PHY291 Bergen The Standing Waves in a String discussion

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lab report about the Standing Waves in a String. it covers objective, physical principle, equipment, procedure, discussion, conclusion, and questions,

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School: Rice University

Hello, I' done, all areas are well detailed as agreed, I have attached an outline showing the key points addressed in the report.

Bergen Community College
Physics III Lab

The Standing Waves in a String
PHY 291-001
Written By: Sait Bilal Cantas
Team Members: Grant Navotny, David J. Kim
Date of Experiment:
Report submitted on:

The aim of the experiment was to determine the relationship between the force of tension and the
wavelength of a vibrating string. Among other areas of interests involved in the experiment were
determining how standing waves are formed, differentiate between nodes and antinodes and lastly,
to determine natural frequencies of vibrating string system.
Waves formed as a result of disturbance of a medium, for example, in case a stretched string is
shaken, a wave is formed. The speed of the waves formed depends with the tension of the spring
and its mass density. After reaching the end of the string, the waves are reflected back until their
speeds lowers to zero. In cases whereby we have continuous disturbances, the propagated waves
formed interfere with the oppositely waves that are reflected from the other end, the visual
observation of standing waves offers a clear understanding of properties of waves. The relationship
between frequency, speed and wavelength is expressed as shown in equation 1 below: v=fλ…………………………………………………………………… Equation 1
V = Speed of the wave
F = Frequency of the wave and lastly,
λ. = Wavelength of the wave
According to equation 1, its clear that the speed of the wave is directly proportional to its
wavelength and frequency. The speed of waves is expressed in m/s, frequency is expressed in
Hertz whereas wavelength is expressed in meters. Waves that are formed from a stretched string
are transverse since their particle displacement moves in the same direction with the waves. The
period of wave oscillation is expressed using equation 2 below: 1/f……………………………………………………………………………… Equation 2

As stated earlier, when two waves moving in opposite directions meet, they interfere with each
other forming a superposition of the two waves. When interference waves of equal frequencies
and amplitudes meet, they form stationary or standing waves.
Electric string

Weight hanger and slotted



Clamps and support


Pulley with a rod

Laboratory balance


A sheet of Cartesian graph paper



A piece of string long enough to be used throughout the experiment was cut as instructed

in the lab manual. The string was maintained long enough ensuring that it could be looped on
each end. At this point, the vibrator and the pulley were clamped supporting posts at the ends. An
active string length of approximately 150 cm was used.

The string was attached to the vibrator before suspending a weight hanger from the other

end. The string was aligned properly parallel to the table. The distance between the vibrator arm
and the point of contact was measured and recorded. This length was read and recorded as L in the
data table. The vibrator was turned on following by production of different patterns of standing

waves. A thin string of paper was fold and hanged on the string. The number of loops were
expected to increase after lowering the tension in the string.

Enough weights were added to the weight hanger to facilitate formation of a standing

wave pattern. The string tension was adjusted by removing and adding small amounts of weights
until the maximum amplitude was obtained. The distance...

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