Native American Religion Discussion

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for this assignment please respond to the following no plarism no copy and paste. . Please only bid if you have access to the book. Textbook: Albanese, Catherine. America: Religions and Religion, 5th ed. (Boston: Wadsworth Cengage, 2013). ISBN:9781133050025

1. Based on the Lecture and book (not internet material) list 10 features (beliefs and practices) of traditional native American religions before the arrival of European colonists. Each item should be a full sentence. Your answer is to be based on Albanese's book, pages 35-40 of the 5th edition. You may use a different edition, but the pages numbers may not be the same.

2. Describe 3 ways native American religions were changed by adding new elements to their religion due to the arrival of European colonists. Each item should be at least a full sentence and more would be better. Your answer is to be based on Albanese's book.

3. Describe 3 ways native Americans created new religious movements and practices due to the arrival of European colonists. Your answer is to be based on Albanese's book.

4. Describe 3 ways native Americans were converted to various forms of Christianity such as Protestant denominations (like Baptists and Methodists), Catholicism, and/or Mormonism. Your answer is to be based on the book.

After putting together your answers, to submit: click on the title "Quiz 1 Native Americans" next to the icon above. This will open a field where you can either type in your answers into the area that says "write submission" (you may save the draft and come back to it later) OR type up your answers, save on your computer as a pdf or word.doc (no other file types will work, no ".pages") and attach in the place indicated. Click submit and wait for the confirmation.

