Iconic architecture Discussion

timer Asked: Feb 22nd, 2019
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Question Description

Assignment 2 is basic on assignment 1, assignment 2 is intended for you to define a more specific area of interest stemming from your previous research. To do so you will rely on your precedent projects to define the typology you are interested in. The typology defines the “type” of architectural/ landscape/ urban/ interior project of interest and one that best suits your research topic. This also includes a reflection of context (where it is situated) and program (what is its function and performance).

Ground your ideas in your theoretical interest and critical stance (addressing an issue/problem). This is to ensure the relevance and importance of your topic as you move towards thesis. Reflect and ask: Why is this important and relevant within contemporary design discourse/practice and within the sociopolitical/ economical/ ecological context of our times?


1. Typology & Precedent Analysis: Define your typology supported by 3 selected projects - diagram and analyze. The analysis could include functional/programmatic relations and spatial organizations; form/structure; specific site condition and context; environmental factors; social/political factors etc. For each Reference complete the following: Name of Architect, Year, Place, Artistic Movement/era/architectural style, 2-4 Diagrams that you develop (use photos/drawings); short text about the relevance of this project in your research (this can be point form)

2. Mind Map: From your research, precedents and issues/topics you are personally interested in brainstorm a mind map that gathers and connects all your ideas and research. You can use words and images – this can be either done digital (illustrator) or by hand and photographed (large sheet or board). The mind map shows the process of your thoughts and research development as well as the connections between various things. This will be an ongoing task.

3. Critical Stance: in 100-250 words define your critical stance and why your interest and approach is relevant and poses critical questions. Define 2-3 main questions that your thesis project will intent to address. (this part might require additional research into other topics that support your design project such as issues relating to social, heath, environment, politics, ecology, housing, learning/teaching, reuse, etc.)

4. Typology Diagrams: from the analysis of your precedent projects, your theoretical research and critical stance define the intended typology for your thesis through diagramming and notes. Setup 2-3 iterations or options for your typological approach. This must be consistent and in support of your critical stance providing a range of possibilities to address your theoretical and methodological research. The typology diagram will include your approach to Program as well as identifying the optimum Site/Context Condition (optimum site/context demonstrates the relevance of your approach – it is does not need to be a specific location).

5. Visual Essay: Include one set of your visual essay that you find relevant at this point.

6. Annotated bibliography (optional): Include any additional reading and notes that help support this phase of your development.

7. Overview: Title & single phrase overview – this should capture the overarching area of interest that you have investigated. It is what connects all the various parts of your research. This should go at the start of your document. (this can remain the same from assignment 1 or be upgraded)

for the 3 selected projects, you can choose from assignment 1 or choose some new, or some from assignment 1, some new.

for the 2-4 Diagrams you can sketch or just write down the idea, I can improve by myself

