Americas Region Sept. 2002 to July 2003 Senior Vice-President, Merchandising  Full P+L responsibility for the US region of Body Shop International  Total volume: $260 million Gap, Inc. March 1995 to July 2002 General Manager, Gap Canada  Full P+L responsibility for all Gap divisions (Adult, GapKids, babyGap, GapBody)  Total volume: $675 million Senior Vice-President, Global babyGap and GapKids Merchandising Vice President, babyGap Merchandising  Full P+L responsibility for the babyGap division  Direct responsibility for merchandising and production  Grew babyGap from a small division of GapKids to a standalone chain of over 200 stores (plus combined locations)  Total volume: $580 million Macy’s  Product  Development March 1993 to March 1995 Pacific Coast Highway/Styl-land, Inc. Nov. 1989 to October 1992 Ocean Pacific Sunwear, Ltd. Sept. 1986 to Nov. 1989 RH Macy Corporate Buying May 1984 to Sept. 1986 This document is authorized for use only by Nona Footz at Manhattanville College until June 2013. Copying or posting is an infringement of copyright. Permissions@hbsp.harvard.edu or 617.783.7860.
rP os t 9-409-041 SEPTEMBER 17, 2008 BORIS GROYSBERG TAL RIESENFELD ELIOT SHERMAN op yo Israeli Special Forces: Selection Strategy Yesterday, Major Ron Guntz, commander of recruiting for Israel’s Special Forces, had been instructed by his superiors to evaluate the process by which he selected soldiers for the elite 20month long Special Forces training program. As they stood, the selection exercises—a five-day battery of tests—were both physically and mentally grueling. While deaths during the selection exercises were rare, in the long history of Special Forces a few had occurred, usually as the result of previously unmapped health problems (see Exhibit 1 for a soldier suffering from exhaustion and dehydration). Accidents did happen from time to time. tC Guntz wondered whether accidents were an unavoidable side effect of the recruitment process. Was the Army conducting this process in an ideal manner? Was there a less demanding method for selecting the best candidates for the extensive—and costly—Special Forces training program? Was each individual screening exercise used in the selection process absolutely necessary? And, perhaps most importantly, did the screening methods truly identify the best possible candidates for future Special Forces service? Guntz knew he and the other commanders owed it the soldiers to ensure that the Army’s processes were designed and executed as flawlessly as possible. Special Forces No Most major military powers worldwide maintained some form of Special Forces unit. Certain countries, for example the U.S., had a different unit for each military branch: the “Green Berets” (Army), SEALs (Navy), Force Reconnaissance (Marines), and the Special Tactics group, or “Air Commandos” (Air Force). Generally speaking, Special Forces units consisted of male combat personnel organized into small, flexible teams, having been subjected to the most competitive selection criteria, given advanced training and equipped with the most cutting-edge weapons and gear. An old Special Forces maxim, however, held that “humans are more important than hardware”—in other words, a team’s effectiveness could be directly attributed to how well-trained its members were and how effectively they worked together. Do Special Forces teams were regularly assigned the most unconventional and dangerous missions, the success of which was often contingent upon their ability to exercise significant on-site discretion and improvisation. Examples included assassinations, combat and reconnaissance raids conducted deep within enemy territory, training allied military and paramilitary forces, and complex counterterrorism assignments. Each squad’s ability to complete such missions successfully was ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Professor Boris Groysberg, Tal Riesenfeld (MBA 2008) and Research Associate Eliot Sherman of the Global Research Group prepared this case. Some data in this case have been disguised. HBS cases are developed solely as the basis for class discussion. Cases are not intended to serve as endorsements, sources of primary data, or illustrations of effective or ineffective management. Copyright © 2008 President and Fellows of Harvard College. To order copies or request permission to reproduce materials, call 1-800-545-7685, write Harvard Business School Publishing, Boston, MA 02163, or go to www.hbsp.harvard.edu/educators. This publication may not be digitized, photocopied, or otherwise reproduced, posted, or transmitted, without the permission of Harvard Business School. This document is authorized for use only by Nona Footz at Manhattanville College until June 2013. Copying or posting is an infringement of copyright. Permissions@hbsp.harvard.edu or 617.783.7860. Israeli Special Forces: Selection Strategy rP os t 409-041 dependent on its level of teamwork, self-reliance, versatility, and the ability to deal with multiple shifting objectives under extreme pressure, in addition to the already substantial physical and psychological rigors of combat. Famous Special Forces Missions While it was unusual for the details of a Special Forces mission to become common knowledge, it had occasionally occurred. The following examples both highlighted and put to the test the character and physical abilities required of a successful Special Forces team. op yo Operation Feuerzauber (Fire Magic) On October 13, 1977, a Lufthansa flight departing the Spanish island Palma de Mallorca for Frankfurt, Germany, with 82 passengers, was hijacked by four members of the Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine.1 The hijackers sought the release of members of the West Germany terrorist group Red Army Faction (RAF) as well as the release of two Palestinians being held in Istanbul.2 The hijackers forced the plane to land in Rome, Cyprus, Bahrain, Dubai, Yemen, and finally Mogadishu, where the body of the plane’s pilot, Juergen Schuman, was tossed out onto the tarmac.3 Germany’s GSG-9, the country’s 200-member special forces unit that was formed in the wake of the terrorist attacks at the 1972 Munich Olympic Games, quickly moved in.4 The commandos destroyed the airplane door with dynamite and threw six flash grenades into the cabin, momentarily stunning the four hijackers. Three hijackers were killed in the subsequent shootout, while one was wounded but survived, as did all of the plane’s passengers.5 tC SAS Embassy Rescue In late April of 1980, six Iranian terrorists declaring themselves the Democratic Revolutionary Front for the Liberation of Arabistan (DRFLA) took 20 hostages in the Iranian embassy in London.6 After a six-day standoff, Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher dispatched a team of Special Air Services (SAS) commandos—the U.K.’s premier special forces unit—to stage a rescue. The assault was captured live on television, as the SAS soldiers landed on the roof, rappelled down the front of the building and crashed through its windows. The SAS soldiers went room-toroom using stun grenades to immobilize the hostage-takers, five of whom were killed (as was one hostage), breaking the siege within 17 minutes.7 No Entebbe Airport Hostage Rescue8 On July 27, 1976, shortly after takeoff, an Air France flight en route to Paris from Athens carrying over 250 passengers and crew was hijacked by members of the Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine and diverted from its flight path. After a stopover for refueling in Libya the flight landed at Entebbe Airport in Uganda, where three more hijackers joined the original four and went on to hold over 100 Israeli passengers for several days in one of the airport terminals (some passengers were sporadically released). Ugandan guards were also stationed at the airport as the country’s ruler was sympathetic to the hijackers’ radicalism. The hijackers demanded the release of prisoners held in Israel as well as Kenya, West Germany, France and Switzerland. Do An Israeli Special Forces unit devised a rescue plan, utilizing intelligence gleaned from the accounts of several released hostages and the Israeli construction firm that built the terminal, which still retained detailed blueprints. The commando team approached the terminal in three vehicles—a Mercedes and two Land Rovers—disguised to look like a diplomatic delegation. The commandos then disembarked, stormed the terminal, and took the hijackers by surprise, killing all seven of them. The mission was considered a success, despite the deaths of four civilians and one commando. 2 This document is authorized for use only by Nona Footz at Manhattanville College until June 2013. Copying or posting is an infringement of copyright. Permissions@hbsp.harvard.edu or 617.783.7860. Israeli Special Forces 409-041 rP os t Israeli Special Forces: Selection Strategy op yo In Israel, all healthy 18-year-olds were required to participate in military service for up to three years, although not necessarily in combat-ready positions. At 17, each citizen was brought in for an initial screening, after which they were offered several different military routes based on their personal preferences, health and conditioning, the results of psychometric exams, and the needs of the military. After compulsory service, candidates had the option to stay on as officers or professional soldiers. During peacetime, each citizen that returned to civilian life could potentially be called for service in the Army Reserves for one month each year until the age of 45 (wherever possible, Reserves soldiers were assigned the same unit members as they had served with during active duty). During wartime, however, each citizen could be called upon for immediate active duty of an indeterminate length. In general practice, during peacetime most citizens were not called for Reserves duty; however, during wartime, many citizens volunteered for active duty (in a recent survey, 94% claimed to be willing to fight for their country.)9 Upon its formation, the Israeli Special Forces unit had been assigned to conduct quick-strike raids deep behind enemy lines. Initially its command structure was loose, and it reported directly to the Army Chief of Staff. However, as the unit grew, both in size and number of operations, a tighter command structure was implemented, with the Special Forces eventually becoming absorbed into the Paratroopers Regiment as a Reconnaissance Company. This initial Special Forces model was subsequently applied to other specialized units outside of the paratroopers (i.e. sea operations, hostage extraction). Eventually, Special Forces units would be responsible for completing the most challenging and high-risk tactical missions. Many Special Forces soldiers went on to attain the highest ranks in the Army, including 18 Generals and four Chiefs of Staff, while others served in the upper echelons of the government. tC Paratrooper and Special Forces Training No Candidates for the Special Forces in the Israeli Defense Force (IDF) Paratroopers Regiment were selected through a grueling five-day process. Soldiers that were selected would stay together during their training, active service time, and potentially during Reserves duty subsequent to being discharged. (Some candidates left their squad to enroll in officer’s training, but many members remained in the same team for the duration of their service.) Recruits that passed the selection process enrolled in a 20-month training course designed to test the boundaries of their mental and physical endurance and performance. On average, 60% of the candidates selected for the Special Forces track went on to complete this training (most of the soldiers that were forced to drop out returned to active combat service in the Paratroopers Regiment). Do The first four months consisted of basic training, similar to that undergone by all paratroopers. This included training in the use of a standard firearm (the M16), how to move in a combat area, how to operate as a squad, the use of hand grenades and other basic soldiering skills. The next phase consisted of an eight-month unit-oriented advanced training, which included sophisticated use of firearms, self-defense, commando tactics, night and day navigation, survival, camouflage, intelligence gathering, parachuting, reconnaissance, house-to-house combat, and airborne operations. Each day included several hours of physical workouts as part of a routine involving escalating performance requirements that prepared the trainee for the physical challenges of commando missions. Typically this included a timed four-to-eight mile morning jog, fast walking with a backpack of increasing weight, or carrying a soldier and additional weights on a stretcher. In the eight final months of the program soldiers underwent specialized training which emphasized greater professionalism, meticulous performance and the further development of 3 This document is authorized for use only by Nona Footz at Manhattanville College until June 2013. Copying or posting is an infringement of copyright. Permissions@hbsp.harvard.edu or 617.783.7860. Israeli Special Forces: Selection Strategy rP os t 409-041 navigational skills and personal physical and mental capabilities towards top combat readiness. In addition, each trainee received specific training for an assigned role in the commando squad (i.e., sniper, spotter, paramedic, explosives expert, evasive driver, anti-tank weapons expert, lead navigator, communications expert, and more). As the soldiers evolved through the training