RLC Circuits and Build an Inductor Lab Report

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RLC Circuits and Build an Inductor

electromagnetic lab report .

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I will attach the sample in word file also the other word file for the instructions and the PDF lab experience that is information you need to use in lab report 1.5 pages or 2 pages only. to support it i will attach in PDF a pre lab

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Laboratory #7 EE Science II Laboratory #7 RLC Circuits and Build an Inductor Pre-Laboratory Assignment 1. Read the lab summary and answer the following questions (3 Points): a. How can you build a simple inductor? List some characteristics of the materials that you will need to use. A simple inductor is constructed by winding a wire around a core. The material chosen should have sufficient inductance, easy to handle and have known permeability. A simple inductor can be built using an enameled copper wire. The wire is wounded on a dimeter rod to produce a coil. The insulator in both ends are removed so that they can be soldered. The wire that is used should conduct electricity and is insulated. b. How can an RLC circuit be used to measure inductance? The ability of the circuit to exhibit resonance at a certain frequency is used to measure inductance. c. After you finish your experiment, how will you know that you can trust the results? The results will be knonby recreating a circuit with known inductance and compare. 2. A series RLC circuit, with R = 10 Ω, L = 5 μH, C = 10 μF, is connected to an AC signal source Vs = Vo sin (2πft) as shown in Figure 1. Figure 1: RLC circuit for Problem 1 Answer the following questions: a. What is the reactance of the inductor, XL if the frequency of the source is 23 kHz? XL = __0.723Ω__ (note: write down the unit for full credit) (0.5 Points) 𝑋𝐿 = 2𝜋𝑓𝐿 = (2𝜋 𝑥 23𝑘𝐻𝑧 𝑥 5.0𝑥10−6 = 0.723 b. What is the reactance of the capacitor, XC if the frequency of the source is 23 kHz? XC = ____1.445Ω___ (note: write down the unit for full credit) (0.5 Points) 𝑋𝐶 = c. 1 1 = = 1.445 2𝜋𝑓𝐶 2𝜋 𝑥 23 𝑘𝐻𝑧 𝑥 1.0𝑥10−5 What is the total impedance of the circuit for a frequency of 23 kHz? Z = _____10.03Ω_____ (note: write down the unit for full credit) (0.5 Points) 𝑍 = √𝑅2 + (𝐿 − 𝐶)2 𝑍 = √(102 + (0.723 − 1.445)2 = 10.03 d. The resonance frequency of an RLC circuit is the frequency at which the impedance is purely resistive. Calculate the resonance frequency of the circuit in Figure 1. Hint: Since the impedance is purely resistive, the net reactance must be zero. (1 Point) 𝐹𝑟 = e. 1 2𝜋√𝐿𝐶 = 1 2𝜋√5.0𝑥10−6 𝑥 1.0𝑥10−5 = 22.5𝑘𝐻𝑧 An RLC circuit is in resonance and the voltages across the resistor, inductor, and capacitor are expressed by the following equations: VR = VR, max sin (2πft) VL = VL, max sin (2πft + π/2) VC = VC, max sin (2πft - π/2) i. ii. Identify which voltage leads VR and lags VR and by what phase angle. ? VL leads VR and VL lags VR by 900 Suppose that the normalized voltage across each component was measured using an oscilloscope plotted in Figure 2. Match the plots to the component. (0.5 Points) 1 Laboratory #7 Figure 2: Identify which plot corresponds to the voltage across which component. Plot #1: VC Plot #2: VR Plot #3: VL 3. An inductor (solenoid) is built by wrapping an insulated copper wire N =12 times around a ferrite rod of diameter, D = 9.45 mm and length l = 41.3 mm. The insulated copper wire has a diameter, d = 0.645mm. Therefore, the length of the inductor is given by lc = N× d. The relative permeability of the ferrite, μ r is 13. From the lecture notes, you know that the inductance of a solenoid is given by µN2S L= l Where S is the cross-sectional area of the solenoid. This equation assumes that the length of the solenoid is equal to the length of the ferrite. In this problem however, the length of the inductor (solenoid) is less than that of the ferrite i.e. lc < l. Therefore, the equation is modified to – KµN2S L= l Where K is a constant called the inductance modifier. Use the above equation to calculate the inductance for K = 2.5. Copy your values into Table 1 of the lab experience. (3 Points) Inductance modifier, K 2.5 Relative permeability, μr 13 μ = μ0 μr (13 𝑥 1.257𝑥10−12 ) = 1.634x10-5 Diameter of ferrite, D 9.45 mm 𝝅𝑫𝟐 Cross sectional area of ferrite, S ( 𝟐 = (𝝅𝒙𝟗. 𝟓𝟐 𝟐 = 70.15mm Length of ferrite, l 41.3 mm Length of inductor, lc = 𝑵𝒙 𝒅) = (𝟏𝟐𝒙𝟎. 𝟔𝟒𝟓) = 7.74mm Number of turns, N 12 Inductance, L (μH) = 2.5𝑥 1.634𝑥10−5 𝑥12𝑥70.15 41.3 = 9.99mH For detailed information on how K is calculated, refer to the appendix of the lab experience. 2