DESIGN METHODOLOGY VISUAL COMMUNICATION: THE DIAGRAM design METHODOLOGY - set of tools or a system - that defines and regulates your design process thesis DIAGRAM visually describes your approach the diagram captures the intent for your thesis it can consider : SITE context USERS PROGRAM the function YOUR DESIGN IDENTITY DEVELOP A NARRATIVE AROUND YOUR DESIGN INTERESTS BE CRITICAL IN YOUR APPROACH - TAKE A STANCE BUILD AN INTERESTING PORTFOLIO PROJECT BY DOCUMENTING AND COLLECTING THE PROCESS - FINAL PROJECT BOOK STRONG VISUAL COMMUNICATION & PROFESSIONALISM what is a Diagram? DIAGRAM CONCEPT DIAGRAMS ANALYTIC DIAGRAMS ANALYTIC DIAGRAM flow diagrams: maping site conditions site density diagram programmatic diagram spatial analysis diagram UN Studio construction component diagram Joan DAustria EXAMPLES OF RSID STUDENT SITE ANALYSIS & DIAGRAMMING the 4-storey building with a tower on WKHƓIWKVWRUH\ZDVUHQRYDWHGLQ the 1950s, the late 1980s, and again in 2004-2005 after the Zeidlers took ownership the gladstone hotel opens in 1889, designed by George Miller, named after English prime minister, William Gladstone the gladstone was built as a stylish hostelry, and serviced the CN Railway, Grand Trunk + CP Rail strategically located, the gladstone was the last stop before Hamilton people could buy hard liquor. It soon became a well-known gathering spot for the working class over the years, the hotel was passed from owner to owner, eventually falling to severe disrepair, deteriorating in its physical DSSHDUDQFHDQGDSSHDO,Q the cupola on the south-west tower was dismantled due to loss of structural integrity Architect George M Miller is well-known for many of Toronto’s historic buildings, most notably, his design of the Lillian H Massey building on the University of Toronto’s campus. The Gladsone Hotel was designed in the Richardsonian Romanesque style. it is the oldest continuously operating hotel in Toronto originally owned and operated by Susanna Robinson, a widow, who lived LQWKHKRWHOZLWKKHUFKLOGUHQ the Zeidler and Tippin families, two development companies, bought the hotel in 2000. The two family’s views clashed on a restoration approach resulting in sole ownership being left to the Zeidlers the building was deteriorating, and had to undergo major renovations such as the electrical system and heating and cooling systems, all in order to bring the building back to its former glory WKLVKLVWRULFUHQRYDWLRQUHŴHFWVWKH architecture and community history. Christina Zeidler’s unwavering mindset LVWKDWDKRWHOVKRXOGƓWLQWRDQGKHOS support the existing community. Christina set out a call for proposals for designers and artists alike to design a hotel room at the gladstone. Resulting IURPWKDWFRPSHWLWLRQDUHXQLTXHO\ designed rooms for guests to choose from. the Gladstone focuses on fostering an open culture of bridging the gap between art and design through the recruitment of creative thought, performance and experimentation, all the while maintaing a well-functioning high-end boutique hotel establishment. the daughter and now manager of the hotel, Christina Zeidler took an active role in helping to relocate the long-tem residents, many of who were on very limited incomes and had no where else to live the gladstone has a long history in providing long and short term respite to artists and musicians throughout the FLW\VSHFLƓFDOO\DIWHUSHUIRUPDQFHVDW Massey Hall and the CN Exhibition This revival style is know for its characteristic use of red brick, rich and varied rustication, squat pillars, recessed entrances and dramatic arches. after acquiring the hotel, the Zeidlers took an active role in ensuring the long-tem residents, most of them on low, unsustainable incomes. 7KH\SURYLGHGƓQDQFLDO assistance to those who needed to relocate the gladstone hotel: historical context J RVVLQ WRQD THE FEDERAL ENOTECA SOCIALE YH THE HOGTOWN CURE THE CHURCHILL VW HWZH DVVWrH GXQG DAKOTA TAVERN LAKEVIEW ART METROPOLE FULL OF BEANS COFFEE THIS END UP MONKEY’S PAW THE GARRISON SALT WINE BAR GRYH COMMUNIST’S DAUGHTER FISHBAR FOXLEY VINTAGE MIX t rcour IDEAL COFFEE RRGV EHOOZ park WULQLW\ HAWKER BAR rRDG REPOSADO BAR BELLWOODS BREWERY GOLDEN TURTLE ROCK LOBSTER JODG BABY HUEY reet H DY RZQH ODQVG ELECTRIC MUDD BBQ I MISS YOU STYLE GARAGE JONATHAN AND OLIVIA COMMON SORT THRIFT TOWN SKYLINE STONES PLACE HOUSE OF VINTAGE STARBUCKS RHINO BAR & GRILL WRONG BAR HVW Z trHHW king s CADILLAC LOUNGE DESIGNER FABRICS VW HWZH n strH quee BICYCLETTE BOUTIQUE OYSTER BOY SWAN RESTAURANT THE COUNTY GENERAL FONDA LOLA CLINT ROENISHCH GALLERY CAFE BERNATE MOCCA STUSSY SWEATY BETTY’S EL ALMACEN GRAVITYPOPE STARBUCKS STEPHEN BULGER GALLERY WICKED CLUB THE GOOD SON PARLOQUE TWIST GALLERY THE DRAKE BEACONSFIELD MABEL’S THE BRISTOL & BOMBAY NUNU BEAVER CAFE YOUNG THAILAND LOST AND FOUND THE GLADSTONE HOTEL BOHMER THE OSSINGTON DYH rin st VWRQH GXffe DONT TELL MAMA COMMUNITY 54 STARBUCKS CAPITAL ESPRESSO MILDRED’S TEMPLE KITCHEN STARBUCKS WILLIAMS LANDING LOCUS 144 SCHOOL GREEN TOURISM Parkdale Community Health ASSOCIATION ensuring appropriate housing for prior residents purchases from local Community Supported Agriculture farms promoting public transit by offering free passes to