and climbed up the “effort ladder,” physical and mental requirements became more and more challenging. For example, while the first rapid hiking journey consisted of a 12-mile hike carrying a 45-pound payload, the final hike, the 20-month “graduation journey,” was a 72-mile non-stop march carrying a payload of 60%-80% of body weight. op yo Upon completing their training, soldiers served in a combat unit for 16 months, which took them through the conclusion of their three years of required service. A typical Special Forces unit was therefore a reduced-size company consisting of 80-100 highly trained soldiers, organized into six operational commando squads of 14-16 soldiers who had completed their training track together. Required Characteristics of an Israeli Special Forces Soldier Very few soldiers could meet the requirements for service in a Special Forces unit (see Exhibit 2). The 20-month training program was long and intensive; candidates needed to be highly motivated and strong-willed in order to successfully complete it. Since very few of the trainees began the training with the level of physical capability needed to complete it, individual levels of motivation and stamina were what differentiated a successful candidate from a failed one. Guntz’s experience was that once a soldier’s behavior had been proven in training his performance was predictable and dependable and he could be expected to perform well in battle. tC In combat it was often a soldier’s personal skills and abilities that determined life or death for him and his comrades. These traits included intelligence, independence, resourcefulness, courageousness, self-discipline, and improvisation. (While commando operations were meticulously planned and rehearsed, unanticipated developments were almost certain to occur.) Additionally, commando operations required the absolute integrity of every team member. After-action reports needed to be accurate and consistently reliable, even when they required soldiers to report their own mistakes or failures. No Since each commando’s life literally depended on the other team members, teamwork skills were essential, as well as an ability to willingly accept the authority of the team commander. Naturally, a high degree of independence and self-confidence were traits that often conflicted with the unqualified acceptance of authority, making the balance in an ideal candidate difficult to find. Finally, candidates needed to show a keen ability to improve their levels of physical fitness, as many missions required long stretches of lying motionless while waiting in ambush, or hiking long distances nonstop while carrying a heavy payload, or crossing difficult terrain (i.e. deep-sea swimming, hiking in mountainous regions). Motivation for Special Forces Service Do Why would an 18-year old high school graduate drafted into the Army volunteer to serve in a unit that required such a tremendous personal investment and sacrifice? High pay was clearly not the answer, as during regular service time draftees’ pay was minimal—about $150 per month for incidentals. Each volunteer’s motivation was different. Some of the draftees strongly believed in giving their best to their country for personal patriotic reasons; others viewed Special Forces service as the ultimate test for determining whether they had “the right stuff”; still others valued the esteem with 4 This document is authorized for use only by Nona Footz at Manhattanville College until June 2013. Copying or posting is an infringement of copyright. Permissions@hbsp.harvard.edu or 617.783.7860. 409-041 rP os t Israeli Special Forces: Selection Strategy which their military position was held by the general public (a Special Forces recruit, decked out in full uniform with his paratrooper wings and unit emblem proudly displayed, tended to attract attention from the general public). Naturally, many candidates’ motivation was “all of the above,” combining nationalism, patriotism, altruism, pride, self-fulfillment, camaraderie, and a taste for action into a very strong desire to pass the selection process and be chosen for the training track. Selection and Recruitment op yo In the early days of the Special Forces, the recruitment of new commandos was done largely on the basis of friend-of-a-friend recommendations, without any formal screening or testing process. However, this method was soon deemed inadequate for finding the best candidates among the mass of new enlistees. The identification and selection of the right candidates for training was a lengthy and complex process (see Exhibit 3). After their initial screening at 17 years of age (a year before draft eligibility), service possibilities were presented to candidates in a personal interview. Those candidates that met the health and IQ requirements for service as elite infantry soldiers were offered the opportunity to participate in additional qualifying tests for service in the Paratroopers’ Regiment. These two-day tests occurred three times per year about two months prior to the annual draft dates. During the two days of physical and mental trials, the group of about 4,000 candidates was reduced to 400 future draftees who qualified for paratrooper training. The Selection Challenge tC On draft day, the 400 conscripts arrived at the paratroopers’ basic training camp to begin their three-year compulsory military service. Several days into basic training, the new draftees were offered the chance to try out for the Special Forces. Typically about 350 draftees responded to the challenge and registered for the five-day testing program. These candidates were then divided into 30-soldier groups that performed all their drills under the same instructor and were observed by four evaluators who graded the participants in each drill based on a series of pre-defined parameters. The success of the selection process was therefore dependent on the ease of comparability between different teams and evaluators (see Exhibit 4 for potential evaluation mistakes). No The selection process was designed to evaluate and sort soldiers according to their degree of suitability for Special Forces service, based on a reliable comparison with previous candidates and recognition of the distinctive characteristics necessary for service. As one Special Forces recruitment officer noted, “At the end of the day we need to choose 20 candidates for the Special Forces unit from nearly 400 motivated volunteers. We are trying to forecast how these young kids will act under fire in the most demanding circumstances. Am I sure we are getting the best ones? No, but we are doing all we can to give it our best shot.” Do The selection process consisted of an intensive and diverse series of 11 recurring drills (see below). Each drill lasted several hours, was conducted under severe time constraints, and grew in physical and mental pressure as the training progressed. During the five days of training, rest periods were short and sleep hours were limited, as were food breaks. As one participant noted, the training process felt like “one long blurry period, where day and night overlap and your sense of time is lost.” This feeling was exacerbated because watches or cell phones were not allowed. The participants’ normal routine of sleeping at night and being active during the day was thereby purposely altered, adding to the exhaustion, displacement, and difficulty of the training. 5 This document is authorized for use only by Nona Footz at Manhattanville College until June 2013. Copying or posting is an infringement of copyright. Permissions@hbsp.harvard.edu or 617.783.7860. Israeli Special Forces: Selection Strategy rP os t 409-041 After two very challenging days of testing, barely 200 participants remained, with the rest having dropped out, electing to return to paratrooper training (which was itself an elite posting). Soldiers were never asked to leave during the selection exercises. Noted one evaluator, “It can be frustrating sometimes, because you see kids that you know won’t be selected for the training. But if they have it in them to finish, they finish. No one is ever dismissed.” By the end of the fifth day, there were usually about 100 participants remaining. The soldiers in this group were then ranked from first (most suitable candidate) to last according to their final training grade (see below). From this group, between 20 and 22 soldiers were selected to begin the 20-month Special Forces training track, while the others returned to the paratroopers’ regiment. The Drills op yo The following drills comprised the five-day Special Forces selection process. The Crawling Drill Soldiers were ordered to crawl along a rocky path lined with thorn bushes multiple times, varying the distance covered each time. Occasionally, instructors registered the number of times each soldier crawled the path. Drill instructors maintained uncertainty throughout this exercise, arbitrarily extending the path’s length and not disclosing the required number of repetitions. Some soldiers bled from their elbows and knees throughout the exercise. See Exhibit 5. The Uncertainty Drill Instructors marked four points in the field to create a short circular path. They then ordered the soldiers to run as a group around the path until further notice in a seemingly endless circle. The soldiers were required to run as a team, leaving no member behind, while the instructors watched from a distance well out of earshot. One soldier recalled: “This was a very frustrating and confusing drill: we simply didn’t understand the point of it.” See Exhibit 6. tC The Camp Construction Drill Instructors ordered soldiers to build a camp in a time frame that was woefully insufficient and without key construction components and tools. In building their camp, each squad followed the directions of a team leader, nominated before the exercise began. However, the team would be instructed to construct and deconstruct their camp several times due to soldiers’ inability to complete the task in the given time. In addition to the camp construction team effort, soldiers were required to build their own sleeping tents, which they would then use for the duration of the selection period. See Exhibit 7. No The Stretcher Drill In this drill soldiers were told to race to a destination and back. At the starting line, instructors placed a stretcher with a 160-pound payload and a 20-pound water tank, awaiting the returning soldiers. Instructors then informed the squad that the first five soldiers to return to the starting line would have to carry objects during their next lap: the first four carried the stretcher, while the fifth carried the water tank. Each lap was repeated multiple times. See Exhibit 8. The Big Hole Drill In this drill the squad was divided into teams without a predetermined leader. Each team was assigned the same simple goal: using any means at their disposal, whether shovels or their bare hands, dig the biggest hole in the ground. See Exhibit 9. Do The Escape Debate Drill Directly following an intense physical exertion, each squad was confronted with a challenging question pertaining to a hypothetical scenario requiring resolution. The group commander subsequently made responding to the question increasingly difficult by slightly altering the facts of the scenario with each response from the group. One soldier recalled: “After running around all day this theoretical exercise felt like the ultimate break!” See Exhibit 10. 6 This document is authorized for use only by Nona Footz at Manhattanville College until June 2013. Copying or posting is an infringement of copyright. Permissions@hbsp.harvard.edu or 617.783.7860. 