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Expectancy is based on the reasoning that your inputs will lead to a certain performance. For example in my major I expect that my hard work and extra effort in my studies will lead to a good performance.
Instrumentation is based on the theory that a performance will lead to certain outcomes. In my studies I expect that my good performance will eventually assist me acquire a good job after I graduate. Alternatively I also expect that a good performance will make it easier for me to further my studies in future.
Valence is based on the thinking that although individuals have various expected outcomes, those outcomes have rank, and some outcome are more preferred than others. In my major my most preferred outcome is that I will get a job in a top company, that is well managed, has good pay and there is potential of learning and growth. That is why I put the extra effort so that i achieve this major objective or expected outcome
Please let me know if you need any clarification. I'm always happy to answer your questions.