guests donates soaps and lotions to Good Sheppard Center member of the Green Tourism Association current community afŵOLations existing site and context demographics gladstone ave. looking south height of window: 3.8m queen st. w. looking east height of doorway: 2.2m height of column: 3.8m sudbury st. looking north The neighbourhood is in transition. Several mixed-use buildings combining high-rise residential and retail spaces are being erected around the gladstone hotel. height of space: 4.3m This undoubtedly contributes to the rapidly changing demographics of the area. human scale proportion current andproportion futuretoconstruction NORTH sum me r su su nse e nt i w t rs wi nt t se n u er s rise n u er s m m un ris e 12 noon light study light study LEGEND entry / primary circulation secondary circulation density of activity exits GLADSTONE AVE QUEEN STREET WEST density and circulation GROSS FLOOR AREA: 739.2 m2 BALLROOM + 114 m2 BALLROOM BAR + 33 m2 BACK BAR + 64 m2 KITCHEN CAFE / BAR + 76 m2 LOBBY + 53 m2 FRONT BAR + 137 m2 RETAIL + 36 m2 existing gladstone ave. looking south queen st. w. looking east proposed The current programming and planning of the Gladstone segregates activites from one sudburyWest.propose looking another. to north reconfigure the space in order to encourage an exchange of information through a holistic environment. programming brick timber terrazzo stone iron existing materiality ZRRGŴRRUV elevator staircase mural woodwork ? columns ? entrance ? This diagram reveals areas of the hotel with particular historical value, and should be preserved. The icons express areas of concern such as accessibility, problematic planning, and issues with too much or not enough sunlight. preliminary investigation The interior of the Pakta Restaurant is enhanced by the thoughtful installation of colourful, large-scale looms. The looms create another layer of structure that fits within the grid of the existing architecture. The looms envelop the interior space, creating tension through the variation of orientation. The end product is a dynamic environment in which spatial depth is not defined. pakta restaurant / el equipo creativo / barcelona / 2013 buildings combining high-rise residential and retail spaces are being erected around the gladstone hotel. This undoubtedly contributes to the rapidly changing demographics of the area. current and future construction SUSHI BAR ENTRANCE WASHROOMS SEATING SAKI BAR KITCHEN STORE ROOM LOOM FRAMEWORK ON CEILING plan of material spatial arrangement LEVEL CHANGE to accomodate beams THE FRAMEWORK OF THE LOOMS ALSO OPERATES WITHIN AND RESPONDS TO THE EXISTING ARCHITECTURE. THE ARCHITECTURE (SPAN B/W COLUMNS) BECOMES THE FRAMEWORK FOR THE RESTAURANT’S SEATING ARRANGEMENT section TENSION OF DIRECTIONALITY The looms blur the defined limits of the interior, creating dimension through repetition and variation of form. OUTER FRAME INNER FRAME COTTON STRING ROUGH TOUCH / DULL FINISH LOOPED AROUND INNER FRAME / CONTINUOUS / DOUBLED The looms act as a second skin, enveloping the dining area and obscuring the existing structure behind. FRAMES JOINED BY TENSOR * TWIST TO TIGHTEN THREADS framework loom 18 89 T E L E P H O N E RESERVATION 98 built across P a r k d a l e R a i l r o a d S t a t i o n S U S A N N A R O B I N S O N + 13 C H I L D R E N W I L L I A M G L A D S T O N E ( 1 8 0 9 - 1 8 9 8 ) 90 19 13 EXTERIOR ARCHITECTURE Designed by George Miller in Richardsonian Romanesque style Sandstone foundation on exterior structure ENTRANCE streetcar brought guests and connected hotel with shopping district 50 exterior u p d a t e major interior renovations under the new owner, V ictor G i a n e l l i 20 GENERAL HISTORY o f s “ r Decorative terra cotta panels with organic details second exterior facelif t under Herb and Allen Appleby, owners af t er 19 6 4 . 80 Faux marble pillars were rendered in true European Fresco technique completion of final renovation - showing historical signifance 05 Zeidler family takes ownership Victorian elevator is one of the last hand-operated elevators in Toront o Evidence of central pillar which would have separated the two front doors r i g i n a e a t u r e v e r g r e o o m l l e a a s y d l t ” LOBBY uncertain configuration of original lobby original lobby flooring would have been wood with carpet on top BALLROOM + MELODY BAR evidence of ornate capitals in current Ballroom space ARCHITECTURAL HISTORY 05 DEMOGRAPHICS The pie graphs offer a brief look at the demographics of Toronto, rather than specifically looking at the statistics of the immediate community. We want to be able to target as many Torontonians as possible, including those residing near the Gladstone Hotel. Looking at family structure, the household expenditure, household income and leisure attractions, we are able to acheive a brief understanding of the needs of the people, and assess the potential client profile. LIFESTYLE CATEGORIES Torontonians are grouped into different segments classifying their way of life in what is described as “Lifestyle Categories”. Taking the most significant figures, we examined the Top 7 of these groups. The largest groups fall under the “Buy me a New