409-041 rP os t Israeli Special Forces: Selection Strategy The Boulder Climbing Drill In this competitive and particularly personal challenge, soldiers faced a steep and circular track spanning the length and breadth of a hill. They were ordered to climb the hill and return down to the starting point as many times as possible while carrying a 60-pound bag of sand. In the course of this exercise, fast soldiers passed their slower teammates multiple times. See Exhibit 11. The Face-to-Face Combat Drill This drill consisted of a free wrestling match among all the members of each squad simultaneously. The team wrestled inside a circle and the last soldier who wasn’t thrown out of the circle won. The only limitation presented to the soldiers was that hitting anyone in the face or the head was prohibited. See Exhibit 12. op yo The Mine Field Drill This drill required each squad to construct a bridge from barrels and poles over a section of ground designated the “mine field.” Each team member then had to successfully cross over the improvised bridge without falling. Recruits had a very short amount of time in which to accomplish this, and during more difficult iterations of the drill were prevented from talking with each other. See Exhibit 13. The Sudden Wake-Up and Rapid March Drill Soldiers received a surprise wake-up call at 3:00 AM and were forced to organize themselves immediately for a strenuous 10-mile mountain trek with a heavy pack. One soldier recalled: “I was so confused when they woke us up: there was noise and smoke everywhere and I just couldn’t find my left shoe. I was sure the guy next to me took it by mistake.” See Exhibit 14. The Meal Evaluation Drill While not an “official” drill, soldiers were intently observed during their meals, for which they were allocated only seven minutes per meal, including time to clean up and prepare for the next task. See Exhibit 15. tC Final Grade Components The final grade for each soldier that completed the training was based on weighted scores in three measurement categories: their success in the field drills (40%), a peer-evaluation questionnaire (40%), and a personal interview (20%). Evaluators used this grade to distinguish between the recruits that completed the training and ensure that they selected the best candidates from that pool. No For the field drill evaluation category, the members of each squad were observed and graded by four evaluators, each of whom had been re-trained in the specifics of evaluation several days before training began. (This training involved going over the written guidelines and simulating live-action grading procedures.) Once the five-day course had been completed, evaluators summed the grades for each participant and calculated an average score. One evaluator described what he looked for in the field drills: Do It isn’t what you think—we’re not just taking the strongest and fastest guys. There are soldiers who have had previous conditioning or who were athletes and can really breeze through the physical element of the selection process. But no one is going to get through the 20-month training without being able to seriously push themselves. So that’s what we’re looking for. And more often than not, that means we’re taking the guys who are coming in fourth or fifth in the races but who we believe have the willpower and the motivation and the endurance to improve their physical capabilities as the training demands it. The second category, peer-evaluation, required each recruit to fill out a questionnaire to rank the other participants in his group from first to last, taking into account the following characteristics: 7 This document is authorized for use only by Nona Footz at Manhattanville College until June 2013. Copying or posting is an infringement of copyright. Permissions@hbsp.harvard.edu or 617.783.7860. Israeli Special Forces: Selection Strategy rP os t 409-041 social integration, responsibility, leadership, reliability, teamwork, and self-discipline. Questions were straightforward, such as: “Who would you want next to you in a battle?” “Who would you want as your team leader?” “Who was the most capable member of your group?” Once the forms were completed and analyzed, a weighted score was calculated for each soldier. op yo For the third category, recruiters conducted a personal interview with each participant. A team of experienced evaluators and a behavioral psychologist asked questions about each soldier’s personal background, ambitions, personality, strengths, weaknesses, opinions, and feelings. Questions included, for example: “Why do you want to serve in the Special Forces?” “Will your family support your choice? How do you explain your performance in a particular drill?” Each evaluator scored candidates independently, from which an average score could be calculated and applied to the final grade. Summary Guntz was well acquainted with the function and goals of the selection process. However, he also knew that no aspect of it was considered permanent: it had been modified and improved over time as the Israeli Army had learned more about performance evaluation. Many changes had been made that took into account the safety of each recruit: For example, in severe heat, drill intensity was reduced, minimum drinking quotas were set, and a minimal number of sleep hours was enforced. Nevertheless, Guntz knew very well that the current process involved inherent risks, and unfortunately—in extremely rare cases— potential injuries . Do No tC Once again, Guntz reviewed the guidelines handed out to the evaluators (see Exhibit 16). He wondered: were all the drills really necessary? Was there a safer way to evaluate candidates? Were the evaluations successfully identifying the best candidates? Would standard team-building exercises be good enough? After all, many top-rated organizations selected team members for important positions through interview processes that were much less demanding and less expensive. 8 This document is authorized for use only by Nona Footz at Manhattanville College until June 2013. Copying or posting is an infringement of copyright. Permissions@hbsp.harvard.edu or 617.783.7860. Document from organization. Required Characteristics of an Israeli Special Forces Soldier Do No Exhibit 2 tC Source: Soldier Suffering From Dehydration op yo Exhibit 1 409-041 rP os t Israeli Special Forces: Selection Strategy Source: Document from organization. 9 This document is authorized for use only by Nona Footz at Manhattanville College until June 2013. Copying or posting is an infringement of copyright. Permissions@hbsp.harvard.edu or 617.783.7860. Israeli Special Forces: Selection Strategy Exhibit 3 5 days physical/mental test for SF unit 4 months basic training Document from organization. Exhibit 4 8 months advanced training 8 months specialized training 16 months operational service op yo Source: Israeli Special Forces Candidate Evaluation Process 2 days physical/mental test for paratroopers 1 day initial screening rP os t 409-041 Common Evaluation Mistakes The Aura Effect The tendency to evaluate all the characteristics of a person alike because of an overall positive or negative impression based on one or two distinctive attributes. For example, a certain soldier could be perceived as an ideal candidate due to exceptional physical fitness and charisma, potentially overlooking low endurance levels and a lack of motivation. The Bias Effect The tendency to make all evaluations biased in one direction, either positively or negatively. For example, some evaluators tended to be “good guys” and evaluate over-positively, while others were too strict and deemed all candidates poor performers. tC The Middle Effect The tendency to concentrate the evaluations in the middle, not truly differentiating between the candidates. This effect resulted from the evaluator lacking confidence and trying to stay on “the safe side” with each evaluation to avoid making gross errors. No Stereotyping Effect The tendency to assume characteristics, qualities, and deficiencies in a candidate based on appearance, background, or group affiliation. For example, assumptions included ideas such as, “strong recruits will make the best commandos” or “soldiers with glasses must be intelligent.” The First Impression Effect The tendency to form an opinion—and evaluate accordingly— from a first encounter, ignoring much of what the candidate demonstrated in subsequent drills. The Final Impression Effect The tendency to form an opinion—and evaluate accordingly— based on a final encounter, ignoring much of what the candidate demonstrated in previous drills. Document from organization. Do Source: 10 This document is authorized for use only by Nona Footz at Manhattanville College until June 2013. Copying or posting is an infringement of copyright. Permissions@hbsp.harvard.edu or 617.783.7860. The Crawling Drill Do No tC op yo Exhibit 5 409-041 rP os t Israeli Special Forces: Selection Strategy Source: Document from organization. 11 This document is authorized for use only by Nona Footz at Manhattanville College until June 2013. Copying or posting is an infringement of copyright. Permissions@hbsp.harvard.edu or 617.783.7860. Israeli Special Forces: Selection Strategy The Uncertainty Drill op yo Exhibit 6 tC 10 Document from organization. Do No Source: rP os t 409-041 12 This document is authorized for use only by Nona Footz at Manhattanville College until June 2013. Copying or posting is an infringement of copyright. Permissions@hbsp.harvard.edu or 617.783.7860. The Camp Construction Drill Do No tC op yo Exhibit 7 409-041 rP os t Israeli Special Forces: Selection Strategy Source: Document from organization. 13 This document is authorized for use only by Nona Footz at Manhattanville College until June 2013. Copying or posting is an infringement of copyright. Permissions@hbsp.harvard.edu or 617.783.7860. Israeli Special Forces: Selection Strategy Document from organization. The Big Hole Drill Do No Exhibit 9 tC Source: The Stretcher Drill op yo Exhibit 8 rP os t 409-041 Source: Document from organization. 14 This document is authorized for use only by Nona Footz at Manhattanville College until June 2013. Copying or posting is an infringement of copyright. Permissions@hbsp.harvard.edu or 617.783.7860. Document from organization. The Boulder Climbing Drill Do No Exhibit 11 tC Source: The Escape Debate Drill op yo Exhibit 10 409-041 rP os t Israeli Special Forces: Selection Strategy Source: Document from organization. 15 This document is authorized for use only by Nona Footz at Manhattanville College until June 2013. Copying or posting is an infringement of copyright. Permissions@hbsp.harvard.edu or 617.783.7860. Israeli Special Forces: Selection Strategy The Face-to-Face Combat Drill Do No tC op yo Exhibit 12 rP os t 409-041 Source: Document from organization. 16 This document is authorized for use only by Nona Footz at Manhattanville College until June 2013. Copying or posting is an infringement of copyright. Permissions@hbsp.harvard.edu or 617.783.7860. The Mine Field Drill 24 Document from organization. The Sudden Wake-Up and Rapid March Drill Do No Exhibit 14 tC Source: op yo Exhibit 13 409-041 rP os t Israeli Special Forces: Selection Strategy Source: Document from organization. 17 This document is authorized for use only by Nona Footz at Manhattanville College until June 2013. Copying or posting is an infringement of copyright. Permissions@hbsp.harvard.edu or 617.783.7860. Israeli Special Forces: Selection Strategy Document from organization. Exhibit 16 Evaluator’s Rules tC Source: The Meal Evaluation Drill op yo Exhibit 15 rP os t 409-041 Maintain a detailed write-up, including grades, for each candidate’s performance in each drill. 2. Focus on an external view of group activities and avoid interacting as much as possible. 3. Address the group as an entity and refrain from individual references. 4. Strictly adhere to the drill safety procedures to avoid injuries. 5. Stay near the soldiers during all phases of the drills. 6. Pay close attention to all soldiers in the group and grade all the participants in the drill. 7. Do not disclose your impression or evaluation. Avoid facial expressions of content or displeasure. 8. Do not talk with the soldiers or intervene in their drill except for safety purposes. Do No 1. 9. Complete the evaluation form independently. Do not share impressions with the other evaluators. 10. Independent, unbiased evaluations are the key to a valid and just assessment. Source: Document from organization. 18 This document is authorized for use only by Nona Footz at Manhattanville College until June 2013. Copying or posting is an infringement of copyright. Permissions@hbsp.harvard.edu or 617.783.7860. 409-041 rP os t Israeli Special Forces: Selection Strategy Endnotes 1 “German charged with arming Lufthansa hijackers,” Reuters, November 9, 1994, via Factiva, accessed June 19, 2008. 2 Ibid. 3 “Jailed terrorist asks for forgiveness,” Agence France-Press, October 21, 1994, via Factiva, accessed June 19, 2008. 4 Tom Heneghan, “Bungled hijack a boost for elite German unit,” Reuters, August 16, 1993, via Factiva, accessed June 19, 2008. Andrew Mcewen, “To storm or not to storm?” The Times, April 12, 1988, via Factiva, accessed June 19, 2008. 6 John Newsinger, “Who dares …” History Today, December 1, 1998, via Factiva, accessed June 19, 2008. 7 Paul Harris, “Who dares wins,” VFW, February 1, 2002, via Factiva, accessed June 19, 2008. op yo 5 8 Information in this section derived from “Reliving the memory of the Raid on Entebbe,” South China Morning Post, July 9, 2006, via Factiva, accessed June 20, 2008. Jeffrey Goldberg, “The Unforgiven,” The Atlantic, May 2008. Do No tC 9 19 This document is authorized for use only by Nona Footz at Manhattanville College until June 2013. Copying or posting is an infringement of copyright. Permissions@hbsp.harvard.edu or 617.783.7860.