Native American Religions date back to 10,000 BCE 1 image: native American woman Outline: I. Elements of native America Religions II. Symbolic number system describing elements of native American religions III. Dreams, visions, shamans IV. Diversity of tribes V. The Iroquois VI. Changes to native American religions due to arrival of European colonists. I. Elements and Strengths of Native American religions: Respect for Nature Emphasis on Community Spirituality Wisdom of the Elders image: waterfall Over 500 different native American societies exist, each with their own religion. However, we can take an overview of Native American religions through a symbolic number system II. Symbolic Number System The number 1 symbolizes that there is no separation between the sacred and the secular. The spiritual and material realms are one. All of Nature and Life is indwelt with the spirit. God is the One Great Spirit. This Spirit arises from the center of creation and becomes creation. In religious technical language, we say that God is the Source of creation. The Symbol for the concept of “life as one” is the Circle The center of the circle symbolizes that divine creative energy arises from the center of creation Image: circle Ritual condenses spiritual energy and applies it to a specific target. This energy is the One Great Spirit. image: native American woman Rituals are performed around a center point of a circle around a fire or a pole. Images: native American rituals performed around a center The number 2 Symbolizes the dual nature of reality. A symbol of this concept is the circle with a dividing line like the yin and yang symbol, but with figures of male and female instead of dots. image: yin yang symbol #2 Symbolizes the two-sided nature of Life Such as Dark and light Cold and hot Male and female etc. Image: nature with water below and sky above The two sides are not contradictory, but complementary The nature of the Divine is also dual Myths: two-headed serpent who both creates and destroys & the thunderbird who is both threatening and caring • The dual nature keeps one on the right track Concept of evil is imbalance: when one side overtakes another The ideal situation is harmony, a balance of opposites. Images: looming figures eyeing another and a balance Trickster gods: Hare, Raven, Coyote Represent: Transformation Destruction (of old forms) and creation (of new forms) Shape-shifters Flute playing god of fertility, harvest, seeds of creation 3,000 year old hieroglyphs Image: Kokopelli The number 3 Symbolizes the three-fold action necessary for healthy relationships: 1) Human need 2) ritual performed 3) Heavenly power Image: circle with triangle inside All ritual ceremonies express the concept of 3-ness The rain dance: 1) drought 2) rain dance: beating of drums prayers offered to 3) divine Thunder Beings Lewis & Clark documented this 3-fold action. A tribe, the Mandans, began to run out of food because Lewis & Clark and their exploration company visited the natives. The buffalo had already headed south for the winter. The natives performed a ritual ceremony and prayed to the Great Spirit of the Buffalo. And to their surprise the Buffalo returned! Image: buffalo Divine relationship exists between all life • Animals supply food • Humans are not to take more than they need • Sacred beings, animals, and humans are all related as family Image: lamb The Master of the Animals is a spirit in the form of an animal who is in charge of allotting the number of his species that will be given up to the hunters for a year Image: buffalo Animals are Sacred for native Americans and considered family. Images: buffalo, bear, eagle The number 4 is the most sacred number and represents the 4 powers of nature that control the world The 4 powers are: 4 compass directions 4 seasons 4 traditional elements 4 sacred colors black white red yellow 4 virtues Image: Native American dish with 4 sacred colors 4 virtues • Respect for deity • mother earth • one’s fellow human beings • individual freedom Image: native American on horse A Symbol for the number 4 is a Circle with 4 arrows pointing to the center. This symbolizes that one should consider a problem from 4 perspectives Image: circle with arrows pointing toward center The symbol of the quartered circle represents that all are related to each other and each person is related to all. Image: quartered circle The number 5 represents the 4 compass directions and a center point. Image: quartered circle made of stones Ceremonies are often performed around a center point and prayers offered in the 4 directions. Images: quartered circle and native American woman offering prayers Rituals are about centering and bringing a sense of harmony between the individual, society, and nature. The number 7 Symbolized by the teaching staff 3 sticks bound together at center A circle surrounds the center There are 6 points which cross the circle. image: native American teaching staff The crossing points on the circle represent the 4 compass directions plus the power above and the power below The 7th point at the center signifies that all these powers flow through the individual Image: native American teaching staff These powers come through a person • in visions and dreams • teachings • ceremonial rituals. III. Visions and Dreams are an important part of native American religions. Image: native American with bird A Vision Quest Is a rite (ritual) of passage A youth goes into wilderness and must survive alone for 4 days Image: native American boy The Goal is to obtain a vision of one’s guardian spirit The youth returns to the community and in a holy ceremony tells an elder what vision was received. The elder interprets the Vision. Image: native American girl Dreams • Reveal special information • Sometimes from guardian spirits • Such as knowledge about the hunt It is believed that the soul can travel to distant places and obtain information. The Iroquois had a dream guessing rite, where elders interpreted dreams. The Shaman: Medicine man or woman These are highly spiritual individuals who are in contact with the spiritual realm and serve as intermediaries for the tribe between humans and the spirit world. Image: native American female shaman The Shaman Receives visions of the future Knows the best place to hunt has ability to heal through herbs & ritual & spiritual power image: Shaman leading prayer IV. Diversity of Native Americans There are over 500 Native American societies. image: natives on horses For examples, in the 1. North There are the Iroquois (made of up the 5 tribes consisting of the Mohawk, Oneida, Onondaga, Cayuga, Seneca) image: Iroquois in village 2. Midwest: The Plains Indians • Blackfoot • Arapaho • Cheyenne • Shoshone • Oglala Image: buffalo and 2 natives in skins 3. South & Eastern Seaboard • Cherokee • Chickasaw • Choctaw • Seminoles Image: a Seminole in tall grass 4. The Southwest • Pueblo • Hopi Image: natives in circle 5. The West • Navajo • Nez Perce • Walla Walla • Klamath • Tillamook • Shasta • Serrano • Paiute • Miwok Images: basket and weaving loom V. We will focus on the Iroquois • They had a democratic government • Believed in a Creator in heaven • The family was based on matriarchal inheritance Semi-sedentary (stayed in one place for awhile) farmed & hunted • Lived in “long houses” owned by women • Women raised crops & kids • Men hunted & fished & went to war • Theirs was a very balanced society image: model of long house Religious Festivals of Iroquois 1. Maple Festival 2. Strawberry Festival 3. Corn Festival Images: buckets collecting maple from tree, corn field, strawberries The Corn Ceremony consists of 3 annual celebrations 1. Seed planting ceremony 2. Green corn ceremony 3. Corn Harvest ceremony Image: cobs of corn The Green Corn Ceremony • Celebrates the spirit of the corn • Old things put in bonfire • Symbolically, sins of the past year also burned • One receives forgiveness. Starts new year fresh. They would drink a purgative black tea This ritual symbolizes purifying the self inside & out, body & soul Image: tea On next day, the first green corn is eaten containing divine spirit • Then there is a fast • Then, a great feast The Green corn ceremony symbolizes purification, forgiveness, rebirth, and starting over. Image: multi-colored corn cobs A look at Iroquois Politics The prophet Dekanawidah was born in the 15th century in Ontario, Canada. According to legend, it was a virgin birth Image: artist’s rendering of Dekanawidah Dekanawidah had a revelation from the Holy Spirit (Orenda) He was to establish peace by creating a confederacy of nations Dekanawidah succeeded in getting 5 nations to join together The Mohawk, Onondaga, Seneca, Oneida, & Cayuga formed into one nation, the Iroquois nation. They agreed to a peace treaty & constitution. Hiawatha was his spokesman for Dekanwidah. Highlights of Iroquois peace treaty & constitution They planted a tree of peace Image: newly planted tree Whenever the council was to meet they would start with Prayer image: native praying Women only could vote for the leaders; While the leaders were only male. This system creates a balanced society. Image: scales with male and female The family lines were traced through the females. “Women are the progenitors of the Nation.” “Women own the land and the soil” image: two native women Rulers must exhibit patience and good will to all Rulers must remind all of the Creator’s will The people in the Iroquois constitution are referred to as the “United people” image: Iroquois in village At the end of the Peace Treaty/Constitution it states We cast all weapons of war under a tree image: tree These peaceful “united people” were the natives that the first colonists in the north east encountered. VI. The arrival of European Colonists When colonists arrived they impacted Native American Religions in 3 ways image: colonists in America One type of change was that native Americans kept the old ways to their religions, but added new elements. A second type of change was that New religious movements and practices were created. A third type of change was that Natives were converted to various forms of Christianity including Catholicism. See details in Albanese’s book, America: Religions & Religion, pages 35 to 40 for specific examples of these 3 types of changes. Lecture by J. Corey, Victor Valley College, 2019

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Native American Religion
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1. Based on the Lecture and book (not internet material) list 10 features (beliefs and practices) of
traditional native American religions before the arrival of European colonists. Each item should
be a full sentence. Your answer is to be based on Albanese's book, pages 35-40 of the 5th
edition. You may use a different edition, but the pages numbers may not be the same.
Native Americans had their own distinct religious beliefs which were predominantly
extraordinary in nature in that they did not believe in one single religion. They were involved the
performance of rituals to commune with the divine in situations where they were dealing with
powers beyond their control. They indulged in prayer even when performing simple daily chores
like eating, drinking or communing with others. Human bodies like hair, ...

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Tutor went the extra mile to help me with this essay. Citations were a bit shaky but I appreciated how well he handled APA styles and how ok he was to change them even though I didnt specify. Got a B+ which is believable and acceptable.

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