Home”, “Comfortable Apartment Dwellers” and the “Ethnic Cruisers” categories. From this information, we are able to conclude that a majority of Torontonians are comfortable in their current living situation, have a desire to explore and gain experiences from reaching new heights. USER PROFILE The Gladstone services a variety of guests, including artists and designers that wish to exhibit their installations and artwork in the context of a historical building. It services people of the local community, as evident in their social efforts within the Parkdale community. Historically, the Gladstone accomodated artists, performers and travellers to Toronto. The users today are likely to be travellers, or Torontonians emersed in the culture of the Gladstone and willing to take part in all its offerings that combine art, design, service and entertainment. 4.4% 2.3% 8.5% 2.0% 24.1% 9.7% 51.1% 10.2% 4.4% 5.3% 8.0% 38.6% 20.9% 37.8% 6.8% 33.3% 21.9% FAMILY STRUCTURE HOUSE HOLD EXPE NDITURE MARRIED COUPLES WITH C HILDREN MARRIED COUPLES WITHOUT C HILDREN N ON-MARRIED COUPLES OR IN DI V I D UA L S 13.6% 10.2% 12.6% 24.8% 22.7% 13.3% 13.5% LEISURE: ATTRA CTION S HOUSE HOLD INCOME OTHER CLOTHING SHELTER RECREATION TRANSPORTATION FURNISHINGS FOOD PERSONAL CARE $0 - $49,999 $50,000 - $99, 999 $100,000 - $149,999 $150,000 + OTHER ACTIVITIES CASINOS AREN AS CONCERTS THREATRES PARKS CLUBS / BARS ZOOS, ETC. NO ACTIVITIES DEMOGRAPHICS : TORONTO, ON CLIENT NEEDS With the aim to make the Gladstone Hotel the destination that intersects ART and DESIGN in a hospitable space, it should include: - events catering to the local community + beyond - ample space for reception + waiting area - a variety of retailers - some permanent, others temporary - variety of dining options, small and large parties - cornerstone of all these activities and services 19.1% BUY ME A NEW HOME 18.0% COMFORTABLE APARTMENT DWELLERS 14.2% 10.6% 8.8% 6.9% ETHNIC CRUISERS ELITE PROFESSIONALS AFFLUENTS UP THE LADDER LIFESTYLE CATEGORIES (TOP 7) 6.2% NEST BUILDERS RESTAURANT HOTEL The Cafe provides meals that are locally inspired by the diversity and seasonality of Toronto. Preserving the historic Victorian style structure of brick walls and high ceilings, local artists transform the 37 rooms into installations. Each room is designed with different visions, so no one will be the same. In a more intimate space, customers can enjoy full breakfast, lunch, dinner, and weekend brunch. BAR EXHIBITION During the day, the Melody Bar can be used as a casual lounge to enjoy a book or free Wi-Fi. Gladstone Hotel showcases local artists and designers all year in all possible spaces of their building. Popular exhibitions include, Come Up To My Room (CUTMR), Nuit Blanche, Hard Twist 9, Grow-Op, and more. By night, the space changes into a “swanky resto-lounge” servicing beer, crafted cocktails, live music and DJ. TON ADPS L G ETAIL ROPOSALSE Events hosted by Gladstone Hotel are not only directed towards the design community, but also includes music performances, yoga classes, game nights, and many more. EVENTS R CURRENT USE ART DESIGN POSSIBLE LOCATIONS EXISTING RETAIL SPACE TARGETS: THRIFTY APARTMENT DWELLERS STUDENTS GUESTS AROUND THE WORLD POP-UP + GIFTS TARGETS: AFFLUENTS UP THE LADDER ELITE PROFESSIONAL ARTISINAL + DESIGNER HOME DECOR ITEMS + FURNISHINGS TARGETS: BUY ME A NEW HOME GROUP APARTMENT DWELLERS NEST BUILDERS AFFLUENTS / ELITE PROFESSIONALS RENTERS TARGETS: ETHNIC CRUISERS AFFLUENTS UP THE LADDER CURIOUS CONSUMERS WORLDLY INTERESTS G GLL H EE N N ST AD T E O O L LEGEND RE STA U RA N TS / B A RS CA F E / HOSPITA LITY PE RSON A L CA RE / HE A LTH RE TA IL / G ROCERY RE SID E N TIAL / OTHE R F IN A N CIAL SE RVICES AU TO SE RVICES STRE E T CAR WOOD TERRAZZO CAST IRON FAUX MARBLE BRICK EXISTING MATERIALS EXISTING INTERIOR AND EXTERIOR The architecture of the Gladstone Hotel falls under the Victorian and Richardsonian Romanesque style, distinguished by the arches outlining the windows and entrance doors. The ornately carved pillars and lettering of the building display the characteristics of Art Nouveau. The exterior of the building is built with brick and roughly cut stone with original cornice moldings crafted of molded sheet metal. The map showcases a close-up of the site location. As indicated, the Gladstone Hotel is located by the intersection at Gladstone Ave. and Queen Street West, accessible by street car. The south facade of the building consisted mainly of windows, but went under reconstruction, transforming the main entrance (formerly west) to the south front. The interior of the hotel has gone under numerous restorations since its opening. During previous renovations, many historic elements were concealed, but have been uncovered and exposed in its most recent reconstruction. The existing materials in the interior consist of brick walls, wood flooring, terrazzo flooring, and faux marble finished pillars. Paintings from the 1960’s remain behind walls and one of the few remaining hand-operated elevators runs through all floors in the hotel. In the immediate area, there is an abundance of residences, and various restaurants, bars, cafes, and places to dine. It is