rP os t 9 -4 1 1 -0 4 0 REV: JULY 5, 2012 ROBERT G. ECCLES AMY EDMONDSON YI KWAN CHU Talent Recruitment at frog design Shanghai op yo Ying Zhang (HBS MBA ’04) sipped tea in the Shanghai studio of frog design,a a “global innovation firm” with branches across the United States and Europe. As Asia-Pacific Regional Manager, Ying was heading up recruitment efforts for four key positions, and in a few hours she had a call scheduled with San Francisco headquarters to talk about her progress. In March 2007, frog design opened its Shanghai studio in the heart of the historic French Concession,b a neighborhood that had become popular among “creatives.” The studio was located in an unusual 5000-square-foot unit down a residential lane where first-time visitors were sometimes lost amidst the laundry drying outside neighboring windows. Looking at the surroundings, it was easy to think of frog’s Shanghai studio as a small local design start-up. But since 2007, it had provided design and innovation consulting services to Fortune 500 companies and large Chinese companies across Asia-Pacific, and had become frog’s fastest-growing outpost worldwide. tC The number one challenge the studio faced was talent recruitment. Two months earlier, in April 2010, a recruiter from headquarters had come to Shanghai to help recruit 10 junior-to-middle level staff, bringing the total head count to 31 in Shanghai. Recruitment of senior staff presented particular challenges. At the moment, the management team in Shanghai was stretched thin and could benefit from additional hires. Specifically, the studio hoped to add four director-level staff in the creative, human resources, program management, and business development disciplines. In China, although there were many senior candidates from these disciplines, few were qualified for frog’s particular take on delivering innovation. No As Ying was going through the applicants’ resumes, she thought it necessary to call for a meeting with the rest of the management team. She wanted to discuss a few things: what capabilities did the Shanghai studio need to develop most? How critical were these four new hires? Which candidate would the team pick for each position? Should frog hire them all at once? If it couldn’t have them all, a The company spelled its name with lower case letters, i.e. “frog design.” According to the company website, “the lower case Do letters offered a nod to the Bauhaus notion of a non-hierarchical language, reinforcing the company’s ethos of democratic partnership, both within the design teams and in its client relationships.” bThe French Concession was created in 1849 when the governor of Shanghai conceded certain territory for a French settlement. This area has since been the premier residential and retail district. The concession came to an end in 1943 when the French government signed it over to the pro-Japanese puppet government in Nanjing. ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Professors Robert G. Eccles and Amy Edmondson and Research Associate Yi Kwan Chu from the HBS Asia-Pacific Research Center prepared this case. HBS cases are developed solely as the basis for class discussion. Cases are not intended to serve as endorsements, sources of primary data, or illustrations of effective or ineffective management. Copyright © 2010, 2012 President and Fellows of Harvard College. To order copies or request permission to reproduce materials, call 1-800-5457685, write Harvard Business School Publishing, Boston, MA 02163, or go to www.hbsp.harvard.edu/educators. This publication may not be digitized, photocopied, or otherwise reproduced, posted, or transmitted, without the permission of Harvard Business School. This document is authorized for use only by Nona Footz at Manhattanville College until June 2013. Copying or posting is an infringement of copyright. Permissions@hbsp.harvard.edu or 617.783.7860. Talent Recruitment at frog design Shanghai rP os t 411-040 who would add the most value to the management team? How should the studio proceed with the hiring process? Company Background frog design was founded by German industrial designer Hartmut Esslinger in 1969.1 It was based on Esslinger’s design philosophy, which he called “form follows emotions” that a product’s effect upon its user was as vital as its functionality. (See Exhibit 1 for a chronology of the company’s development.) op yo frog’s first designs were for Wega, a German electronics manufacturer. 2 When Sony acquired Wega in 1975, frog found itself working for a giant multinational corporation for the first time. The partnership was a huge success, spanning decades and generating more than 100 products, including the famous Sony Trinitron television set. frog, however, first became known in the 1980s for its seminal work for Apple Computer. In 1983, Esslinger entered an exclusive contract with Apple. He moved the firm’s headquarters to Palo Alto, California, and changed its name to “frog design,” which was an acronym to acknowledge its German root—Federal Republic of Germany. 3 It helped design the Apple IIc and introduced the Snow White design language which Apple used between 1983 and 1984.4 The Apple IIc was named “Design of the Year” by Time magazine and was inducted into the permanent collection at the Whitney Museum of Art.5 Driven by the success of the Apple IIc, Apple’s revenue soared from $700 million in 1982 to $4 billion in 1986.6 tC Following the success of the partnership with Apple, frog expanded its services from simply doing industrial design to include corporate branding, digital design, brand, and human-centered design research and strategy. Some of its notable designs during this period included redesigning Logitech’s products and brand identity in 1988 and creating a website for Dell Computer that had become the highest-grossing website as of 2000. Defining frog design: A Global Innovation Firm No In 2002, frog added corporate-level product strategy consulting and long-term planning to its portfolio of services. frog had defined itself as a “global innovation firm” since 2008. The idea was that innovation was not just about coming up with ideas, but also, as Strategy Director Ravi Chhatpar explained, about “ensuring that the ideas have the right business model and plan to be successful on the market.” Creative Director Brandon Berry Edwards added: “We go as upstream as possible but we also go as downstream as possible to ensure that the strategy we help shape can be executed in the market.” In the past, frog was typically hired by product managers to design a new product. But in 2010, frog was often hired by the executive level to tackle a key business problem, like entering a new market or applying intellectual property to a new industry. Physical product design was just one tangible manifestation of the solution. Do At the turn of the millennium, about most of frog’s business competed directly against that of California-based design and product development firm IDEO’s, primarily in upstream industrial design. By 2010, as it diversified and evolved its services, direct competition had dropped significantly as frog’s expansion into end-to-end digital (software, mobile, and user interface) strategy, design, and development services attracted a new type of client that valued the emphasis on execution and commercialization. By 2010, frog had partnered with 8 out of the 10 global top brands 2 This document is authorized for use only by Nona Footz at Manhattanville College until June 2013. Copying or posting is an infringement of copyright. Permissions@hbsp.harvard.edu or 617.783.7860. 411-040 rP os t Talent Recruitment at frog design Shanghai such as Coca-Cola and Intel, according to research by Interbrand, a global brand consultancy owned by the Omnicom Group. frog did not compete directly against traditional management consulting firms. Ravi commented: “In most cases, the working relationship [with consulting firms] was complementary. They came up with the high-level corporate strategy and then handed over the design element to frog. However, many clients are seeing value in the process of strategy, design, and execution that is under one roof, and therefore faster and more agile.” op yo In 2004, frog was acquired by the software division of Flextronics, a large-scale outsourced equipment manufacturer. In 2006, Kohlberg Kravis Roberts (KKR) and Sequoia Capital purchased this software division. They renamed it Aricent and moved it to Palo Alto, California. frog became an independent division of Aricent. Commenting on the relationship among KKR, Aricent, and frog, Creative Director Rainer Wessler added: “Aricent doesn’t impose a cultural change on the way we work. KKR has a lot of value for frog, such as brand name and great network.” Through Aricent, frog had access to more than 9,000 software developers in India. Aricent essentially provided a reliable, offshore software development model emphasizing communication and mobility, which was becoming increasingly important in many industries. To frog’s clients, Aricent offered a one-stop way for frog’s ideas to become real. tC In September 2010, frog and Aricent launched a new business unit called “idea-to-market.” The goal was to integrate frog’s design and innovation expertise with Aricent’s engineering capabilities to enhance their existing service offerings. President Doreen Lorenzo said: “Our experience has shown that a new kind of collaboration model is needed in order to create and commercialize products that deliver the world-class design and user experience consumers today have come to expect. The new business unit will strengthen our ability to help our clients consistently deliver this kind of innovation.” No In 2010, frog employed 550 designers, business strategists, technologists, and analysts. It was headquartered in San Francisco with eight studios around the world (see Exhibit 2). Serving several global key accounts, its total revenue in 2009 exceeded US$120 million. Its clients came from a broad spectrum of industries, such as consumer electronics, healthcare, telecommunications, energy, automotive, media, education, finance, retail, and fashion. Some of its clients included Disney, General Electric, Hewlett-Packard, Lenovo, Huawei, and Microsoft. Creative Industry in China Do China had long been a manufacturing powerhouse for low-end consumer products, although demand for high-end design to target both the domestic and the overseas markets was growing. Other developing countries were also competing against China as a manufacturing base and China needed to differentiate its products to remain competitive. In 2006, hoping to transform the image of Chinese products from “made in China” to “designed in China,” the Chinese government set out to promote the growth of “innovation creation” in its 11 th five-year plan from 2007-2012.7 China was increasingly producing more high-end technology products. A United Nations report stated that China had become the third largest exporter of creative industry products after the United Kingdom and the U.S.—the creative industry was loosely defined to include film, television, animation, performing arts, design, publishing, and music.8 3 This document is authorized for use only by Nona Footz at Manhattanville College until June 2013. Copying or posting is an infringement of copyright. Permissions@hbsp.harvard.edu or 617.783.7860. Talent Recruitment at frog design Shanghai rP os t 411-040 op yo Amidst the proliferation of technology products made in China were the so-called shanzhai c products, or knock-offs. Rainer said, “One thing striking about the Chinese creative industry is speed. Prototyping is extremely rapid and low cost here in China.” Shanzhai manufacturers were able to disassemble the original product, copy and alter its design, manufacture a prototype, and market a shanzhai product in a remarkably short period of time. For instance, it took Apple three years to develop the iPad. But it only took Chinese manufacturers 19 days to introduce a shanzhai iPad to the market (although granted, they had a little head start as Apple’s tablet had been predicted for some time). Shanzhai manufacturers had compressed the product development cycle significantly. Moreover, manufacturers often showed flexibility in product designs. They would alter them just to meet specific market needs. Initially a derogatory term used to suggest something cheap or inferior, to many shanzhai had become a celebration of Chinese creativity and ingenuity. 9 For example, notable shanzhai electronics include touch-screen handsets with styluses and improved text density (both appreciated by Chinese users), or iPod covers with communication modules that effectively turn iPods into iPhones. Market Opportunities and the China Challenge With the government hoping to upgrade China’s economy beyond manufacturing, Chinese companies presented huge market opportunities—opportunities both to help them grow in their home market and to compete internationally. The creative industry in China was concentrated in large first-tier cities, such as Beijing, Shanghai, and Shenzhen. As of early 2008, Shanghai had attracted more than 3,000 creative enterprises from more than 30 countries. That year annual revenue from the creative industry surpassed $8 billion. Shanghai’s long-term goal was to become one of the most advanced cities in the creative industry worldwide within 20 years.10 tC But while “the demand for innovation in China is blooming,” as Ravi recognized, “it is still in an embryonic stage of growth.” “Both the problem-solving process and the drive to execution that underlie innovation have applications beyond just product innovation, extending to the greater tasks of running a business.”11 This was not being practiced in most Chinese companies. No Only a handful of first-tier, up-and-coming Chinese companies had come to terms with the importance of design and innovation. Some had started and primarily relied on their own design teams, such as Lenovo, Baidu, and Alibaba. Some other manufacturers looking to succeed in overseas markets were willing to pay additional for external design consultants who had more advanced knowledge and skills. For examples, Huawei, Haier, and Konka, three Chinese telecommunications and electronics manufacturers, looked for leading European designers to help them develop in the Western market.12 Do Thus China was a huge potential market for frog’s offerings in corporate branding, convergent design and development, and strategic product consulting. As of 2010, frog did not face much competition from local companies, but Ying agreed that competitors were emerging quickly and frog had to work with caution to maintain its competitive edge.13 c The term “shanzhai” literally means “mountain village,” referring to the mountain stockades of bandits, far away from official control. The term first gained popularity in 2007 with the phenomenal sales of cheap cell phones imitating the designs of other brand name phones. But it had evolved to include all kinds of knock-offs, such as celebrity lookalikes and things done in parody. 