# 7 RLC Circuits and Build an Inductor 1. Summary: The laboratory assignment has 3 parts in order to complete it. Our group used function generator (model no.): Keysight 33500B, and the oscilloscope (model no.): Tektronix TDS 3052. Part I was about Build the Inductor. In this part of the lab, our group had to build an inductor with the information from the prelab by following the instructions and filling up table 1 from the prelab results we got. The next step was to identify some components were given to our group such as the resistor and capacitor with specific values. Also, we had new more components to create the inductor such as magnet wire to create the coil and ferrite rod, sandpaper and lastly rubber band in figure 1. The last step after identifying the component was to build the inductor with instructions and figures that assisted our group to be able to get the right approach of building the inductor in page 3 figure 2. Part II was about Assemble and Test the RLC Circuit, we had to do similar steps or procedures from lab 5 and 6 to connect the components that we had after building the inductor to the breadboard. Also, measuring the resistor and capacitor by the multimeter as same way from the previous labs to get the measured values of the capacitance and resistance. However, this time was a little bit different of connecting the components to breadboard because of the inductor, so we had instructions to follow and to make sure to connect everything in the right place from figure 3. Then, we generated a sine wave in the function generator with given values to set up the impedance to (High Z), frequency (100 Hz) and amplitude (1Vpp). We made sure the impedance for both channels to be 1 Mohms from the oscilloscope and turned the output of the function generator on to give us the graphs in the oscilloscope with adjusting it to display the signals. From the oscilloscope, we were able to fill up Table 2 with measurements that asked on the table to get and did observation for the voltage in channel one and two to see the ratio between them and their frequencies. Which we observed that from table 2 results, the frequency for the phase observation was low due to the ratio was close to zero from the voltage drop. Therefore, in table 3, we had to observe the phase waveform on channel 1 with respect to 2 with a negative angle at the low frequency. After that, we did the same steps, but we changed the set up in the oscilloscope to sample mode and adjusted also the waveform to turn on the averaging (64), plus the changing of the frequency to 2 MHz on the function generator. We observed table 4 and 5 to see the frequency changes and the voltage ratio between the channels, so we found out the ratio was also closer to zero, but at higher frequency which gave us a change in phase of waveform with a positive angle. Lastly, we had to complete the phase diagram in figure 4 based on tables 3 and 5 Part III was about Determine the Resonance Frequency of the RLC Circuit. We used XY mode in the oscilloscope to measure the resonance frequency. We made sure the output was off and XY mode was on and tried to align the channels to the center on a vertical position as shown in figure 5, then we improved the accuracy of the oscilloscope and set both channels to 200mV/div. we set up the frequency to 100Hz while turning the output on and saw an ellipse along the xaxis. We tested on different frequencies on the function generator until we got the ellipse to be a line with 45 degrees which was at 20 kHz. Then we had some calculation to compare the inductance in the experiment to the prelab as we got the error percentage around 60% which was high error, but it could be from wiring the circuit or the multimeter measurement of the capacitance was different. Lastly in table 6, we did the same process on part two with different frequencies to see the difference in ratio between two voltages, and the phase difference between waveforms in channel 2. 