important to note that there is a mix of larger and smaller retailers adjacent the Gladstone, as well as commercial locations offering a variety of services. The hotel suites on each floor are designed by local artists and designers, allowing each suite the ability to offer a unique experience for the users. Exposing the Gladstone Hotel’s classical elements while implementing contemporary designs will generate a creative environment for the art and design industry. SITE MAP EXTERIOR - SOUTH ELEVATION EXTERIOR - WEST ELEVATION RECEPTION EAST ELEVATION RECEPTION SOUTH ELEVATION RECEPTION WEST ELEVATION RECEPTION NORTH ELEVATION N LIGHT STUDY N A T U R A L L I G H T LEGEND REMAINING HISTORICAL ELEMENTS MAIN CIRCULATION SECONDARY CIRCULATION OTHER CIRCULATION RE TA IL RE STA URA N T + BAR MULTIFUN CTION A L LOUN G E LOB B Y CA FE/BAR EX C HAN GE OF GOOD S BALL ROOM LOBBY SOUND BOOTH FRONT DESK LOB BY E X CHANGE OF INFORMATION STAIRCASE/ ELEVATOR FRON T BAR BALL ROOM BAR EGRESS EXCHANGE O F CONSUMABLE ITEMS EXISTIN G PROG RAM M IN G DINING BACK BAR ART/ BAR WASHROOMS RECEIVING A REA K ITCHEN RE TA IL RE STA U RANT E XCHA N GE E XISTIN G PROG RA M M ING LOB B Y PROPOSED PROG RAM MING Typology DIAGRAM Generates: spatial logic programmatic organization form & geometry UN Studio Toyo Ito UN Studio BIG Bjarke Ingels Group BIG Bjarke Ingels Group UN Studio UN Studio OO E XCHANGE DS C CH EX HA F IDEAS + PR A E BLE ITEMS H O SP ITALIT Y EO IC MA RETA IL G AN CT SU E XC HA N G E E XC N LO B BY HA TI O E XC OF N NG O FG Material integration may have a role in defining these transitions and programmatic overlaps. The presence of material and its density may influence the extent of exchange within the space. O E type of programmatic exchange (of goods, consumable items, or information), signified by the system’s degree of expansion. The expansive and collapsible properties of the material systems introduce a fluid and organic language, allowing for variation in the parameters of space. These systems can be expanded to open up pockets of space, or collapsed to reveal the preserved state of the Gladstone. NG E OF INFOR MA PROGRAM CROSS-OVER HEART OF EXCHANGE AMALGAMATION OF ART + DESIGN NEW MATERAL INTERACTION Student Project Ryerson U Student Project Ryerson U
Topic How iconic architecture makes a city vibrant and interactive in the urban context. The topic focuses on iconic architecture and its place in defining the atmosphere of urban cities. Iconic structures can be used to signify a certain city or shows the identity of a specific location. The connection between these iconic structures and their local context will be reviewed in this topic and a clear association developed. The main idea of the topic is to propose an approach towards designing structures that bring vibrancy to the community life of the people in the cities. Mostafavi, M. (Ed.). (2017). Ethics of the Urban: The City and the Spaces of the Political. Zurich, Switzerland: Lars Muller Publishers. ● ● ● ● ● Mostafavi presents a collection of articles all looking into the sociopolitical forces affecting urban architecture The articles presented look into forces that affect city planners such as identity, political influence, and geo-economic influences The articles as provided in the reading group looks into my area of interest; urbanism and how architecture affects the urban life The articles will be useful for reference on the different forces that affect architects and engineers when working in urban environments The articles presents perfect examples of urban identities which can be used to illuminate the topic more e.g. the World Trade Center Nia, H. A. (2017). Identity in Changing Context: Factors of losing Identity in new developed part of the city of Famagusta, North Cyprus. Journal of Contemporary Urban Affairs, 1(2), 11-20. ● Nia, a member of the Department of Architecture in Nawroz University in Iraq, looks into the struggling identity of the city of Famagusta in North Cyprus ● This article directly connects architecture with the city’s identity,,therefore, capturing my topic of interest ● Urbanization and urban sprawl is said to have failed to maintain the identity of the city and highlighting the changes urban architecture brings to a city ● The article will be useful in highlighting the key areas of interests when it comes to designing buildings that are in line with local identities of urban dwellers ● It will also be used as a guide to understand the urbanization process and the overall change in identity that comes with it Glaser, M., Van Hoff, M., & Karssenberg, H. (Eds.). (2012). The City at Eye Level: Lessons for Street Plinths. Delft, the Netherlands: Eburon Uitgeverij BV. ● This book looks into urban design, specifically looking at the ground floor as the interface between the private and public space ● The authors present approaches to harmonizing the interface between private space and public space using the ground floor hence creating a sense of belonging and safety for the inhabitants and pedestrians ● This book is instrumental as it focuses on the community on the streets of urban centers and their interaction through architectural design ● My topic focuses on creating a vibrant urban community through iconic architecture hence could use the techniques discussed in this book ● I also look into the interaction between people and how the city spaces aid that hence the book is irreplaceable for this project The Burj Khalifa Name of architect: Skidmore, Owings and Merrill (SOM) Year: Completed in 2009 Place: Dubai Style: Bundled Tube Design invented by Fazlur Rahman Khan Relevance: Burj Khalifa reflects luxury in the Arab world and its design is specifically meant to fit Islam decorations. This structure provides insight into skyscraper designs and how they work to liven up cities. 