4 This document is authorized for use only by Nona Footz at Manhattanville College until June 2013. Copying or posting is an infringement of copyright. Permissions@hbsp.harvard.edu or 617.783.7860. 411-040 rP os t Talent Recruitment at frog design Shanghai frog needed to both grow its existing client base and add new clients to its portfolio. Because the local Chinese market was new, it had to expend significant effort explaining how frog worked and convincing these potential clients that its services would help with their businesses. Rainer commented: “The Western clients are more inclined to innovate and grow; whereas in China, the pressure to innovate isn’t as high.” This, however, was not to say that Chinese companies disregarded design as unimportant. It was just that many Chinese companies focusing on the domestic market had no experience with true innovation, and had not yet understood its return on investment. frog design in Shanghai op yo We’re a known entity in the U.S. market. But in China, for a firm like frog, everything is up for grabs, including the role you play. Some think of you as less than what you want to be, but some let you define it. We find ourselves open to all sorts of worlds in a manner not possible in more formal markets. 14 — Mark Rolston, Chief Creative Officer tC frog’s initial foray into Asia was when it worked with Sony in Japan in 1978 and with Acer in Taiwan in 1995. Over the next decade, frog worked sporadically with clients in China, Japan, and Korea, serviced through its European and San Francisco studios. The opportunity to set up an Asian studio came in 2007 when it earned the mandate to extend its relationship with GE, one of frog’s global key accounts, into China. As a major sponsor of the Beijing 2008 Summer Olympic Games, GE wanted to better understand the China market and believed that frog’s local presence would help it craft a better China strategy. As such, frog decided to open a studio to assist GE’s work in China. It chose to establish a base in Shanghai as it was the regional headquarters of most multinational companies, including GE. The Shanghai studio was positioned to be an Asian hub with a full range of capabilities. In its first two years its projects covered a representative range of the frog service offering, including product and interaction design, market and consumer trends research, and ethnographic design research in China; new product innovation in Japan; and new service innovation in South Korea. It provided strategic product consulting advice around these programs to its major clients. No As demand for design and innovation grew, the studio thrived. As of June 2010, it had collaborated with 40 clients on 60 projects, serving Asian accounts and several global key accounts’ projects in Asia. (The global key accounts were frog’s largest clients who spent over $10 million per year, year after year, with whom frog had executive-level relationships). Its clients included Chinese companies interested in growing internationally; multinational companies expanding their presence in the China market; and companies with projects in the rest of Asia-Pacific. Chief Creative Officer Mark Rolston commented: “We can tell that if we put in the right amount of energy, our Chinese business can be as big as the U.S.”15 Do Talent Recruitment at frog design Shanghai The Shanghai studio faced a two-front challenge, building new client relationships and attracting new people, with talent recruitment being the more difficult one. Doreen Lorenzo said: Human capital is the most important engine of growth for us. We invest a lot and almost hand-picked every person to make sure that we hire the right people. We picked our studio based on where the talent is as it’s imperative to have local talent. The challenge with Shanghai 5 This document is authorized for use only by Nona Footz at Manhattanville College until June 2013. Copying or posting is an infringement of copyright. Permissions@hbsp.harvard.edu or 617.783.7860. Talent Recruitment at frog design Shanghai rP os t 411-040 is that there is not a lot of senior-level local talent. Perhaps it will change in about seven to eight years. But for the time being, our strategy is to train and develop talent from within. frog recruited talent in the following ways: internal transfers from other frog studios, referrals by employees, active networking, campus recruiting, and through HR recruitment agencies. Because of the diverse nature of frog Shanghai’s clients and projects, the team needed to be equally diverse, multi-faceted, and have a fundamentally sound approach to cross-cultural issues in both business and design. op yo The problem with design schools, especially those in China, was that they still taught design within the framework of fine arts, with little interaction between business and other disciplines.16 So Brandon and Ravi traveled around greater Asia and globally to find the best talent appropriate to this new market. Simultaneously, they sought out ways to engage the local Chinese creative community by conducting workshops and teaching at universities and companies around the country. The goal was to staff up the studio to 50 employees by spring 2011. In April 2010, Eric sent Anna Prokhorova, a Russian-American recruiter based in the company’s San Francisco headquarters, to Shanghai to help with recruitment. During her two-month stint, Anna recruited 10 staff. As of June 2010, there were 31 full-time staff, covering design, technology, research, project management, and marketing (see Exhibit 3). frog Shanghai maintained a low turnover rate, losing only three employees since it opened in 2007. In the U.S., the industry’s typical turnover rate was 12-15% per annum. tC The Shanghai studio was comprised of seven divisions: creative, strategy, technology, general management, project management, marketing, and finance (see Exhibit 4 for an organizational chart of the studio). The directors’ team was comprised of Ying, Ravi, Brandon, and Rainer, and it was feeling stretched (see Exhibit 5 for bios of director-level staff). For instance, in addition to working on his own design projects and supervising the creative team, Brandon was also heavily involved in recruitment for various roles. On the relationship-building front, he often found himself working to expand frog’s client network, even though he had wanted to spend more time with existing clients to “deepen” the relationships. Other members of the management team were equally busy. Brandon said: No At the director level, the disciplines intentionally break down. I don’t consider myself just as a creative director at frog Shanghai. I am just as involved building the business development group, the project management group, the strategy group, the technology group, etc. Same for the other directors when it comes to making sure that our departments work well together as we grow. We are pretty interconnected. At a high level, it’s this kind of cross-disciplinary responsibility that allows us to provide more meaningful value to our partners. Do In April 2010, frog recruited Jan Chipchase as Executive Creative Director of Global Insights to be based in Shanghai. Jan was one of the world’s leading usabilityd researchers and for 13 years one of the highest profile members of Nokia’s design team. He was recently listed as one of Fortune magazine’s “Smartest Designers in Tech.” “The frog team considered Jan to be a real catch,” said Eric, and expected him to be a thought leader who would help amplify frog’s work in Shanghai and d According to usability.gov, a U.S. government website for information on usability and user-centered design, “usability measures the quality of a user’s experience when interacting with a product or system,” considering factors such as ease of learning, efficiency of use, memorability, error frequency and severity, and subjective satisfaction. (http://usability.gov/ basics/index.html, accessed August 5, 2010.) 6 This document is authorized for use only by Nona Footz at Manhattanville College until June 2013. Copying or posting is an infringement of copyright. Permissions@hbsp.harvard.edu or 617.783.7860. 411-040 rP os t Talent Recruitment at frog design Shanghai worldwide. In May 2010, Marcella Radar, a seasoned usability researcher and manager at Microsoft also joined the Shanghai studio as a creative director. Despite these additions, the management team still felt it would benefit from a few director-level new hires. Specifically, it was looking for directors for the creative, business development, program management, and human resources disciplines. (See Exhibit 6 for a description of each position). The Four Archetypes op yo The company website described an ideal “frog” as someone who was “analytical and artistic, conservative and unconventional, technical and whimsical,” as its business was about a positive balance between “emotional experiences for consumers and economic benefits for clients.” 17 Recruitment of senior staff was difficult. Anna noted: “The pool of candidates for more senior positions in China is very small and there is a lot of poaching in the industry. We recruit globally as well. But many are demanding. They want a chauffeur and subsidies for their housing, children’s education, and relocation.” Indeed, there were not a lot of suitable candidates for the positions. Since frog started recruiting two years ago, it had received about 80 applications for each position. As Ying skimmed through the applications, she thought most of them were “maybe” candidates. She needed inputs from the rest of the management team on how she should proceed. Integrative Thinking in Action tC Brandon was a designer who approached problems by observing, prototyping, iterating what worked and didn’t, and exploring new ideas along the way. When the case writers asked him which candidates had the qualities frog was looking for, he took out a pack of post-it notes and started brainstorming. Brandon explained: “This is akin to a design process. We always go through a process like this, and then clean it up to better form our ideas.” “Regardless of what role or title the new hire is in, ideally, we would like to have someone who has these qualities.” As he said it, Brandon scribbled words such as “east-west bridge,” “Chinese,” “thought leader,” and “government savvy,” on post-it notes and spread them out on the table. He explained: No ’East-west bridge’ means someone who has experience working in different geographical markets; who has worked across cultural gaps to build a team and worked in various business contexts. My experience working with Huawei and supporting their efforts with western carriers involved lengthy discussions with people from both Huawei and their potential clients. They leaned on us more than I expected during this process. We do a lot of similar activities with our clients around Asia, and we will be better to have more people who are ‘cultural bridges.’ On “thought leaders” and “team leaders:” Do The level of success we have today is because we have strong team leaders as well as thought leaders. If someone is a good thought leader but not a team leader, we would not be able to grow organically. About a third of our current staff has prior team leadership capabilities. But we need to scale this model consistently for the short-to-medium-term. We also need someone who is government-savvy. For many different industries, doing business in China requires a good relationship with the government, especially in an industry 7 This document is authorized for use only by Nona Footz at Manhattanville College until June 2013. Copying or posting is an infringement of copyright. Permissions@hbsp.harvard.edu or 617.783.7860. Talent Recruitment at frog design Shanghai rP os t 411-040 such as real estate, which represents only one of the new areas of focus for us. This [experience] is probably both the hardest to find as it relates to consulting services, but which would give our team fresh perspectives the most. In 15 minutes, Brandon came up with about 20 words describing qualities the studio was looking for in its people. Then he grouped together words to form “archetypes” to see how certain qualities worked together, “there are mixes and matches of these profiles that create people that are probably really, really perfect fits. And we could probably mix up some of these capabilities to create another archetype as well.” At the end, he created the following four archetypes (see Exhibit 7): Technovator In Brandon’s own words: op yo This type is unique in the context of China. This is someone who is native Chinese with a manufacturing and engineering background. Our business development director Will Zhang is one [technovator] but we need more of this type. This is someone who understands the similarities and differences in approaches to innovation between China and the West and who can serve as an east-west bridge, ideally someone with previous experience working at a multinational such as Siemens, Toyota, or Google. We also need someone who is very government savvy and has strong connections at the C-level. Master of Osmosis The core attributes of this archetype were “industry verticals,” “content expertise,” and “expertise diffusion.” Brandon explained: tC This is someone who has experiences in one or a few industry verticals and who can take that knowledge and share it with the team, which is what I mean by ‘expertise diffusion.’ Knowledge transfer is important at frog. If a person has a lot of vertical knowledge but can’t empower the team around them then it’s of limited use. It’s best that this person is from a creative background, and who knows how to lead teams and manage talent. Brandon struggled to come up with a name for this archetype: “I don’t know… I am going to call this person ‘Mrs. 800.’ We had a very senior Chinese creative recruit couple years ago who was called ‘Mrs. 600’ for some strange reason. We never hired her because she was not the right fit at the time, but she suited the description of this archetype.” Later Brandon changed the name of this archetype to “Knowledge Manager,” and eventually to “Master of Osmosis.” No The Specialist This archetype referred to someone who possessed vertical knowledge and had client management skills in the vertical. He said: This is someone who can take up a vertical that we are already successful in and work across disciplines with the other directors and across business units within our partner organizations. They will bring such intrinsic knowledge to that vertical that allows our team to go deeper, and enable us to speak with a more authoritative voice at a more strategic level. Business development and thought leadership are essential parts of the package. Do The Inspired Mind This was someone who brought “fundamentally new creative approaches to the team.” This is someone who fully understands new approaches to research, creativity, and engineering and can adapt to the ones that we already have. This person is potentially Chinese, a team leader, and, in addition to being creative, he or she should be able to bring in new ideas and shake things up a little bit, taking what we already have here and adapting it. 8 This document is authorized for use only by Nona Footz at Manhattanville College until June 2013. Copying or posting is an infringement of copyright. Permissions@hbsp.harvard.edu or 617.783.7860. Candidates for the Open Positions 411-040 rP os t Talent Recruitment at frog design Shanghai While frog was hiring for the four positions, it used the archetypes to inform what candidates would add the most value to frog. The management team looked at the archetypes and agreed with most of what Brandon came up with. The archetype of “technovator” was very distinct, while “master of osmosis” and “the specialist” had some common attributes. While Brandon and the rest of the top team could continue to brainstorm some more, for the moment, these four archetypes captured the kinds of aspiring capabilities that frog design was looking for. The question next was: which candidates possessed the qualities described in the archetypes? After rounds of screening and interviewing, as of June 2010, the management team had narrowed down to the following candidates for the four positions:e op yo Associate Creative Director Joseph A native Chinese from Hong Kong, Joseph was fluent in English and Cantonese and spoke conversational Spanish. Joseph had briefly interned at a leading global software company’s R&D center in Beijing before he received his Bachelor of Science degree from Duke University in mechanical engineering and education. After graduation, he worked at a small design studio for six months as a design researcher. Joseph then worked for a think tank in Silicon Valley, researching and working on product strategies. For about two years, Joseph worked in Barcelona in a similar role with another company. He also had opportunities to manage a small team and work on projects based in Spain, Japan, Saudi Arabia, and the U.S. In his spare time, Joseph had maintained a blog for four years on the intersection of eastern and western culture and tracing his Hong Kong roots. Since March 2010, he had been on a sabbatical to finish a multimedia art project for a local exhibition. tC The team at frog Shanghai was impressed by the breadth and depth of Joseph’s design research, as well as his work portfolio. From reading his blog, Brandon also felt that it showed thought leadership, communications skills, and commitment: “You can tell from reading his blog that he’s a conversationalist when it comes to learning and sharing new knowledge. You can tell that he’s still curious. I see him as a leader in that sense.” However, frog typically recruited people who had work experience in more prestigious firms. “It’s a very common situation, but typically we get people who have worked at other top design firms. Not having the experience at any of these firms is very different.” Do No Mark Mark was of Finnish origin. After graduating first in his class with an undergraduate degree in design future from the University of Edinburgh, Mark obtained a master of arts in new media and media lab from University of Art and Design Helsinki. Mark did freelance design with small agencies. He also worked as an interaction designer for a Finnish research institute on information technology. As a side project, Mark co-founded a start-up in multi-touch technology, where he worked as a lead designer. He helped it grow to a 20-person team and the value of the company was estimated to be worth 3 million Euros (about US$3.9 million). For two years, Mark was a design specialist at Siemens, where he worked with designers in Tokyo, Los Angeles, and London. It was a senior role with managerial responsibilities. Initially interviewing for a position at the San Francisco studio, Mark was attracted to Shanghai after a six-month field research project in Asia. The frog team thought Mark’s experience at Siemens was very valuable. He had experience managing an extremely talented team in a multicultural environment. Mark had also seen his designs e These candidate profiles are modified and are not meant to describe any actual candidate. 9 This document is authorized for use only by Nona Footz at Manhattanville College until June 2013. Copying or posting is an infringement of copyright. Permissions@hbsp.harvard.edu or 617.783.7860. Talent Recruitment at frog design Shanghai rP os t 411-040 reaching millions of people and understood the meaning of his work in a broader sense. He was an expert in multi-touch technology as well. At frog, Mark could potentially serve as a specialist or a thought leader. However, Mark raised a red flag when he requested that the team not share his application with a senior new recruit who also previously worked at Siemens. His request raised concern about the working relationship between the duo. Business Development Director op yo Thomas Thomas was an entrepreneur from Massachusetts. He had been in China for the past eight years and spoke intermediate Mandarin. He had several businesses in China, including one which was had just been sold to a media conglomerate based in Shenzhen. It started out as a directory and grew into a hub for conferences, events, recruitment, and other activities for companies in China. At the time of his job application, Thomas had also set up an outsourcing print service for the different countries participating at the World Expo in Shanghai. Brandon felt that despite his recent successes, Thomas was still driven by a real hunger for innovative work. He seemed to have a hand in many different fields, knew the language of innovation in China, and could potentially be a powerful networker. However, Thomas was not a specialist or a content expert and the learning curve for him could be very steep. Another concern for the frog team was the relatively small scale of his past ventures. frog’s clients were mostly multinationals or big Chinese companies. Could he bring in business for frog? tC It was a double-edged sword. Most of frog’s largest clients started out with relatively small projects and frog recognized the need to be more flexible and open about new business opportunities. Thomas’s experiences and interests in different fields could be valuable in the longer run. The studio also needed smaller projects to make sure that its staff didn’t get burned out working on big projects for too long a period of time. Yang Yang was native Chinese and was referred by a mutual friend of Ying’s. Yang received his undergraduate degree in law from Peking University and his MBA from the University of Toronto, Canada. Yang’s work experience spanned investment banking, marketing, strategic consulting, and management, including working for Adidas as a project planner for two years and then as planning director at Puma for another two years. No Yang was quite senior and had an established network in China. He had corporate experience and his experience in strategic planning fit what frog was looking for in a candidate for the position. Brandon thought his work experience with both Adidas and Puma raised concern about his loyalty to a company. But Ying thought a bigger concern was that he had a lot of experiences and in fact, could be too senior for the position at what was still a fairly small studio in Shanghai. Brandon reflected that “Yang will need to be hungry and open-minded to new ideas in order to succeed at frog.” Project Management Director Do Johnny Johnny graduated from Carnegie Mellon University with a degree in computer science and was proficient in software development. He had experience in product management at a leading global software company, where he had worked for five-and-a-half years, including three years at the company’s regional office in Shanghai. The frog team felt that Johnny had strong leadership in software and vertical knowledge. But he was probably not experienced enough having only worked for one company in his entire career. Rainer commented: “We lack seniority and mentorship in project management. We need someone who is experienced enough that he can stabilize that part of our business to give us confidence that things are in place.” 10 This document is authorized for use only by Nona Footz at Manhattanville College until June 2013. Copying or posting is an infringement of copyright. Permissions@hbsp.harvard.edu or 617.783.7860. 411-040 rP os t Talent Recruitment at frog design Shanghai Brian Brian was an internal applicant from frog’s studio in Amsterdam. Brian was one of the first to join the Amsterdam studio, which was only a year younger than the Shanghai one. He had helped grow the entire project management team during his two-year tenure there. For the past three months, Brian had been working on a project with Brandon and on another with Rainer. It was the combination of Asia’s growing appeal and opportunities to work with key accounts in Asia that attracted him to Shanghai. The Shanghai team thought his experience in Amsterdam of building a team from scratch could potentially have a big impact on the Shanghai team. However, his departure from Amsterdam could create a talent vacuum for the studio there. Brandon reflected: op yo It would be a big deal for Amsterdam if he left. In fact, it would be a big deal for every studio. frog would rather keep an employee, have him go to another studio than to have lost the person completely, as simple as that. If [the Amsterdam studio] believed that it has exhausted all options to improve his career there then it would try other opportunities in other studios. That’s why the home studio has a say in it. What this candidate would be for us would be what Amsterdam would miss from him. Of course, if he comes to Shanghai, we transfer the recruitment problem to a talent market where it’s easier to find talent. Human Resources Director tC Vivian Vivian was a seasoned recruiter at a leading global software company’s regional office in Shanghai. She had recruited 80% of the 300 staff in the design team during her four-year tenure there. Vivian was artistic and creative due to her upbringing, for her father taught painting at a prestigious local art academy. The frog team thought Vivian was competent and would make a great cultural fit at frog. However, during the interviewing process, frog learned that Vivian was recently promoted to HR director at her current company in Shanghai. No Ada Ada received her master degree in human resources from Fudan University in Shanghai. She had five years of HR experience in the semiconductor industry. She was outgoing, energetic, confident, and apparently a star performer. Ying commented: “Although Ada comes from a very different industry background, when asked how many days she would need to understand all the detailed requirements for each frog position and to build up the network in the respective talent pools for these positions, she was confident enough to say that she only needed 30 days to fill the 30 different roles we are recruiting. She’s ready to go.” Decision Time Three years since frog design had come to China, it had entered the most accelerated phase of growth. Its crammed office space in the French Concession could barely accommodate all the activities that were going on there. The company was scheduled to move into a new office four times bigger in the fall 2010. Do This was very exciting. But the recruitment of senior staff was looming large. These four positions were crucial hires and San Francisco headquarters hoped to hear from the Shanghai team about its progress soon. Since the hiring process at frog often involved opinions from multiple senior leaders, the director team in Shanghai sat down to discuss their current situation with the four open positions. Ying started by emphasizing the fundamental goal of frog: 11 This document is authorized for use only by Nona Footz at Manhattanville College until June 2013. Copying or posting is an infringement of copyright. Permissions@hbsp.harvard.edu or 617.783.7860. Talent Recruitment at frog design Shanghai rP os t 411-040 Our goal is to help companies gain the business value of creativity and good product design. The change frog has undergone over the years is huge as we keep innovating ourselves. Originally frog was a design firm. But over the years, we gain new knowledge and skill sets to make sure that we optimize the value of creativity for business. Rainer added: op yo We see ourselves connecting with much higher level clients more, which helps us realize what we want in design. The challenge is how to execute it. We’ve been through years of concept design with important clients. Now as the quality of products improved so much, there were a lot of competing businesses. For instance, everyone that is coming to the market talks about being the iPhone killer. It’s not about the idea but about getting the organization into the kind of place to execute the idea, which is bigger than the design. The team saw talent recruitment as a crucial step to help frog realize its goal. Ying noted: “We do have a need for operation efficiency support and business development support. We hope we can get these new hires on board very soon.” The challenge was that the talent market in China was not as developed and great candidates were hard to come by in this industry. A few qualified candidates had even dropped out during the process. Rainer said: “The state of where our business is in can be scary to candidates. We are dealing with problems difficult to anticipate and we do not have a specialist to deal with them. A candidate has to buy into this state of organization to be committed and get ready for these challenges.” Do No tC Ying and her team gathered over the table in the small conference room next to their open air offices to discuss the candidates. They needed to decide for which positions and to which person they were ready to make offers. Their desire was to reach a largely unanimous decision on each candidate before Ying could place a call to San Francisco. In an organization that celebrated diversity, this could be challenging. 