2. The measured inductance compare to my calculation was not sufficient because we got a high percentage error which was around 60%, possible source of error can be A. the wiring of the circuit. B. the multimeter measurement of the capacitance or resistor C. the turns of the magnet wire maybe were not 12 turns, D. it could be there was a big gap to magnet wire while turning the turns to ferrite rod E. The human error can be one of them as reading the results wrong, or the rounding numbers. 3. In table 3, our group noticed that at low frequency the phase between the two channels was a negative angle which mean the voltage on channel 1 lags the voltage on channel 2 and we can see the net impedance of circuit was capacitive due to the angle being negative. In table 5, we noticed that at high frequency was the opposite of table 3 as the angel was positive which means the voltage on channel 1 leads the voltage on channel 2 and we can see the net impedance of circuit was inductive due to the positive angle. 4. The amplitude of the sine wave won’t affect the measurement because the ratio is based on the voltage division. As the results in table 6, when we increased the frequency up to the resonant frequency will have a decrease on the voltage peak to peak and also the resistor Vpp, but the normalized voltage will increase. The opposite effect when we increased the voltage peak to peak, the resistor Vpp will remain decreasing and normalized voltage will decrease too. 5.
Lab: __#___Title:__(10 pt font)_____ Date: 00/00/2017 Name: ____(10 pt font) ________ Lab Partner(s):__(10 pt font)__________ SUMMARY OF RESULTS AND DISCUSSION (PARAGRAPH STYLE , 12 PT FONT, SINGLE SPACE ) In this section, you should summarize and analyze your results. In other words, tell me what you learned and what the results mean to you. Things to avoid: • • Don’t write EVERY step you did in class (I connected the function generator to the oscilloscope, then I turned it on…etc) Do not rewrite the lab manuscript . Things to include • • • • • • Knowledge about the equipment and attachments (Eg: “Channel 1 of the oscilloscope is connected across the input of the circuit and channel 2 across the capacitor. The configuration allows you to compare the output with the input.”) Understand results (what each or group of values mean to you) If there are too many results you can create a table Graphs and equations are also acceptable (reference them in your text) Guide me though the whole lab exercise using your own words and understanding Something in the lab that you did not understand or results not clear to you EXPERIMENTAL QUESTIONS (PARAGRAPH STYLE , 12 PT FONT, SINGLE SPACE ) • Answer/complete any additional questions asked during/ at the end of the lab experiment LAB IMPROVEMENTS (THIS IS OPTIONAL , BUT HELP US IMPROVE THE LABS!) • • Tell us what went wrong and what can be done to avoid those mistakes in the future Mention any lab procedures that were confusing General rules: Minimum of 1/2 page written (be creative, I don’t want to see reports less than one full page) Maximum of 1 page written (include figures/graphs/tables on extra pages) Body Format: font size - 12pt (Times New Roman), Spacing - Single This post lab report must be stapled on the front of the completed lab experience. Additionally, a copy of this report must be submitted online via canvas (you do not have to submit the completed lab experience online). Maximum grade of 50% (5/10) if signed lab experience not included.

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School: UIUC


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RLC Circuits and Build an Inductor Lab Report


The main purpose of the experiment was to investigate RLC circuits. For purposes of the
experiment function generator (Keysight 33500B) and an oscilloscope (Tektronix TDS 3052)
were used. The experiment consisted of three parts. In part I, we built the inductor. First, we
filled table 1 of the lab manual with values from the prelab results. Then we were given
components to identify; a resistor, a capacitor, magnet wire, ferrite rod, sandpaper, and rubber
band. We then used the magnet wire, ferrite rod, sandpaper, and rubber band to build the
inductor by following the steps enumerated in the lab manual. Part II of the experiment involved
assembling and testing the RLC circuit. First, we used a multimeter to measur...

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