911 Memorial Name of architect: Michael Arad and Peter Walker Year: Completed in 2014 Place: New York, United States Style: Reflection of absence Relevance The 911 Memorial is of national importance to everyone in the United States. Its design is specific to honor the victims of the 1993 and 2001 World Trade Center bombing. The features are specifically designed to bring the somber mood and this could be utilized to inspire my project in design to bring certain moods in a locality. The Flatiron Building (New York) Name of architect: Daniel Burnham Year: 1902 Place: New York, United States Style: Renaissance Relevance This structure was among New York’s first tall buildings. At the time of its construction, it was the tallest in the city. Understanding this effect to the identity of the urban residents will help in my project which focuses on the iconic buildings and how they affect the people’s identity and socialization. Piazza San Marco (St. Mark’s Square) Name of architect: Jacopo Sansovino Year: 1529-1600 Place: Venice, Italy Style: Renaissance Relevance This square is one of the ancient iconic structures still remaining. It is a social place and designed so to embody the spirit of Venetians. Therefore, it is a big inspiration to my project and it presents details of how to design spaces according to the local culture and influence people to love them. Sydney Opera House Name of architect: Jorn Utzon Year: 1973 Place: Sydney, Australia Style: Expressionist design Relevance The opera is part of the modern movement in art that focuses on non-traditional styles and expressionism. Its beauty talks much about art and its location in Sydney. Therefore, it reflects the ideals of a community that are present in my project. Reflection It is an unwritten tradition for people to link iconic architecture to the cities in their minds. The Eiffel Tower, Burj Khalifa, Piazza San Marco, The Chrysler building, among others are just a few of the iconic structures that have a close connection with their cities. These are some of the world’s biggest attractions due to the architectural excellence which they reflect. While buildings are associated with the cities they are in, few people think about the cities themselves and what the buildings represent. the question is, what makes a city? The obvious answer is the buildings and spaces and more importantly, people are community with them. My interests in urbanism lie at the intersection of these two critical aspects of the urban city; the buildings as they interact with the people and the environment which they create. Iconic architecture definitely affects the city’s atmosphere and it should do so by promoting a vibrant atmosphere. I interest in urbanization and how the iconic architecture affects the city’s interactive environment is based on architecture influence the mood of people around it through the atmosphere created. Many renowned architects including Frank Lloyd Wright have promoted the idea that the design of architectural structures should be such that it fits the environment. Similarly, architecture influences the mood of people who interact with it and this leads to the relevance of design based on interactive and community goals. Reflection Additionally, I was motivated by the physiological and psychosocial wellbeing of city residents to join this group. Traditionally, urban spaces have been portrayed by sociologists as stressful and probably one of the contributors towards poor health. However, this is constantly changing with more than half of the world living in cities. To make cities as peaceful and welcoming as the quiet country, one needs to create space for the physiological and psychosocial wellbeing of the people. There is a growing group of architects specifically focusing on this aspect of design and I have decided to do so too. Overall, iconic architecture represents most urban cities and it has constantly been used to produce an atmosphere that the designers encourage for that locality. As part of the architecture, designing buildings to accommodate the physical and psychosocial needs of the people is crucial. Specifically, I am interested in the factor of urbanization that creates interactions and vibrancy in the city. By focusing on this role of design, I hope to bring a lot of innovation to the topic and also increase the effectiveness of architecture in creating an enabling environment for the people. Iconic architecture should not only reflect the atmosphere of the city but also influence it positively.