12 This document is authorized for use only by Nona Footz at Manhattanville College until June 2013. Copying or posting is an infringement of copyright. Permissions@hbsp.harvard.edu or 617.783.7860. Exhibit 1 Event German industrial designer Hartmut Esslinger founded  “esslinger design.” The frog-designed Sony WEGA Concept 51 stereo was acquired for the design collection of MoMA, New York. Esslinger  changed  the  name  of  the  firm  to  “frog design”  and  moved  company  headquarters to Palo Alto, California. frog partnered with Apple to create the Apple IIc, which was later inducted into the design collection of the Whitney Museum, New York, and voted Time magazine’s  “Design  of  the  Year.” frog was  chosen  “Design  Team  of  the  Year”  by  the  Design  Center,  Essen  (Germany). frog launched the digital media design group, pioneering user interface design for the web and digital services. The frog-designed Dell.com became the highest-grossing website to date. frog design established a strategy department, integrating high-level business strategy and user insights. frog helped Disney establish a new line of consumer electronics for children, expanding the business and generating more than US$500 million in revenue. frog opened a studio in Shanghai in March. frog partnered with PopTech to launch Project Masiluleke, an initiative that harnessed the power of mobile technology to combat the HIV and AIDS epidemic in South Africa. frog designed the HP Touchsmart, moving the PC into a communal position within the household. frog worked with Intel to create the Intel Point of Sale kiosk, a new retail concept that demonstrated the convergence of online and real world shopping experiences. 1982 1982 1993 1996 2000 2002 2003 2007 2008 2009 Do No tC Source: Company website. op yo Year 1969 1978 Selected milestones of frog design 411-040 rP os t Talent Recruitment at frog design Shanghai 13 This document is authorized for use only by Nona Footz at Manhattanville College until June 2013. Copying or posting is an infringement of copyright. Permissions@hbsp.harvard.edu or 617.783.7860. Exhibit 2 Talent Recruitment at frog design Shanghai frog design studios around the world Location of Studio New York, NY Austin, TX Milan, Italy Seattle, WA Shanghai, China Amsterdam, The Netherlands San Francisco, CA Munich, Germany rP os t 411-040 Year Established 1997 1997 2004 2005 2007 2007 2008 2010 Do No tC Source: frog design Shanghai. op yo Note: frog design initially set up the California studio in Palo Alto in 1982. It moved the studio to San Francisco in 2008. The studio in Munich replaced the first frog studio that was set up in Stuttgart, Germany in 1969. 14 This document is authorized for use only by Nona Footz at Manhattanville College until June 2013. Copying or posting is an infringement of copyright. Permissions@hbsp.harvard.edu or 617.783.7860. This document is authorized for use only by Nona Footz at Manhattanville College until June 2013. Copying or posting is an infringement of copyright. Permissions@hbsp.harvard.edu or 617.783.7860. No Employee profiles at frog design Shanghai op yo Source: frog design Shanghai. tC -15- Open recruit Transfer Referral Referral Referral Referral Transfer Open recruit Open recruit Open recruit Referral Referral Open recruit Referral Recruitment Channel Transfer Referral 411-040 Open recruit Open recruit Referral Referral Open recruit Referral Referral Referral Open recruit Referral Referral Referral Referral Referral Open recruit rP os t Date of Additional Language Employee joining Nationality Title (besides English) Education 1 Mar-07 American Strategy Director French AB in Biology and Economics, US 2 Mar-07 Hong Kong Senior Marketing Manager Mandarin, Cantonese Bachelor of Business Administration, Hong Kong; Graduate Certificate in Chinese Business Administration, Australia 3 Jun-07 American Creative Director Spanish BFA in Industrial Design and Visual Communications, US 4 Jan-08 Chinese Strategist Mandarin BA in Business Administration and Law, China 5 Feb-08 Chinese Principle Designer Mandarin n/a 6 Feb-08 Chinese General Manager Mandarin BA in English, China; MBA, US 7 Jun-08 Taiwanese Program Manager Mandarin BA in Computer Science and Business Administration, USA; MBA, China 8 Jul-08 Chinese Business Development Director Mandarin MS in Automation, China 9 Sep-08 Taiwanese Design Researcher II Mandarin BFA in Design, Canada 10 Oct-08 Chinese Finance and Office Operation Mandarin BA in Finance, China Manager 11 Oct-08 Chinese Interaction Designer II Mandarin n/a 12 Oct-08 Chinese Office Assistant Mandarin BS in Computer Science, China 13 Jan-09 Chinese Interaction Designer Mandarin n/a 14 Feb-09 American Associate Director, Program Mandarin BS in Electrical and Computer Engineering, US Management 15 Mar-09 German Creative Director II German BA in Psychology, Germany 16 Jun-09 American Associate Technology Director n/a BA/BS in Mathematics and Computer Science, US; MS in Computer Science, US 17 Jun-09 Japanese Senior Design Analyst Japanese BFA in Graphic Design, US; MBA, Canada 18 Sep-09 Chinese Office Assistant Mandarin Associate degree in English, China 19 Oct-09 Chinese Visual Designer II Mandarin BA in Art (Graphic Design), China 20 Dec-09 American Senior Design Researcher n/a BFA in Graphic Design and Photography, US; MFA in Design, US 21 Jan-10 Chinese Senior Technologist Mandarin BS in Computer Science, China; Msc in Computer Science, China 22 Feb-10 Chinese Senior Interaction Designer Mandarin BFA in Graphic Design, China; MFA in Design, Australia 23 Mar-10 Chinese Interaction Designer Mandarin n/a 24 Apr-10 Chinese Design Trainee Mandarin BFA in Industrial Design, China 25 Apr-10 German Technologist II n/a BA in Information Technology, Germany 26 Apr-10 Chinese Interaction Designer Mandarin BA in Law, China 27 Apr-10 Chinese Interaction Designer Mandarin BA in Artist Design, China 28 Apr-10 Chinese Design Trainee Mandarin BFA in Multimedia Design, China 29 May-10 American Creative Director III n/a BA in Psychology, US; PhD in Cognitive Psychology, US 30 May-10 Taiwanese Interaction Designer Mandarin BA in Industrial Design, Taiwan; MFA in Design, Taiwan 31 May-10 Taiwanese Apprentice Designer Mandarin BA in Information Communication, Taiwan; MFA in Interaction Design, Italy Exhibit 3 Do This document is authorized for use only by Nona Footz at Manhattanville College until June 2013. Copying or posting is an infringement of copyright. Permissions@hbsp.harvard.edu or 617.783.7860. Creative Director (Brandon Berry Edwards) Creative Director (Marcella Radar) Executive Creative Director (Rainer Wessler) (Ravi Chhatpar) Strategy Director Source: frog design Shanghai. General Management Project Management (Eric Allhusen) (Neil Liang) (Ying Zhang) (Will Zhang) BD Director Business Development Finance and Office Operation Manager Finance 411-040 rP os t Associate PM Director Regional General Manager op yo Technology frog design Shanghai Associate Tech Director tC Strategy Note: The Finance discipline at frog design Shanghai did not have director-level staff. Director of Marketing Executive Creative Director (Jan Chipcase) Creative No Organizational chart of frog design Shanghai Marketing Exhibit 4 Do -16- Exhibit 5 411-040 rP os t Talent Recruitment at frog design Shanghai Bios of director-level staff at frog design Shanghai Eric Allhusen, Associate Technology Director Eric joined frog design’s studio in New York as technical architect in July 2006 and transferred to the Shanghai studio to become associate technology director in October 2008. Eric led frog's technology team in Asia. He was responsible for driving the technology solution from concept to completion by crafting technical strategies, designing software architectures, and communicating the technical impact of design decisions to the frog project team and the client. Eric had wide-range of experience in mobile, embedded and enterprise software architecture, development, and methodology. op yo Before joining frog, Eric was a Senior IT Architect in the Wireless Applications practice at IBM, where he led the design and delivery of automotive telematics and remote diagnostics solutions. Eric received a MS degree in computer science from Georgia Institute of Technology in 2001 with a focus in Human-Computer Interaction and Intelligent Systems. Ravi Chhatpar, Strategy Director tC Ravi joined frog design Shanghai in April 2007 as strategy director. Before frog, Ravi spent three years in Tokyo building an e-business strategy and delivery capability for NEC. Previously, he had worked as a specialist in new venture strategy and private equity, and as a management consultant. His frog client portfolio included broad experience with Fortune 500 companies and global multinationals in a range of verticals, including consumer products, industrial products, technology, mobile, media, and financial services. Ravi had also authored publications for the Harvard Business Review and the Design Management Institute, lectured and taught courses at business schools (CEIBS, NYU Stern), and was an avid participant in the conference circuit around topics related to innovation and design management. Ravi was from New York City and received his BA in biology and economics from Harvard University in 1998. Brandon Berry Edwards, Creative Director No Brandon joined frog design’s Austin studio as a designer in 2004, focusing on designs for American and European clients. After working three years in the Austin studio, Brandon moved to China in June 2007 as associate creative director to grow frog’s capabilities in Asia. He was promoted to Creative Director in March 2010. His primary focus at frog design was in leading a multicultural, cross-disciplinary team to translate research into innovations, products and services for local and multinational clients. He had designed solutions across many industries (automotive, consumer goods, communications, enterprise, entertainment, healthcare, and travel) and markets (U.S., E.U., China, Taiwan, Korea, Japan, and Southeast Asia). Do In his spare time, Brandon did guest lectures and conducted workshops about design and the creative process at companies and universities around the world, such as at Art Center College of Design, TongJi University, SXSW Interactive, and Guangzhou Design Week. Brandon was originally from Austin, Texas and received his BFA degree in industrial design and visual communications from the Texas State University in San Marcos in 2004. 17 This document is authorized for use only by Nona Footz at Manhattanville College until June 2013. Copying or posting is an infringement of copyright. Permissions@hbsp.harvard.edu or 617.783.7860. Talent Recruitment at frog design Shanghai rP os t 411-040 Exhibit 5 (continued) Neil Liang, Associate Director of Program Management Neil joined frog design as associate director in February 2009. He was responsible for leading and growing the program management team in Asia. Prior to joining, Neil led strategic marketing efforts in emerging markets for Cisco. In this role, he worked with customers and partners across Asia Pacific and Latin America to create new services and launch products for regional markets. At Cisco, Neil also held roles in product management and user interface design, and had managed many largescale product development projects. Prior to Cisco, Neil was a technology consultant at Scient. op yo Neil was born in Shanghai, China, and raised in the United States. He held a BS degree in electrical and computer engineering from Northwestern University in 2000. Marcella Radar, Creative Director Marcella joined frog design Shanghai as a creative director in May 2010. Prior to joining frog, Marcella was a principal user experience manager of Microsoft Mobile Services China. She owned end-to-end strategy for Windows Live Mobile across platforms, user research strategy, and managed a multidisciplinary creative studio. During her 14-year user-experience career at Microsoft, she worked globally on productivity tools such as Microsoft Office, Project, and SharePoint as well as consumer focused applications such as Windows Live (Desktop, Mobile, Client, and Web). tC Marcella grew up in Brazil and moved to the United States to attend college at the University of Illinois. She was trained as a psychologist and received her PhD in Cognitive Psychology from the University of Washington in 1997. She has been living in Shanghai with her family for the last three years. Rainer Wessler, Executive Creative Director No Rainer joined frog design Shanghai as a creative director in March 2009 and was recently promoted to executive creative director. He had more than 12 years of work experience in creative and felt most passionate about strategic design, innovation strategy, and concept design. Prior to joining frog design, Rainer worked at iconmobile in London as head of strategic design, where he focused on global projects with clients from the mobile industry and finance. Previously, Rainer led different programs and teams in the Vodaphone Group User Experience team in Dusseldorf, at Sapient, and at the Siemens IC7 research center in Munich. Do At frog, Rainer's role involved working with clients in consumer electronics, automotive, finance, and retail. In his early career he published and contributed to various research papers and articles. Rainer held a degree in psychology from the University of Osnabrueck in Germany where he focused on ergonomics, cognitive modeling, user-centered design, and evaluation methods. 18 This document is authorized for use only by Nona Footz at Manhattanville College until June 2013. Copying or posting is an infringement of copyright. Permissions@hbsp.harvard.edu or 617.783.7860. Exhibit 5 (continued) Will Zhang, Business Development Director 411-040 rP os t Talent Recruitment at frog design Shanghai Will was the only business development director at the Shanghai studio. Will had more than 10 years of experience in sales and business development. His experiences also included supply chain management, production, engineering, project management, and marketing. At frog Will worked with clients from over 20 countries in northeast Asia, Europe, and North America. Prior to joining frog in July 2008, Will had worked at Siemens for six years, first as a sales representative and project engineer, then as an assistant department manager. His most recent post at Siemens was as director of product promotion. op yo Will was born in Xinjiang, an autonomous region in Western China. He received his MS degree in automation from Beihang University in 1998, one of China’s top engineering schools and which had a great influence on China’s aeronautical and astronautical industry. Ying Zhang, General Manager Ying joined frog design Shanghai in 2008 as general manager. Ying had twelve years of experience working as a researcher, strategic planner, and business leader to provide professional services to advise Asian and Western companies’ marketing and product commercialization efforts in Asia, Europe, and the U.S markets. Prior to frog, Ying had spent nine years at WPP, most recently serving as a business leader for key clients such as Lenovo and China Mobile. At frog, Ying worked closely with frog’s executive management team to oversee client development and drive growth for frog in Asia. She was responsible for providing strategic leadership for frog’s current clients in the region, establishing new executive level relationships and further expanding frog’s Asian team. tC A Beijing native who attended the highly competitive and prestigious Beijing Number Four High School, Ying graduated from Peking University with a BA in English in 1998. She received her MBA from Harvard Business School in 2004. Do No Source: frog design Shanghai. 19 This document is authorized for use only by Nona Footz at Manhattanville College until June 2013. Copying or posting is an infringement of copyright. Permissions@hbsp.harvard.edu or 617.783.7860. Exhibit 6 Talent Recruitment at frog design Shanghai Descriptions of open positions at frog design A. Associate Creative Director rP os t 411-040 This role oversees the daily activities of a team of designers assigned to multiple projects and cultivates an environment of sustained creativity and professional growth. Associate creative directors will assist the creative directors on design direction, team effectiveness, and client relationships. They are also expected to play an active, hands-on role in key projects. op yo Requirements:  At least two years experience managing a digital design team.  At least seven years professional digital design experience.  Strong leadership and people management skills.  Proven ability to mentor and develop skills in junior digital designers.  Strong knowledge of design process and project management.  Excellent interpersonal and presentation skills, including the ability to communicate effectively in small and large groups at all levels of a client organization.  Ability to negotiate and coordinate with multiple groups and disciplines.  Bachelor’s degree in a design-related discipline. B. Business Development Director tC This role is responsible for the support of business development efforts. A candidate should have strong sales and communications skills and be an effective writer. S/he should bring business and related industry knowledge with a proven ability to develop messages based on data gathered from designers, program managers, business development, and engineering. This role is responsible for the efficient management of the account development process, including leads generation, the comprehensive collection of prospect requirements, the accurate development of prospect solutions, and the effective presentation of solutions in the form of proposals and request for proposal (RFP) responses. Do No Requirements: • Bachelor’s degree in business, communications, or marketing; MBA preferred. • Strong creative sales writing, RFP development, and branding background. • Strong presentation skills and ability to articulate frog message. • Demonstrated ability to work in teams, as well as individually. • General knowledge of digital and/or product design a plus. • Ability to think creatively, as well as manage multiple initiatives simultaneously. • Energetic, self-motivated, and flexible to corporate pace as well as the dynamics of working with multidisciplinary internal teams. • Adapt to varying workloads and task requirements under tight deadlines. • Personable and able to interact well with co-workers, customers, and vendors. • Agency experience desired. • Write, edit, format, and review proposals under tight deadlines. • Solid references from previous employers as well as clients. 20 This document is authorized for use only by Nona Footz at Manhattanville College until June 2013. Copying or posting is an infringement of copyright. Permissions@hbsp.harvard.edu or 617.783.7860. Exhibit 6 (continued) C. Program Management Director 411-040 rP os t Talent Recruitment at frog design Shanghai op yo This role provides overall account leadership, developing executive level relationships that positions frog as a design expert and strategic advisor. The program management director serves as the leader of the core frog team that partners with our client for long term mutually beneficial results. An ideal candidate is an experienced, business-savvy individual who is well-versed in managing a team while providing outstanding client support relative to the projects in progress. S/he is focused on project delivery, assuring overall quality and customer satisfaction. S/he must be able to identify a client’s business and communication needs and readily coordinate with the delivery teams to adapt project plans to meet those needs. tC Requirements: • 10 years related experience. MBA Preferred. • Previous experience in a client service organization, preferably with top-tier consulting firm or major design studio. • Strong experience and knowledge of design and design process. • Proven experience developing and managing long-term, multiple project client relationships. • Deep understanding of project management, work flow, and infrastructure. • Ability to interact with client at all levels, from project administrators to CEOs. • Deep understanding of account management. • Ability to focus on long term business and design goals of clients. • Knowledge of contracts and commitment to contract compliance. • Strong experience with budget tracking and analysis; and strong business software skills. • Ability to manage and mentor. D. Human Resources Director This is a hybrid role encompassing both recruiting and studio partner responsibilities. A successful person in this role will drive talent acquisition and management, organization design and development, and leadership capability. Do No Requirements: • Bachelor’s degree in Human Resources, Organizational Psychology or equivalent. • Competent in all HR functional areas (staffing, benefits, employee relations, compensation, learning & development, etc.). • Proven HR business partner and talent acquisition skills. • Knowledge and experience with team dynamics and application of organizational development and design principles. • Knowledge of employment laws, compensation philosophies, and HR operating mechanisms. • Demonstrated computer literacy to include experience with MS office suite, applicant tracking systems, and tracking of recruitment outcomes (ROI). • The ability to quickly build relationships and establish trust with leaders, hiring managers, colleagues and candidates/applicants, employees, and public at large. • Knowledge of talent acquisition concepts, processes, and their interdependencies. Source: frog design Shanghai. 21 This document is authorized for use only by Nona Footz at Manhattanville College until June 2013. Copying or posting is an infringement of copyright. Permissions@hbsp.harvard.edu or 617.783.7860. -22- Exhibit 7 Source: frog design Shanghai. The four archetypes No tC op yo rP os t 411-040 Do This document is authorized for use only by Nona Footz at Manhattanville College until June 2013. Copying or posting is an infringement of copyright. Permissions@hbsp.harvard.edu or 617.783.7860. 411-040 rP os t Talent Recruitment at frog design Shanghai Endnotes 1 Hartmut Esslinger, “a fine line: how design strategies are shaping the future of business,” San Francisco: Jossey-Bass (John Wiley & Sons), 2009, p 4. Hartmut Esslinger, “a fine line: how design strategies are shaping the future of business,” San Francisco: Jossey-Bass (John Wiley & Sons), 2009, p. 5. 2 Hartmut Esslinger, “a fine line: how design strategies are shaping the future of business,” San Francisco: Jossey-Bass (John Wiley & Sons), 2009, p. 6. 3 Hartmut Esslinger, “a fine line: how design strategies are shaping the future of business,” San Francisco: Jossey-Bass (John Wiley & Sons), 2009, pp. 8-9. 4 op yo 5 Hartmut Esslinger, “a fine line: how design strategies are shaping the future of business,” San Francisco: Jossey-Bass (John Wiley & Sons), 2009, p. 9. 6 Hartmut Esslinger, “a fine line: how design strategies are shaping the future of business,” San Francisco: Jossey-Bass (John Wiley & Sons), 2009, p.-9. 7 International Visual Communications Association, “The Creative Industries in China,” March 2010, p. 6, http://www.ivca.org/ivca/live/news/2010/develop-your-business-in-china-join-the-ivca-trade-mission-toshanghai/IVCA_Report_-_The_Creative_Industries_in_China.pdf, accessed June 7, 2010. 8 International Visual Communications Association, “The Creative Industries in China,” p. 1. 9 Sky Canaves and Juliet Ye, “Imitation Is the Sincerest Form of Rebellion in China,” Wall Street Journal, January 22, 2009, http://online.wsj.com/article/SB123257138952903561.html, accessed July 7, 2010. 10 China Radio International, “Shanghai Develops Creative Industry,” http://english.cri.cn/4026/2008/01/12/164@313479.htm, accessed July 9, 2010. 11 January 12, 2008, tC Venessa Wong, “China’s New Focus on Design,” Businessweek, September 30, 2009, http://www.businessweek.com/innovate/content/sep2009/id20090930_579320.htm?chan=innovation_special+ report+--+design+thinking_special+report+--+design+thinking, accessed July 15, 2010. 12 International Visual Communications Association, “The Creative Industries in China,” p. 2. 13 Venessa Wong, “China’s New Focus on Design.” No 14 Cliff Kuang, “A Conversation with Jan Chipchase and frog design’s Chief Creative, Mark Rolston,” Fast Company, April 6, 2010, http://www.fastcompany.com/1608588/a-conversation-with-jan-chipchase-and-frogdesigns-chief-creative-mark-rolston, accessed July 20, 2010. 15 Cliff Kuang, “A Conversation with Jan Chipchase.” 16 Venessa Wong, “China’s New Focus on Design.” 17 frog design company website, “Careers,” http://www.frogdesign.com/about/careers, accessed August 1, Do 2010. 23 This document is authorized for use only by Nona Footz at Manhattanville College until June 2013. Copying or posting is an infringement of copyright. Permissions@hbsp.harvard.edu or 617.783.7860.

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