Tutor Answer

School: UT Austin



Typology and Precedent Analysis
The Burj Khalifa
911 Memorial
Sydney Opera House
Mind Map
Critical Stance
Visual Essay


Institution affiliation:




Iconic architecture can make a city exciting and also create a sense of association in an
urban setting. Iconic structures also relay the environmental context of urban cities and act as
indicators or landmarks of specific cities and also define particular locations. The iconic
establishments create a link between their structure and the local setup in which they exist.
Modernism architectural typology focuses on simplicity with little details, honoring the materials
used rather than concealing them, and creates an interaction with the interior and exterior spaces.
The Burj Khalifa, 911 Memorial, and Sydney Opera House are some of the world’s tallest building
notable iconic architecture. The following is an examination of the connection between the iconic
structures and their local context and how its structural design brings vibrancy to the community
life of the people in the cities of their location.
Typology and Precedent Analysis
The Burj Khalifa
The Burj Khalifa is one of the world’s magnificent and iconic buildings located in Dubai
city, United Arab Emirates. Its three architects were Skidmore, Owings, and Merrill (SOM) and
completed in the year 2009. The Burj Khalifa’s was designed using Bundled Tube Design that was
invented by Fazlur Rahman Khan. The Burj Khalifa is a symbolic reflection and representation of
luxury in the Arab community, and its structural design particularly demonstrates Islamic
decorations. The Burj Khalifa is the enlightenment of skyscraper designs and how their models
liven up cit...

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